The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA

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The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA

Post by Tanzania » 31 Aug 2016 18:05

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The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA (Part I)



25 years ago I read first time about a German Motor Boat `GRAETZ´ on Lake Kivu in 1913-1916 during the Great War.
The well-known navy historian Erich Gröner and two of the main followers mentioned in the 1990 published anthology,
»The German War Ships 1815 - 1945 «, Volume 7, (among others) . . . Colonial vessels, Page 222 the following text:


Build 1913 on the R. Holtz, Steamboat- und machine factory in Hamburg-Harburg, 10,5 m x 2,0 m
Bodelschwingh Mission, Lake Kivu, Detach. Möve, Lake Tanganyika (1 x MG) 14.4.1916 Belgian prey


Image

Source: Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945, Band 7, Kolonialfahrzeuge, E. Gröner, D. Jung, M. Maass, B&G Verlag.



Further investigations about this mysterious German (steam) Motor Boat `GRAETZ´ remained unsuccessful at that time.
Only the German author R.K. Lochner mention already 1987 in his book »Kampf im Rufiji-Delta« on page 295 a German
reinforced Motor Boat on Lake Kivu which was led by Oberleutnant z.S. Wunderlich during the fights in September 1914.
The name of this Boat bear only one reference; the known Schutztruppen officer Oberleutnant Friedrich Paul Greatz ,
who made between 1907 and 1911 two east-west-crossing expeditions through southern Africa by Car and Motor boat.

Further online sources:
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schlosswerft . http://www.albert-gieseler.de/dampf_de/ ... 6249.shtml
https://ia601407.us.archive.org/30/item ... 00sing.pdf . http://www.paulgraetz.de/en/



15 years later I read the same references by Ludwig Boell, but also without any name of this boat. A few days ago, I found
ultimate by chance, a detailed online-article about this Steam-boat. But it´s not really clear how the Missionaries called the
Boat. The below shown article mentioned only: “The `BODELSCHWINGH´ boat.” Maybe a Schutztruppen officer in Ruanda
named this Motor Boat later unofficial and in tradition to Oblt. Paul Graetz boats, `SAROTTI´ and `HYGIAMA´, as `GRAETZ´.



As far as I know the following three photos are the first from this Motor Boat and only part of the German `Navy´ on Lake Kivu.

Image


Image


Image

Source: http://ww2.dsm.museum/DSA/DSA02_1978_035044_Neumann.pdf
GUSTAV NEUMANN UND DAS "BODELSCHWINGH-BOOT" in Deutsches Schifffahrtsarchiv 2, 1978, S. 35-44


(For me it looks like that the photo on Abb. 7 showed another boat then on Abb. 8 and 9.!?!)

Later more details about the content of the article.
.
“Day by day and almost minute by minute the past was brought up to date. . . . All History was a
palimpsest, scraped clean and reinscribed exactly as often as was necessary” – G. ORWELL 1984

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Re: The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA

Post by danebrog » 03 Sep 2016 14:00

http://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin. ... MDLOG_0001
Seite 82
here also called "SMS Bodelschwingh", the emperors smallest cruiser :lol:

http://kirchenleitung-unterwegs.ekvw.de ... -kivusees/

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Re: The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA

Post by Tanzania » 12 Sep 2016 10:44

danebrog wrote:http://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin. ... MDLOG_0001
Seite 82
here also called "SMS Bodelschwingh", the emperors smallest cruiser :lol:

http://kirchenleitung-unterwegs.ekvw.de ... -kivusees/
Battlecruiser SMS Bodelschwingh” with 10,5 meters and 5 tons; - Yes of course: `less is more´ (weniger ist mehr)



