Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Discussions on all aspects of Italy under Fascism from the March on Rome to the end of the war.
Kelvin
Member
Posts: 2005
Joined: 06 Apr 2007 14:49

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby Kelvin » 01 May 2017 18:59

Hello, Tigre, thank for your information, very much appreciated.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 07 May 2017 20:40

Hello to all :D; more..............................

Petrikowka maneuver.

On the night of September 22, 1941, a force comprising the detachments of the Pasubio, the 1st motorcycle company, a squadron of light tanks L of the Celere and the Germanic Kampfgruppe Abraham, were assembled in order to establish a bridgehead at Zaritcianka in order to facilitate the transit of the German armored units. The operation was launched at dawn on September 23, and there was mainly engaged the infantry of the 79th Regiment of Rome supported by the artillery fire of the two groups of the 8th Regiment. Although the Russians opposed tenacious resistance, also supported by the fire of their guns and aviation attacks, even before sunset were overran and forced to flee: the bridgehead of Zaritcianka was conformed Along an area of ​​about 10 km.

While further north and at the same time, the 80th Infantry Regiment of Rome successfully engaged in the conformation of the Voinovka bridgehead, which the Germans had lost a few days earlier. Although in Voinovka, the Italian soldiers had to defend themselves after continuous Soviet counterattacks, all of them were successfully rejected, and with strong losses for the enemy.

But there was no time to celebrate the victory: the Russians counterattacked for three days from 24 to 26 September, resulting in a series of intense bayonet fighting. The impulse of the enemy's offensive, however, clashed with the tenacity, pride, and aggressiveness of the Italian-Germans, who, in holding their positions, allowed the German armored troops to cross over the Orelj.

After the consolidation of the bridgeheads of Zaritcianka and Voinovka, the German armored forces were already ready to carry out the annihilation maneuver of the Soviet forces on the Dnieper. But first they had to eliminate the enemy forces deployed against the bridgehead of Dniepropetrovsk to operate the crossing with the forces of the north.

The German plan was a joint action of the XIV Armored Corps, which was to focus on Novomoskovsk, and the III. Corps that from the bridgehead of Dniepropetrovsk had to reach the same goal and then march eastward along the banks of the Samara river. The Italian Expeditionary Corps in turn had to lock in a pincer and annihilate the Soviet forces that remained relatively stable between the Dnieper and Orelj, from the northwest with the Pasubio, and from the southeast with the Torino; The village of Petrikowka was chosen as the point of union of the two divisions.

On September 25 Messe moved his CP to Moglia Ssuriska. On the night of 26-27 September, troops from the "Torino" Division also proceeded to cross the Dnieper under crossfire of artillery and continuous Russian air strikes. Now General Messe could therefore launch a converging maneuver that would lead to the siege of what was left of the five Soviet divisions deployed to maintain the Dniepr. The maneuver would develop in three phases during the days 28, 29 and 30 September 1941. In the First Phase the Torino and Tagliamento would open a breach in the Soviet positions on the western flank of the Soviet positions; In the Second Phase the advance over Petrikowka would be executed and the Third Phase would be the raking and cleaning of the cauldron.

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://www.unirr.it/memoria/gallerie-im ... unno-1941#
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Les Italiens en Russie. 1ère Partie : de la formation du CSIR à la bataille de Petrikovka.
La battaglia di Petrikowka. Fanti italiani e fanti SS sul fronte russo. Massimiliano Afiero.
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 14 May 2017 15:01

Hello to all :D; more..............................

Petrikowka maneuver.

At dawn on September 28, units of the Torino Infantry Division, after a brief but intense artillery preparation, went on the offensive from the bridgehead in the Dnieper, while other units of the III. Germanic Corps pressed towards the northeast. Despite the tenacious resistance of the Soviets and the presence of numerous minefields, in the afternoon Italian soldiers reached the Obuskvskje-Gorianovskije line, capturing thousands of prisoners and a large number of weapons and materials in the action. In the fighting were distinguished, above all, the engineers, who worked day and night, under fire, to repair and build makeshift bridges across the Dnieper for the passage of troops.

