Boxer Rebellion

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tigre
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Re: Boxer Rebellion

Post by tigre » 04 Aug 2019 15:47

Hello to all :D; more........................

The 2nd Intervention: March on Beijing (August 4–14, 1900)

Foreign armies gathered in Tianjin to join in an unprecedented international alliance of rivals, having chosen a commander, Alfred von Waldersee, who was still far away in Germany. The troops departed under command of British General Gaselee.

The main force of the “Eight-Power Expeditionary Army” in fact included soldiers from only five nations (Germany sent a small force that turned back after the first battle, and Austria-Hungary and Italy sent only small forces). Most of the British forces were Indian troops. The total size was about 18,000 men, consisting of 8,000 Japanese; 4,300 Russian infantry, Cossacks, and artillery; 3,000 British infantry, cavalry, and artillery; 2,500 U.S. soldiers; and an 800-man French brigade from Indochina.

The military forces themselves took advantage of the expedition to show their discipline, weaponry, and modern leadership. On the other hand, the powers also used the war to reinforce national loyalties, stressing that different classes of the population all held a common patriotic interest in the protection of empire and the defeat of the Chinese. The armies of the French and British included large contingents from the colonies. Sikhs and Pathans from India and the French Zouaves conscripted from the French settlers in Algeria and Tunisia stand out because of their colorful uniforms.

The question of united command of the allied forces was a matter of controversy among the great powers. The Russians were unwilling
to place their troops under command of a British, Japanese, or American officer, whereas the Japanese refused to submit their troops to a Russian. Some of British statesmen didn’t recognize the need of a supreme commander at all. It was a matter of German honour to be in supreme command, and Wilhelm II wished to secure a universal consent with Waldersee’s appointment. At the same time, he hesitated to propose it on his own. Therefore he asked British government to suggestWaldersee’s appointment, but the British failed to approve this plan.

On 6 August Wilhelm II turned to Russia, and the Tsar complied but, Nicholas II suggested limiting Waldersee’s authority to the province of Zhili, while reserving Manchuria for Russia. On August 7, German Emperor informed Waldersee about his appointment. On August 9, 1900 the British cabinet finally consented with German proposal. However, Lord Salisbury succeeded in making the acceptance conditional. Other powers, including the French, approvedWaldersee’s appointment. On August 18, 1900 Alfred von Waldersee accepted Field Marshall’s baton from the hands of his Emperor at Kassel. He proceeded to Austria-Hungary and Italy, and on August 23, he left Naples on board of a steamer Sachsen. But at that time the fighting was already almost over.

Sources: https://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/box ... say01.html
https://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin ... MDLOG_0001
Tientsin China in 1900. Glen Shagren Utah State University
The China Relief Expedition Joint Coalition Warfare in China Summer 1900.
https://picclick.de/Graf-Waldersee-Heim ... id=1&pid=1

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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tigre
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Re: Boxer Rebellion

Post by tigre » 18 Aug 2019 13:26

Hello to all :D; more........................

The 2nd Intervention: March on Beijing (August 4–14, 1900)

The battle of Peitsang.

In opposition to the advance, it was estimated that between 10,000 and 12,000 Chinese troops entrenched themselves in Peitsang, about seven miles upstream from Tientsin and another line of defense in Yangtsun. Beyond that, the situation was unknown. But since the railway line had certainly been destroyed beyond the bridge over the Peiho River, the allies decided to take an alternative route from Yangtsun to Beijing instead of repeating the unfortunate advance of Admiral Seymour. They chose to follow the river north to Tungchow and then storm the capital from the east, using the river as the main line of communication with Tientsin. They reasoned that it would be more difficult for the Chinese to intercept the river, and that the troops would not be delayed or distracted by having to repair the railroad.