Nice completion. Especially the information that part of this boat should be still existing and under good conditions
even visibility up to date in the Mushaho-Bay near the old Mission Station Rubengera. The exact date of the launching
of this boat there is probably not known. Furthermore Erich Gröner mentioned in his list that this boat was captured by
Belgians on 14. April 1915, but the German Pastor and Hospital administrator in Ruanda Karl Roehl told 1918 in his
book, the boat was sunk by the Mission staff themselves on 14. May 1916. This was also confirmed by Ludwig Boell.
“Mit der Besetzung von Kigali, dem auch die erst genannte belgische Abteilung zustrebte, war das Schicksal von
Wintgens entschieden, er durfte nicht länger bleiben. So kam für ihn die schwere Stunde, wo er sich zurückziehen
mußte; denn jetzt war die Gefahr sehr groß, daß die beiden genannten belgischen Abteilungen sich vereinten und
ihnen einschlossen. So mußte er am 12. Mai (1916) Kissenji verlassen. . . . . .Am 14. Mai (1916) mußten auch wir
unser Rubengera verlassen. Das „Bodelschwingh“-Boot, das uns im Kriege unbezahlbare Dienste geleistet, ja, das
uns ein so langes Bleiben ermöglicht hatte, wurde versenkt, ebenso die großen Stahlboote. Die Einbäume wurden
in Trümmer geschlagen. Die Station Rubengera zeigte überall die Gräuel der Verwüstung.“

Source: http://dfg-viewer.de/show/?id=8071&tx_d ... age%5D=141


Currently the exact sinking location on Lake Kivu is also not clear , due to the different statements of the sources, but . . .
. . . this should be further investigated on-site. ( – Image – )

.
“Day by day and almost minute by minute the past was brought up to date. . . . All History was a
palimpsest, scraped clean and reinscribed exactly as often as was necessary” – G. ORWELL 1984

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Re: The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA

Post by Tanzania » 13 Sep 2016 08:33

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Below is a further source pictured which mentioned the German Motor Boat `GRAETZ´ on Lake Kivu during the 1.WW.


Because of the obvious confusion and diffuses half-truths in the text passages I expected the author have had copied this
information from Erich Gröner’s book, but didn´t translated the text proper. Phillip Holzmann wasn´t a Mission Society, but
a Construction company, which was involved in the construction of the Central railway Daressalam - Kigoma. Furthermore
he considered, that this Motor Boat was transported overland between Lake Tanganyika and Lake Kivu. Due to the present
sources this has to be completely ruled out. The author didn´t also mentioned any preliminary source for all his statements.
An additionally example to be as customer very carefully, also when it was written `black on white´ in books or descriptions
on photos from, so called experts. It´s always only a commercial factor and they have to earn money with these publications!

“Well before the outbreak of War Germany was planning the assembly of whatever craft were aviable to form a flotilla based
on Kigoma. One missionary motor boat belonging to Father ( ??? ) Phillip Holzman, Peter with a petrol engine, and based on
Lake Tanganyika and another the Graetz belonging to the Bodel Independent Missionary Society and used on Lake Kivu,
Ruanda-Urundi, where commandeered and in operation at Kigoma ( ??? ) in August, 1914. The later craft of 35 feet having
been transferred overland from one Lake to the other. ( ??? ) . . . ”
Image

“The Lake Steamers of East Africa”. A history of the vessels of the East African lakes, L.G. Dennis, Runnymede Malthouse 1996.
.
“Day by day and almost minute by minute the past was brought up to date. . . . All History was a
palimpsest, scraped clean and reinscribed exactly as often as was necessary” – G. ORWELL 1984

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Re: The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA

Post by Tanzania » 14 Sep 2016 16:00

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The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA (Part II)



H. Neumann mentioned in the report after according to her father’s records, Gustav Neumann on page 37:
“After the discovery of Ruanda the Catholic order of the (French) `White fathers´ missionized there at first.
Not before 1907 the Pastor Friedrich von Bodelschwingh, leader of the Bethel Institutions send protestant
Missionaries to Ruanda. His son Gustav (von Bodelschwingh) became missionary on the island Idschwi on
the Lake Kivu. During the war he was taken prisoner by the Belgians, but have been freed during a surprise
attack by Captain Wintgens with help of the “Bodelschwingh-Boat”
The “Bodelschwingh-Boat” was the only Motor Boat on Lake Kivu; before it was launched the second time
In July 1914 (First time launched in Germany?!?) in the Musaho-Bay near the Mission Station Rubengera,
there were only two Belgian Steel-Sailing-Boats as well as dugout canoe from the natives.”

Source: http://ww2.dsm.museum/DSA/DSA02_1978_035044_Neumann.pdf
Picture-source about Gustav von Bodelschwingh: http://www.bethel-historisch.de/index.php?article_id=84 .