Due to the good evolution of the operations, General Messe ordered for the 29th that the detachments of the Torino had to be divided in two columns and to advance until the zone between Kurilovka and Petrikovka; To the Pasubio advance from the area of ​​Zaritcianka to join with the troops of the Torino to avoid any possibility of retreat of the Russians; to the Celere transferred two Bersaglieri battalions from to the east coast of the Dnieper to participate in the cleaning operations. The troop movement began early, at dawn on September 29; The Torino, was divided as it had been specified in two columns, one advancing from the right, that comprised two battalions of the 81st of Infantry and the Legion Tagliamento, and the other by the left that comprised to the 82nd Infantry Regiment.

The right column, advancing on Petrikovka came in contact with some fleeing Russian soldiers, who instead of surrendering continued fighting desperately. Our soldiers valiantly managed to subdue these last resistances, sending to the rear long columns of Russian prisoners. In the afternoon, the 3rd Battalion of the 81st Infantry Regiment, after having successfully fought against other enemy units, managed to get in touch in Petrikovka with the infantry of the Pasubio. The column on the left encountered great difficulties, not only by the greater presence of the enemy, but also by the state of the roads that made difficult the transit of motor vehicles; However, at 17:00 hours on the 29th, the units entered Kurilovka and linked with the riflemen of the XXVth Battalion of the Celere Division. The (Italian) air force played a crucial role, preventing the enemy from retaining the dominion of the sky, and supporting the offensive movement of the own columns.

On the evening of September 29th, other detachments of Pasubio and the two battalions of riflemen from the Celere Division also arrived in Petrikovka. On September 30, all CSIR units were engaged in raking actions in order to eliminate the last enemy resistance. Around 10,000 prisoners were in Italian hands, in addition to a large number of materials. During these operations, the Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia lamented the loss of 291 men, including 87 dead, 196 wounded and 14 missing. With the maneuver of Petrikovka finished the first cycle of operations of the Italian units in the Eastern front.

General von Mackensen said: "From my point of view I saw the excellent support of the CSIR Engineers. They built near Dnipropetrovsk a barge bridge under a strong artillery fire and well directed without being disturbed a moment during the work and Without the slightest pause in it.The construction was carried out successfully.I express to the Italian sappers my particular praise for their exemplary behavior. "

Even General von Schwedler, who had had subordinate the "Pasubio," wrote: "With my sincere sadness the Pasubio Division was detached from my dependence and to the troops, for all that they have done over the past few weeks on Orel, my thanks and my full approval. The struggle in Zaritschanka and Voinovka in which, under Italian command, the soldiers of the two armies came to victory, tightened even more the bond of brotherhood in both forces. I wish to the Division, on the road to victory, more fortune and success. "

And General von Kleist added: "I am happy to give the CSIR the opportunity to be able to carry out independent war actions. The execution of this operation has completely met my expectations. Congratulations ".

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://www.unirr.it/memoria/gallerie-im ... unno-1941#
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Les Italiens en Russie. 1ère Partie : de la formation du CSIR à la bataille de Petrikovka.
La battaglia di Petrikowka. Fanti italiani e fanti SS sul fronte russo. Massimiliano Afiero.
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 21 May 2017 19:03

Hello to all :D; more..............................

Advance towards the Donetz.

After the fall of the Dnieper defensive line, the Soviet troops retreated towards a new defensive position, hoping to stop the German armored troops in the surroundings of the industrial node of Stalino. The most important city of the sector was Pavlograd, located on the eastern bank of the river Wolstchia. On October 1, the German command specified the new tasks of the Italian Expeditionary Corps, detailing:

"The CSIR will concentrate with the three divisions in the area northeast of Dnepropetrovsk and will prepare to direct the most advanced division, the 3rd of the current, on the other side of the Samara to protect, according to the advance of the III Army Corps, the flanks of the armored Group on the Woltschia and then Pavlograd ".

The intention of General von Kleist was to reach quickly with his Armored Group (from October 5 "1º Panzer Army"), to the Sea of ​​Azov, completing thus the siege of the 9th Soviet Army, that maintained positions in the zone of Melitopol against the German forces in advance.

The XIV Armored Corps would head south of Kronskaja, between the marshes of the Dnieper and the stations of Plavni and Orechov, protected by the III Armored Corps and the C.S.I.R. Would replace this unit, as it progressed, even participating in the fighting that the Armored Army undoubtedly held, especially in the difficult conquest of the bridgehead of Pavlograd.

