German Colonial Officers 1914

Discussions on all aspects of the German Colonies and Overseas Expeditions. Hosted by Chris Dale.
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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 27 Nov 2005 06:15

According to the excellent: http://www.traditionsverband.de/

Lettow-Vorbeck surrended with 154 other Germans in 1914,155 men in total.Only 144 returned home--one officer and 10 NCOs died shortly after the surrender.

Here is the list provided.Those marked 'verstorben'(deceased) are the 11 who died in December 1918.

. Offiziere

1. Generalmajor von Lettow-Vorbeck
2. Major Kraut
3. Hauptmann Stemmermann
4. Hauptmann Köhl
5. Hauptmann Müller
6. Hauptmann Spangenberg (verst. 18.12.1918 in Daressalam)
7. Hauptmann Meyer
8. Kapitänleutnant Apel
9. Hauptmann Otto
10. Oberleutnant von Merensky
11. Oberleutnant von Ruckteschell
12. Oberleutnant von Busse
13. Oberleutnant Treuge
14. Oberleutnant z.S. Wenig
15. Leutnant von Scherbening
16. Leutnant Vortisch
17. Leutnant Dieterich
18. Leutnant Kempner
19. Leutnant Brixner
20. Leutnant Dingler
21. Stabsarzt Dr. Taute
22. Stabsarzt Dr. Müller
23. Stabsarzt Dr. Penschke
24. Stabsarzt Dr. Marshall
25. Oberarzt Dr. Klemm
26. Regierungsarzt Dr. Deppe
27. Oberveterinär Dr. Huber
28. Oberapotheker Beyer
29. Feldtelegraphensekretär Schmid
30. Gouverneur Dr. Schnee


B. Unteroffiziere und Mannschaften

2. Feldkompanie:

1. Vizefeldwebel Winzer
2. Vermessungssteuermann Grewen (verstorben 1918 Daressalam)
3. Obermaat Hösermann
4. Obermaat Marshall
5. Obermaat von Hasseln
6. Vermessungsmaat Reichel
7. Bootsmannsmaat Röthemeier
8. Bootsmannsmaat Tappe
9. San.Vizefeldwebel Pohlig (verstorben 1918 in Daressalam)

3. Feldkompanie

10. Feldwebel Hähnel
11. Sergeant Albrecht
12. Sergeant Frister
13. Sergeant Frass
14. Sergeant Schnaars
15. Unteroffizier Schlotmann
16. San. Feldwebel Schuhmacher

4. Feldkompanie

17. Vizefeldwebel Braun
18. Vizefeldwebel Jungkunz
19. Obermaat Gordner
20. Obermaat Ritter
21. Sergeant Valet
22. Sergeant Löwe
23. Sergeant Wenzel (verstorben 1918 in Daressalam)
24. Unteroffizier Detjen
25. San. Feldwebel Jonat

9. Feldkompanie

26. Vizefeldwebel Ebner
27. Vizefeldwebel Sauke (verstorben 1918 in Daressalam)
28. Vizesteuermann Martini
29. Obermaat Feldmann
30. Obermaat Schütz
31. Obermaat Seefeld
32. Oberheizer Hantelmann
33. San. Feldwebel Geisler

10. Feldkompanie

34. Unterzahlmeister Dohmen
35. Vizefeldwebel Kühne
36. Sergeant Wolf
37. Sergeant Ossenbrink
38. Sergeant Pfeiffer
39. Sergeant Wieland
40. Obermaat Lühmann (verstorben 1918 in Daressalam)
41. Vermessungsmaat Eichhorn
42. Unteroffizier Reitnauer
43. Unteroffizier Reismann (verstorben 1918 in Daressalam)
44. Maat Neubert
45. San. Sergeant Liedtke

11. Feldkompanie

46. Feldwebel Friebe
47. Sergeant Rentel
48. Unteroffizier Böhlen
49. Maat Merbeck
50. Maat Luttmann
51. San. Vizefeldwebel Geisselbrecht

13. Feldkompanie

52. Feldwebel Braun
53. Vizefeldwebel Hirschfeld
54. Vizefeldwebel Thöt
55. Artillerie-Mechaniker Bodmer
56. Sergeant Jäger
57. Obermaat Kunze (verstorben 1918 in Daressalam)
58. Offizierstellvertreter Sabath
59. San. Feldwebel Trümpler (verstorben 1918 in Daressalam)