H. Neumann published at the end of the 1970s also further reports about her Fathers records and this theme:
» Gustav Neumann – „Und seine Heimat?“ – „Die war Afrika.“ «, Hildegard Neumann, München 1978.
» Kennen Sie Ruanda? Das vergessene Paradies im Herzen Afrikas «, Hildegard Neumann, München 1978.






To this it has to be mentioned that the Northern border between the Belgian Congo and German East Africa was
for a long time unclear. Between 1885 and 1911 the border changed many times. Regarding the belonging of the
Island Idschwi (also: Idjiwi / Idjwi / Ijwi) the two lower sections shows the border on Lake Kivu; before and after
the Kivu-Mufumbiro-Conference on 14. May 1910 between Belgium and Germany. Due to the fact that Idschwi
belonged up to 1910 to German East Africa it´s a plausible reason, that this protestant Mission Society existing
on Idschwi and Friedrich von Bodelschwingh and/or Karl Roehl still missionizes when the War starts also in GEA.

Image

Hereto, also see:
“Colonial Invasion of Kigezi”, In: Politics, Religion and Power in the Great Lakes Region, 36 pages, pdf.

http://www.codesria.org/IMG/pdf/3-4.pdf?2518/
International Boundary Study, No. 52, June 15, 1965, Dem. Republic of the Congo - Rwanda Boundary, 8 p., pdf.
http://archive.law.fsu.edu/library/coll ... IBS052.pdf




“After the arrival of reinforcement (part of Navy detachment Möve) in Ruanda, Captain Wintgens brought his detachment
to the Northern border and start hunting with the Motor Boat on hostile vessels on Lake Kivu. On 18. September 1914
First lieutenant z.S. Wunderlich took with the Motor Boat in front of Bobandana, despite of violent resistance the big Steal
Boat and sunk one dugout canoe whereby at the same time prisoners and preys have been made. . .
After Captain Wintgens crossed the border on the 19. September and after some clashes with patrols and posts he took
notice that the border area wasn´t occupied by bigger enemy units. Up to the 22. September he shifted his detachment to
the southern part of the Lake on the peninsula opposite of Kwidjwi. His plan was to capture the southern Belgian post on
the island, which lies only 2 km opposite the mainland.
Nearly 20 years, this fruitful and with around 30,000 humans populated Kwidjwi, was under German rule, only to be 1910
during the final border regulation between Belgium, England and Germany, awarded again to Belgium.”

Source: »Die Operationen in Ostafrika, Weltkrieg 1914-1918«, page 61, Ludwig Boell, Verlag Dachert, Hamburg 1951.




Thanks to the Historian Dr. Michael Pesek the detail report by Captain Max Wintgens for the taking of Idschwi is online aviable:
Battle report for the 24. September 1914 against the Belgian outpost Nyakalengo on the island Idschwi on Lake Kivu
Source: http://bwana-lettow.blogspot.ae/2015/01 ... insel.html
Deutsch-Ostafrika. Kaiserliches Gouvernement. n.d. [1914]. Zusammenstellung der Berichte über die in den August, September,
Oktober 1914 stattgefundenen Gefechte der Kaiserlichen Schutztruppe für Deutsch-Ostafrika. Morogoro: Regierungsdruckerei.)
Although Wintgens reported about the usage of one own Steal-Boat and a few dugout canoes. Also the capture of two Belgian
Steal-Boats were mentioned, but not about the exemption of Gustav von Bodelschwingh or the usage of the own Motor-Boat.





I am mistaken, when I wrote the “Bodelschwingh-Boat” was the only part of the German `Navy´ on Lake Kivu 1914-1916.
There existing also two Steal-Boats! Here are two examples what we have to understand under; Steal-sailing- or Rowboats.

