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https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.10 ... 5-9377-9_7
A more general history: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3114932?seq=1
Learn about IG Farben, the world's largest chemical cartel at the time. Their giant plant at Leuna (Leunawerke) was captured intact.
To make Leuna-Benzin required a catalyst, brown coal, which was pulverized, and the addition of hydrogen at high pressure. A small amount of "leuna propan" (propane) was added at the end of the 'cracking' phase which occurred at high temperature.