17. Feldkompanie

60. Vizefeldwebel Tonne
61. Vizefeldwebel Mehmel
62. Vizefeldwebel Nottbohm
63. Steuermaat Ellberg
64. Bootsmaat Boykson
65. Bootsmaat Jansen (verstorben 1918 in Daressalam)
66. Bootsmaat Trapp
67. San. Feldwebel Lange

21. Feldkompanie

68. Feldwebel Haas
69. Vizefeldwebel Beselin
70. Vizefeldwebel Gerke
71. Obermaat Zeitz
72. Obermaat Welslau
73. San. Feldwebel d.L.II Oberhoffer

3. Schützenkompanie

74. Vizefeldwebel Durst
75. Sergeant Bauer
76. Sergeant Kunitz
77. San Sergeant Tschirge

4. Schützenkompanie

78. Vizefeldwebel Ruthenbeck
79. Steuermaat Braunus
80. Sergeant Geneng (?)
81. Obermaat Träger
82. Obermaat Neumann
83. Obermaat Lantz
84. Obermaat Goos
85. M. O. Musiol
86. San. Vizefeldwebel Fischer

6. Schützenkompanie

87. Feldwebel Ludewig (verstorben 1918 in Daressalam)
88. Vizefeldwebel Richter
89. Sergeant Hillebrecht
90. Unteroffizier Fischer
91. Unteroffizier Dreitzel
92. Maat Scherner
93. Gefreiter Pfister
94. San. Unteroffizier Vöth

2.Batterie

95. Verwalter Jauersch
96. Obermaat Weingardt
97. Maat Jansen
98. Unteroffizier Ungnad

Kommando

99. Feldwebel Frentzel
100. Vizefeldwebel Obst
101. Marinezahlmeister-Aspirant Wittstock
102. Sergeant Kehl
103. Sergeant Piet Njeuwenhuizen
104. Unteroffizier Hefter
105. Unteroffizier Reder
106. Waffenmeister Köpke
107. Waffenmeister Lehmann
108. Funkentelegraphist Zappe
109. Landsturmmann Schönheit
110. Landsturmmann Eberle
111. Landsturmmann Weber
112. Landsturmmann Glossner
113. Landsturmmann Taler
114. Landsturmmann Wegner
115. Landsturmmann Nietsch
116. Landsturmmann Gindele
117. Landsturmmann Wolf
118. Landsturmmann Wunderle
119. Landsturmmann Hauter
120. San. Feldwebel Tschirsch
121. San.Vizefeldwebel Hiese
122. San. Sergeant Quasdorf
123. Oberheizer Schuhmacher
124. Unterapotheker Hochstetter
125. Unterveterinär Dr. Ruppert

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Chris Dale
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Post by Chris Dale » 05 Jan 2006 17:32

Chris Dale wrote: I'd never seen a photo of an Effendi before. On the website at http://www.schutztruppe.de a plate shows the Effendi's uniform. Has anyone got a photo of this uniform being worn?


I've found the answer to my own question at http://www.stub.bildarchiv-dkg.uni-frankfurt.de/
Thought I'd share it with you all.
Cheers
Chris
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Scarlett
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Post by Scarlett » 28 Jan 2006 17:42

Excellent, Chris!

I've searched the bildarchiv several times and didn't find it.
Is there an indication in the archive as to which one of the
few effendis is shown and when the pic was taken?

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Chris Dale
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Post by Chris Dale » 28 Jan 2006 20:57

Hi Scarlett,
No, the caption doesn't name him unfortunately. It only says he's an askari, I'm assuming he's an effendi beacuse of his uniform. It's picture number 3317_2014_0661_0064 if you want to search for it.
Cheers
Chris

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Scarlett
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Post by Scarlett » 29 Jan 2006 18:35

Chris, I wonder at what time the pic was taken.

In the rather well-known picture in the book

Georg Marcker, Unsere Schutztruppe in Ostafrika, Berlin 1893

an efendi is shown on the right hand side. The pic was taken 1889 in Cairo.

The sword and the sword-knot of the efendi is the one usual in the Egyptian army.

Maercker, who served as officer in the "Wissmann-Schutztruppe" 1889-1890, says about the uniform
during his time of service:
" The Feldwebel are wearing with a sergeant-uniform the 'Schleppsäbel' (heavy cavalry-sabre)
without 'Portepée' (sword-knot). The colored officers are wearing a soldier-uniform without any rank-insignia and the 'Schleppsäbel ohne Portepée'. The Premier-Lieutenant (sic!) has one Egyptian star on the shoulder-straps."