This was an iron Rowboat / whaler on Lake Tanganyika and the title mentioned `at the North end´; possible near Usumbura
and at the river mouth of the Russisi? The further left person seems to be a sailor; maybe from the Navy detachment Möve.
Image


Below is shown another type of Steal-Boat without any description. Due to the also pictured `Hedwig v. Wissmann´ this
photo was taken, maybe in Kigoma, but for certain on Lake Tanganyika before the first week of February 1916.
Image


This photo shows a typical of the bigger, wooden dugout canoe. The same design were used from Lake Nyassa, Tanganyika,
Lake Kivu up to Lake Edward and Albert until now. In this case a Belgian dugout canoe with Force Publique soldiers is pictured.
Image

.
“Day by day and almost minute by minute the past was brought up to date. . . . All History was a
palimpsest, scraped clean and reinscribed exactly as often as was necessary” – G. ORWELL 1984

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Re: The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA

Post by Tanzania » 15 Sep 2016 12:07

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The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA (Part III)



It would be interesting to know about the strength of the opponents for the German `Navy´ on Lake Kivu 1914 - 1916,
because the Belgian were really not defenceless! The following vessels supposed to be in service on Lake Kivu:
“They were supported by the steamer `Vengeur´, reportedly transferred from Lake Tanganyika, and by the
Steam-propelled barge `M´bene´, which some sources indicate was the former `Dix Tonne´ from Albertville.
Four motor-driven barges, the `Kibati´ (20to), `Sangala´ (5to), `Goma´ (100to), and `Sake´ (100to) were also
based at Bukavu, as were a gunboat (`Paul Renking´), three whaleboats (one named `Commandant Eloy´),
a dinghy named `Tshiloango´, a floating platform names `Paul Costermans´ and a variety of dugouts (pirogues)”
Source:
“Steam and Quinine on African Great Lakes, bygone Ships, Trains and Planes”, David Reynolds, Pretoria, South Africa, 1997.




The well-known Belgian Steamer: `Alexandre Delcommune´ from Lake Tanganyika which was destroyed on 23. August 1914
by the `Hedwig v. Wissmann´. Here shown already after the conversion and the renaming into: `Le Vengeur´ with 22.50 metres
and 90 tones. Some of the sources mentioned a service later also on Lake Kivu, but it is unclear if still during, or after the 1. WW.
Image





Names and location of another Belgian Motor Boat are confusing. In summary a few sources mentioned for one
and the same vessel the names: `Vedette´, `Mosselbak´ (also with epithets: `Dix Tonne´) and later renamed
on Lake Kivu: `Mbene´. The Belgian Lieutenant Goor mentioned a previous service in the North Sea, before this
boat was transported to the Congo and have had several operations on Lake Tanganyika, also against the German
`Hedwig v. Wissmann´. It seems to be the photo below show this 14.0 meters long Boat still on the Tanganyika,
because the other Belgian Gun Boat `Netta´, which definitely don’t left the Tanganyika is shown also in the centre
with two further paddle steamers, to the left and right (Still on the Lukuga River?) are pictured in the background?
Image





Below is pictured the Belgian `Paul-Renkin´, which was steered by Lieutenant von Beughem. Regarding the lower mentioned
sources this, 14.0 m long and maximal 10 to Gun Boat operate only on Lake Kivu and should be already armed with one 3,7-cm
Maxim-Nordenfelt Automatic Canon (QF 1-pounder pom-pom) M. 1903 and two 1895 Colt-Browning Machine Gun Modell 1914.
Image


Here are shown two photos of the same scene with the armament of the `Paul-Renkin´ positioned on the beach at Sake-Bay.
Image

Image

Online text-and picture sources:
http://www.lsvo.be/nieuwsarchief/LSVO/l ... e/2010.pdf
http://memoiresducongo.be/wp-content/up ... MDC-30.pdf
http://memoiresducongo.be/wp-content/up ... MDC-34.pdf
https://www.flickr.com/photos/pgkivu/13 ... otostream/
http://www.albertville.be/escadrille-tanganyika-01.html
https://ia800309.us.archive.org/31/item ... 20soci.pdf
https://ia600504.us.archive.org/12/item ... b00sti.pdf
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campagne_ ... _mondiale)
http://media.gettyimages.com/photos/wor ... d535819471

.
“Day by day and almost minute by minute the past was brought up to date. . . . All History was a
palimpsest, scraped clean and reinscribed exactly as often as was necessary” – G. ORWELL 1984

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Re: The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA

Post by Tanzania » 05 Aug 2017 18:21

The German `Navy´ 1914 - 1916 on Lake Kivu / Ruanda / GEA (Part IV)
06_Bodelschwing.png

[ . . . ]

(For me it looks like that the photo on Abb. 7 showed another boat then on Abb. 8 and 9.!?!)