The relief expedition departed from Tientsin on the afternoon of August 4 and stopped at night at Arsenal Hsiku, which had previously been captured by Admiral Seymour's expedition. From there, the expedition planned to move along the river with the Japanese, British and Americans on the right (or south) shore of the Peiho River and the Russians on the left. The Japanese had recognized the Chinese position in Peitsang and had determined that they were taking hold in a line about three miles from the right bank to the west. An arsenal anchored the far-right flank of the Chinese forces, and the allies tried to wrap them there. To that end, the Japanese were to march at 01:00 on August 5, followed by the British and Americans in a march column. They would advance along a path around the Chinese flank, destroy the arsenal and then march to the river, which would lead the three armies to the south and attack the Chinese trenches from the rear. Meanwhile, a Japanese battery would suppress the advanced enemy south of Peitsang and occupy the attention of the troops in the trenches.

When the Japanese arrived in the Chinese arsenal, they discovered two factors that modified the attack plan. First, the land around the enemy trenches was too restricted for the three national contingents to concentrate there. Second, they found that the state of the enemy defenses was poor. The Japanese decided not to wait for the British and the Americans to complete their enveloping maneuver and instead attacked the arsenal immediately, easily destroying it. They continued the attack and began to take the Chinese out of the trenches, chasing them to the river. Around 05:00 hours, the Japanese commander sent a message to the British and Americans requesting that they stop their columns, turn north and attack through the Chinese position. While the British were preparing to comply, the Americans were forced to march south and west around them to get in position. By the time they began their attack, the Japanese had completely defeated the enemy and captured the entire Peitsang position. It was just as good that the fight was over; With three national contingents converging across restricted terrain under limited visibility, allied troops would probably have shot each other. At the end of the day, the allies camped in the village of Tao-Wa-She, just northwest of Peitsang.

Sources: https://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/box ... say01.html
https://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin ... MDLOG_0001
Tientsin China in 1900. Glen Shagren Utah State University
The China Relief Expedition Joint Coalition Warfare in China Summer 1900.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Boxer Rebellion

Post by tigre » 25 Aug 2019 16:28

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The 2nd Intervention: March on Beijing (August 4–14, 1900)

The battle of Yangtsun.

The remnants of the Peitsang defenders disappeared on the left bank of the Peiho River while the Allies consolidated their position on the night of August 5. The energetic Japanese under General Yamagutchi had erected a pontoon bridge over the river in Peitsang. After coordinating with Yamagutchi, the Americans crossed to the left bank and prepared to attack northward, oriented by the shattered railway line towards Yangtsun. The British, French and Russians also positioned themselves on the left bank and planned to move north along the river road that was parallel to the railway line. The Japanese remained on the right bank and had to circumvent the most difficult terrain while the Allies marched towards the enemy's main defense line.

Coalition forces moved at approximately 06:00 on August 6. The units on the left bank made contact with the enemy approximately one and a half miles south of Yangtsun, where the railway and the river path crossed the Peiho over a bridge. Here General Gaselee required that the Americans support the British attack. Under Gaselee's plan, the 14th Regiment would be deployed alongside the British west of the rail line. The 9th Regiment, the Light Battery, the Marines and a British cavalry troop would advance along the east side and provide support for the Gaselee attack. The Russians marched westward and to the British rear along the river. The plan was relatively simple, but this time the defenders were better positioned and more determined. As the Allies had demonstrated in Tientsin, a persistent lack of reconnaissance and detailed planning permeated the battle that followed.

The main elements of the Allied contingent made contact with the Chinese, estimated at 3,000 with four batteries, a mile and a half from the city. Allied vanguard elements pushed the Chinese back until they took position in prepared earthwork positions near the railroad bridge. Gaselee's main body crossed the Pei-ho River at dawn, moved away from the railway for a short distance and then stopped in sight of the Chinese fortifications to allow the rear guard to approach. The 14th American Infantry Regiment had come too late to participate in the assault on Tientsin, but now its 3rd Battalion was formed in two company columns, with the second column behind, and its right next to the railroad slope. The British Sikhs advanced and occupied a position to the left of the 14th, but the restrictive terrain caused their line to extend to the US formation, separating the 3rd and 2nd Battalions.

The 14th Infantry established a skirmish line at 10:00 am linked with the British and the Russians in the rear. Repeating the regulated exercise that led to the disaster for the 9th Infantry in Tientsin, Major Quinton, commanding the 3rd Battalion, advanced "in line" followed by the 2nd Battalion under the command of Captain Eastman. The Chinese opened fire on them with artillery while they were a mile and a half from the town. The regiment advanced less than 1,500 yards from the enemy and began receiving intense rifle fire.