In the Organisational Regulations for the Schutztruppe of December 30, 1892 there is as weapon-requirement for
22 Offiziers-Feldzugsäbel mit Koppel (officer-campaign sabre with belt and belt-buckle) for 10 coloured Feldwebel and 12 Lieutenants (sic!).
In a supplement of January 5, 1893 this was changed to
"Infanterie-Degen, für Offiziere mit Kaiserkrone" (infantry-sword, for officers with Imperial crown).

So in the 1890s sols and efendis had sabres or swords.
But about 1900 only the efendis had sabres, the Schleppsäbel M/52, and the sols had the side-arms of the soldiers.

In the pic of Frankfurt University-archive the tarbush doesn't look like 1900 but earlier. There is no tarbush-eagle, which, in case of an efendi, should have been golden. There seems to be no neckshade.
The tunic is already four-pocketed, but without the pleats on the pockets.
On the other hand the belt-buckle seems to be the "Gott mit uns"-one,
not the plain one of the native soldiers.
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Chris Dale
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Post by Chris Dale » 29 Jan 2006 20:27

Hi Scarlett,
Thank you for that information. I'd seen that photo many times before but never with the writing underneath, it makes more sense now, especially with your added info.
The early Wissmantruppe and Schutztruppe uniforms are still largely a mystery to me. I'm sure there was a lot of confusion within the units too.
In the photo I posted, no he's not wearing a tarbush. It looks like he's wearing an undress plain red fez. Are you sure the effendis had golden (or brass) eagles. I thought that was only for Polizeitruppe. The Polizeitruppe also had effendis, maybe that's the confusion? The belt buckle in the photo I posted looks like a Schutztruppe officer's belt buckle worn with an other ranks plain brown leather belt.
Cheers
Chris

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Scarlett
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Post by Scarlett » 30 Jan 2006 09:45

Chris, the information with regard to the eagle I got from

http://www.kammerbulle.de/eHauptseite.htm

Go to Helmet Insignia and then Imperial Troops.
It is shown there, but, I must admit, with a question mark with regard to efendis.

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Chris Dale
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Post by Chris Dale » 30 Jan 2006 15:44

Hi Scarlett,
I remember when I first found that website, I was very excited...until I realised it was all reproduction (very good reproduction, but reproduction nonetheless).
I think they've made a mistake there. The larger brass eagles were for Polizeitruppe according the most sources (eg Schneider's 'Kaiserliche Schutz- und Polizeitruppe für Afrika' P79). I've seen descriptions of Effendi uniforms but they never specifically mention the tarbush eagle so I assume it was the same as the rank and file ie. small and silver.
Here's a photo of a Polizei Askari with the noticably larger eagle.
Cheers
Chris
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Scarlett
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Post by Scarlett » 30 Jan 2006 17:08

Kamerun Schutztruppe

Hauptmann Harttmann, Kompanieführer 9. Kompanie and Abteilungsführer Süd-Ost
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Scarlett
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Post by Scarlett » 30 Jan 2006 17:25

)Kamerun Schutztruppe 9. Kompanie

Top from left
Landsturmmann Klose, Unteroffizier der Landwehr Topp, Sanitäts-Unteroffizier der Reserve Koppke, Unteroffizier der Landwehr Fischer,
Kriegsfreiwilliger Gefreiter Leschner, Ersatzreservist Rager

Sitting from left
Sergeant der Landwehr Maaßen (Zugführer 3. Zug), Vizefeldwebel G. Schulz (Zugführer 1. Zug), Hauptmann Harttmann (Kompanieführer 9. Kompanie),
Offizier-Stellvertreter von Baeckmann (Zugführer 2. Zug), Ober-Artillerie-Maat der Seewehr Hörte

Front
Unteroffizier der Landwehr Vorwerk, Unteroffizier der Landwehr Wolf
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Last edited by Scarlett on 31 Jan 2006 11:39, edited 1 time in total.

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Chris Dale
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Post by Chris Dale » 30 Jan 2006 23:54

Hi Scarlett,
Great photos and information once again! As usual, it all brings up new questions...
This time I'm confused by their unusual ranks. Firstly the Ober-Artillerie-Maat... I didn't think there were any naval units or troops in Cameroon during 1914-16?
Secondly, I'm surprised by the different types of reservist. I know the regular army back in Germany had Reserve, Landwehr and Landsturm units, but I wasn't expecting to see all three in Cameroon.
Thirdly, some of them seem to be wearing medal ribbons in their button holes. I wonder what medal that could be?
Cheers
Chris

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Scarlett
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Post by Scarlett » 31 Jan 2006 11:38

After the compulsory military service every man was

- Reserve for 2 years
- after that Landwehr, until March 31 of the year, in which he became 39.