Already in the last year the assumption was expressed that the upper photo does not show the boat `BODELSCHWING´,
for which there were however no further indications. Now an real expert in the field of colonial cannon boats has confirmed the
assumption that they are different boats, which are presented on the first three photos of this thread. In addition, pictures
were discovered, which boat it could be and why it might have been a confusion between both boats, `BODELSCHWING´
(on Lake Kiwu, 1913 - 1916) and `PAULUS´ (on Lake Nyassa 1894 - 1972? [***]).

Both users are German evangelical mission societies who were active in GEA up to 1918.
Both boats were built by the 'Reinhold Holtz' ship- and boat-yard in Hamburg-Harburg.
Both boats had the same dimensions of 11 meters in length.
Both boats were assembled in seven segments, disassembled and transported to Africa.



“Steal-boat ``Paulus´´ disassembled for transport”
04_Paulus.png
“Steal boat ``Paulus´´ on the water”
03_Paulus.png
Original Sources: “Merensky, Deutsche Arbeit am Niassa, Berlin 1894“, Page 287:
https://books.google.co.tz/books?id=dVQ ... 22&f=false



Hereafter the translated German text passage from two Germen preliminary sources, about what was currently known about the
steam boat `PAULUS´:
"The steel boat `Paulus´, which is 12 meters long, is built for traffic on the lake. It is made of strong steel sheets and
has a storage room at the front, which can also serve as a sleeping quarters for the black boatmen. In the centre is
a cabin of teak, which offers two white weatherproof accommodation and comfortable night-time accommodation;
behind it is the small steam engine of 6 horse stables driving the vehicle through the water at a speed of 11 km an hour. "

Original Source: Deutsches Kolonial-Handbuch. Dr. Rudolf Fitzner, Band I., Berlin Hermann Paetel 1901, Seite 339 / 340
"It was very necessary, however, to send a steel boat to the missionaries. Even before Ikombe was laid, we realized
that such a boat could provide the best service to the traffic between Karonga and the lower Rufirio, that is, with
Wangemannshöh, because the carriers had to cross five strong rivers on this route, and the costs for Transportation
of the goods from Karonga were very significant. (10 marks for the ctr). Ikombe was now laid out, and it was clear
that the possession of a boat was absolutely necessary for the traffic of this station with Wangemannshöh, with
Langenburg, with Karonga, as well as for the mission trips to be undertaken from here.

Through collections that had been organized in Germany there were 6500 marks, which cost it, and for this price the
company R. Holtz took over the construction of a small steamboat, which could be shipped to East Africa at the end
of March. This boat, which according to the decision of the missionary committee bears the name "Paulus", is on 28.
March of this year (1893) was shipped to German East Africa.

The A.L.C., which has taken over these pieces to the south end, from where they are represented by the "Hermann v.
Wissmann" are to be collected. For the German Foreign Office which has given room for this to happen, and the boat
in Langenburg has been set up by the locksmiths and machinists of the steamer H. v. Wissmann”. If this boat will swim
only at the north end, the missionaries will enjoy the greatest ease of transport through their service.

This boat is 12 meters long, it is made of strong steel sheet with a steam engine of six horse powers driving the vehicle
through the water at a speed of about eleven kilometres an hour. Sails are also available so that the machine is only to
be put into service in an emergency. On the shallow coasts and in the rivers, the natives will also gladly move the vehicle
through the use of bamboo poles. May the "Paulus" in a not distant time on the north end of the Nyassa lead the German
flag from coast to coast, from village to town, decorated with the cross, as a messenger and a sign of peace! "

Original Sources: “Merensky, Deutsche Arbeit am Niassa, Berlin 1894“, Page 285-288:

[***]
Like the steamer `HERMANN VON WISSMANN´ and` VERA', the `PAULUS' was further used by the British after 1919.
There are references that the `Paulus´ was still seen in 1972 (!) at the shipyard of Malidini, at the southern end of Nyassa.

. . . . . but this is another story, or theme for a new thread and investigations on side.

Cheers Holger
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