They remained in this position for more than two hours, while Chaffee tried to place the Reilly Battery (Fifth Artillery) at a good firing point to support his attack. The battery was busy supporting the fighting on the other side of the railroad, but the Americans and the British showed impressive discipline and patience in waiting for artillery support before moving forward.

Sources: https://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/box ... say01.html
https://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin ... MDLOG_0001
Tientsin China in 1900. Glen Shagren Utah State University
The China Relief Expedition Joint Coalition Warfare in China Summer 1900.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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tigre
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Re: Boxer Rebellion

Post by tigre » 01 Sep 2019 14:15

Hello to all :D; more........................

The 2nd Intervention: March on Beijing (August 4–14, 1900)

The battle of Yangtsun.

On the east side of the railroad, the 9th Infantry, the US Marines and the Reilly's Battery set up a support attack to help the western side by attacking the villages in front of them, with a British cavalry squadron screening the advance. These troops had begun to move from their camp in Wang Chwang, on the outskirts of Peitsang, only at 04:30 in the morning. After crossing the river over a pontoon bridge, the 9th Infantry advanced parallel to the railroad for five miles before stopping to the right of the Reilly's Battery and 500 yards behind.

The British cavalry came into contact with eight Chinese infantry companies, supported by three cannons in a town on their right. The Reilly's Battery was deployed on the east (right) side of the railroad to suppress the guns located northeast at 11:00 a.m. The battery opened fire 500 yards from the railroad and hit the town 2,400 yards away, setting it on fire. The battery continued to attack the Chinese north and east of their position while they were still visible. But the friendly infantry was too close (14th Infantry and the British Sikhs), so the battery retained the fire, supporting the fight to the right until it was ordered to move its fire.

The 9th was ordered to turn towards the village to the right of the Allied line. Once through the town, the regiment moved on through a cornfield to a second town, receiving fire from portable weapons and artillery. While the 9th extended to the right and the 14th was engaged to the left, the command and control system began to fail. The couriers brought conflicting orders to the 9th ordering it to storm the second village and simultaneously return to a water tower adjacent to the railroad on his left. The Unit Commander decided to continue towards the village where the assault stopped once the severely dehydrated soldiers discovered a functional well with drinking water. At 3:00 p.m., all the fire had ceased and the regiment moved to Yangtsun for half an hour, then to the railroad crossing to go to the camp for the night.

General Dorward, commanding the British, requested artillery support for the assault of the 14th Infantry and the Sikhs on the left, so the Reilly's Battery was ordered to move to the west side of the railroad. But in the confusion, a band of Chinese had hidden in the high corn directly in front of the new position of the battery. The gunners focused their attention on moving the Chinese away from their own position and provided little support for the developing attack on the left, where they had better visibility than any other artillery battery on the battlefield.

Meanwhile, west of the embankment, the 14th Regiment was enduring the worst of the fight. By the time the regiment made contact with the defenders in Yangtsun, the troops were exhausted from marching in extreme heat. The Americans advanced in an open formation to approximately one mile from the enemy when they were attacked by artillery. When they had approached less than 1,500 yards from the enemy, the Chinese opened fire. At this point on the battlefield, the attack front narrowed as the railroad and the river path converged towards the Yangtsun Bridge. As a result, British troops on the left began to overlap the American left, increasing confusion and the danger of fratricide. When the main units approached less than 300 yards from the enemy village, Daggett (US Commander) ordered the troops to stop and concentrate their rifle fire on the Chinese position. Once convinced that they had suppressed the enemy's fire, the colonel led a joint assault, British and American, that defeated the enemy.

Sources: https://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/box ... say01.html
https://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin ... MDLOG_0001
Tientsin China in 1900. Glen Shagren Utah State University
The China Relief Expedition Joint Coalition Warfare in China Summer 1900.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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tigre
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Re: Boxer Rebellion

Post by tigre » 08 Sep 2019 12:44

Hello to all :D; more........................

The 2nd Intervention: March on Beijing (August 4–14, 1900)

The battle of Yangtsun.