All men, whether they had served or not, were Landsturm until their 60th birthday.

A man, fit for service, but not drafted, was Ersatzreserve.

Seewehr for men, who had served in the Kaiserliche Marine, was the same as Landwehr, but after 4 years Reserve.

Of course there were no Landwehr-, Landsturm- or Seewehr-units in Kamerun during the war; all men were serving in regular
Schutztruppe-Kompanien.

All men on the pic except Schulz, Harttmann and von Baeckmann were not active members of the pre-war-Schutztruppe,
but had to serve in their respective ranks after the outbreak. The Kriegsfreiwillige had no obligation to serve, but volunteered.

The ribbon must be the black-white ribbon of Eisernes Kreuz 2. Klasse.
Maaßen and von Baeckmann also wear a makeshift Eisernes Kreuz 1. Klasse, seems to be made from fabric and sewed to the tunic.

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Chris Dale
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Post by Chris Dale » 31 Jan 2006 14:56

Thank you once again Scarlett for clearing that mystery up so quickly and fully. I understand the reserve system in the colonies now.
The home made EK's are intersting too. Now that you mention it yes the EK1's do look unusual and as you say are probably made of cloth. I knew similar "erstatz" EK's were issued in DSWA, nicknamed the "Hildegard" order but not that they were also made in Cameroon. I don't think I've seen them in DOA though...
Cheers
Chris

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A.W. Carson
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Post by A.W. Carson » 07 Feb 2006 09:22

Peter H wrote:The German ornithologist,biologist Ernst Mayr(1904-2005) did extensive research in New Guinea in the 1930s.He talked and meet many of the missionaries,natives that inhabited the region that Detzner supposedly trekked thru.

He debunked Detzner's tale as a fraud:

http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci/sep2005/422.pdf

Mayr also entertained my wife and me on a drive back from his country home on the details of how he discovered that a German officer, Hermann Detzner, falsified his entire story in his 1921 book ‘Four Years Among Cannibals’ on how he eluded the Australians in German New Guinea during World War One, and of the elaborate steps he (Mayr) had to take to convince the German Geographical Society in Berlin that this book was a hoax and that the honors received by Detzner should be revoked.


There is no mention of a Hermann Detzner in the Australian Official History of operations in Rabaul/New Guinea either.

The conclusion is most likely Detzner went into captivity rather early,was released in 1919,and decided to fabricate a story for fame and profit,an adventure novel at best.


Just passing through when I saw your post on Hauptmann Detzner. It is true that part of his story was fabricated. However, what was fabricated where some of his claims of penetrating the interior mountains of Kaiser-Wilhelmsland. However, missionaries record his presence in the bush for the duration of the war.

Please look for the following article. I have it at home, and it is worth reading. A copy was sent to me a few years back by (I believe) the national library of Paupa New Guinea in Port Moresby.

Biskup, P., 'Hermann Detzner: New Guinea's first coast watcher', The Journal of the Papua New Guinea Society, 2:1 (1968), pp 5-21

New Guinea: The Last Unknown by Gavin Souter also contians a photo and a substantial amount of information on Detzner.

In fact, an Australian officer on patrol near where Detzner was hiding passed within about fifteen minutes of his camp and was somewhat aware of his presence due to complaints from the locals that a white man forced them to help him. This was about 1917, according to the article (18). The author also points out that Detzner pointed this out in a Sydney Sunday Sun interview shortly after his capture (19).

The whole episode with Detzner presents a lot of "what-ifs", as he and his small band were armed. The above article touches on this as well. However, it mentions at the end of the article that Detzner recanted his claims in his 1920 book. Interestingly, it mentions that he placed a copy of Vier Jahre unter Kannibalen with inaccurate and fabricated passages struck out in the German Geographical Society library. I wonder if it still exists...

Anyhow, I encourage you to locate that article.

Captain George Albert
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#9 Kompanie jpg

Post by Captain George Albert » 01 Mar 2006 18:56

The ribbons they are wearing are the 1914 Iron Cross 2nd Class. This is a very rear photograph, as the two wearing what appear to be Iron Cross 1st Class awards, are wearing the war time made in Africa variant (two ribbons sewn together) type decoration, as the metal ones were not available for award. Those are very very rare Iron Cross variants. I have read about them but never seen any worn. Captain George Albert

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