Unfortunately, the 14th infantry and British Sikhs began receiving artillery fire from three directions after they seized the village. The culprit was the Allied artillery installed in the rear, which could not identify its objectives, which resulted in almost thirty victims. Commanders believed that it was British or Russian artillery that had fired at US troops. The final verdict in official reports written a month after the fact said that the Russians had opened artillery fire against the town at the request of the British. The unfortunate results were attributed to the confusion resulting from the British measuring artillery adjustments in yards while Russian gunners calculated in meters. It is difficult to determine whether this theory was accurate or if it was an invention designed to protect British and American officers at the expense of Russians. However, the incident clearly indicated a lack of recognition, planning and coordination among the allies.

The Second Battalion of the 14th Infantry was also guilty of faulty identification. Immediately after occupying the village, some American soldiers of companies E and H joined their Chief on the railroad embankment on their right and shot at a group of Japanese with indeterminate results, an accusation almost certainly false. The 14th Infantry expelled the Chinese from the village at a cost of seven dead and fifty-seven wounded, most of them from the third battalion, which led the attack. The 9th Infantry advanced through the city on the east side losing six men from injuries.

The action of the day ended with the 9th Regiment advancing against slight opposition to the far north of Yangtsun and joining with the Japanese there. The few remaining enemies dispersed, leaving the allies alone with the intense heat to deal with. The combination of an exhausting march, heavy backpacks and water shortage was enough to stop the army's advance. Exhausted, the troops rested, buried their dead, evacuated the wounded by the river to Tientsin and waited for their commanders to decide the next move.

Sources: https://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/box ... say01.html
https://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin ... MDLOG_0001
Tientsin China in 1900. Glen Shagren Utah State University
The China Relief Expedition Joint Coalition Warfare in China Summer 1900.
https://www.tapatalk.com/groups/british ... t9103.html

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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tigre
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Re: Boxer Rebellion

Post by tigre » 15 Sep 2019 13:10

Hello to all :D; more........................

The 2nd Intervention: March on Beijing (August 4–14, 1900)

At the Gates.

The following day, 7 August, the allied commanders at Yangtsun convened a war council at the Russian headquarters of General Lineivitch. Throughout the campaign the allied officers opted to conduct the operation around a series of planning conferences rather than planning the entire campaign in detail from the start. Tactical coordination, as we have seen, emanated from on-the-spot cooperation, which produced mixed results.

The commanders decided to begin movement toward Peking the next day with fourteen thousand troops, following the Pei-ho River to Tungchow and then turning inland to Peking. The unknown condition of the legations and rivalry among Allied contingents to be the first to Peking ruled out any thought of delay. The final assault on Peking would show the Allies at their worst as partners, as each vied for the honor of entering the city first.

The German, Italian, Austrian, and French contingents elected to turn back for Tientsin, but since their numbers were few, the loss of actual combat power was negligible. The rest of the allies—the British, Japanese, Americans, and Russians—were determined to make the trip to Peking as rapidly as possible. The commanders agreed to march upriver to Tungchow, whereupon they would plan the final assault on the capital.

The first move, on 8 August, involved the various armies marshaling in the village of Tsai-Tsun, just north of Yangtsun. For the next five days, the chief enemy was the heat. The armies met only scattered resistance from Chinese Imperial troops, but the route of advance was
marked with groups of soldiers from each nation lying exhausted on the roadside as temperatures exceeded 100 degrees. Stragglers were directed to rejoin their units by nightfall each day.

The advancing polyglot army had a mixed record of behavior as it tramped through village after village. In general, the Americans and British were conciliatory and gentle with the indigenous population, while the other allies’ attitudes ranged from dismissive to brutal. Summary executions of anyone sporting the red sash of a Boxer were common, and looting accompanied the seizure of each village and town. Many Chinese citizens bolted at the first sign of the approaching foreigners, and not a few committed suicide rather than take a chance
on allied good will.

Sources: https://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/box ... say01.html
https://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin ... MDLOG_0001
Tientsin China in 1900. Glen Shagren Utah State University
The China Relief Expedition Joint Coalition Warfare in China Summer 1900.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

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