Since the "Torino" Division had no vehicles, placed at the disposal of the "Pasubio", virtually blocked by bad weather, the "Celere" moved, which, however, had only one footbridge available, and three ferries, for Which the Dnieper crossing took longer than expected. Once the roads were improved, the "Pasubio" arrived, and on October 6 was deployed between Pavlograd (excluded), and Ulyanovka, while the "Torino" was located in the Kamenka area in the second echelon.

A brilliant action of those days was carried out with great impetus by the XX Battalion of Bersaglieri, that on October 8 managed to eliminate the bridgehead of Ulianovka, thus allowing the 3rd of Bersaglieri, supported by the horse-drawn batteries, to assume the planned deployment along the Woltschia, although strong Soviet rear guards, also supported by armored trains, interfered with frequent counter-blows to the operation.

Continuous bad weather, however, was the main cause of the further hardships suffered by men; The autumn rain and the snow blocked every movement when they did not make them impossible, and also suffered the services and supplies. It was rather fortunate that the absence of a real aerial activity of the enemy has saved the endless convoys, idling in the mud, to suffer total destruction.

The task of removing the Soviet bridgehead from Pavlograd was entrusted to the German 198. ID, with the support of "Garelli Column" (an ad hoc unit composed of the Legion CC.NN. "Tagliamento", elements of bridging engineers, a 105/35 artillery group and a company of motorcyclists) that had occupied position to the northwest of the German troops. In the left wing of the attacking forces remained the 79th Infantry of the "Pasubio".

The Italian Expeditionary Corps operated under the German high command (Mechanized Corps) who disposed and ordered without having clear idea if the orders could be or not fulfilled. Surprises on both sides will not wait. When the Germans were aware of the true Italian fortress, they apologized and the words of praise were forgotten. But meanwhile the objectives in its area of ​​action, that in the list of priorities was the Donetz mining basin (from 1 to 30 October 1941). The behavior of the Italians was exemplary.

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://www.unirr.it/memoria/gallerie-im ... unno-1941#
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.
http://photo.qip.ru/users/ligeron.fotop ... ode=xlarge
http://www.maserada.com/pasubio.htm.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 27 May 2017 14:30

Hello to all :D; more..............................

Advance towards the Donetz.

The attack of the 198 ID began with a good start, but soon the riflemen of the Soviet 15th Rifle Division blocked the advance of the German unit with a series of counterattacks. At this point General von Kleist decided to use the troops of the Garelli Column to flank Pavlograd on the left. On the morning of October 10, the Black shirt Legionaries attacked and at noon took the town of Mezhyrich by storming it, overcoming all obstacles and capturing many prisoners; Then continued the attack and at dusk also occupied the town of Mavrina, penetrating the heart of the opponent's deployment, after having passed a wide and deep Anti-tank ditch and a complex of barbed wire and mined fields. Darkness halted operations, which resumed the next day, when the Pavlograd railway and the railway bridge were reached, which unlike the road bridge, the Russians had not had time to blast it. That is why this critical feature fell intact in the hands of the black shirts, which crossed it with the motorcyclists. Different was the situation to the south, where the Soviets had managed to destroy the bridge before the arrival of the troops of the 198. ID. The intervention of the sappers of the 1st Battalion of Pontoon Engineers, allowed the Germans to cross the river and reach the assigned objective.

Once the bridgehead of Pavlograd was removed, the enemy could be rejected deep beyond the Woltschja River. Later the 198. ID was destined to another employment and replaced by the "Pasubio", while the "Celere" assumed the positions of the SS Wiking, with what the Italian deployment extended now from Pavlograd to Gaitschur, with a wide of 150 kilometers.

General Otto Roettig, Commander of the German 198. ID, wrote to the Italian commander:

"In three days of hard struggle, the Garelli Column with the 63rd Legion "Tagliamento" under Console Nicchiarelli and the 2nd Company of motorcyclist commanded by Captain Tanganelli - shoulder to shoulder with the troops of the 198. ID - has broken The well-fortified and tenacious defense of the bridgehead in front of Pavlograd, capturing the towns of Mishiritsch and Mavrina, and fighting against the enemy beyond the sector of the Woltschja.

The batteries of the 30th Groupement under the command of Colonel Matiotti have effectively supported the attack of the German infantry and, with the help of their excellent fire, contributed to the victory. I express to these commanders and their brave troops my full recognition and at the same time the gratefulness of camaraderie on behalf of my division, and I express my best wishes for a new military glory to the common victory. "

At that time the advanced guard of the 1st German Armored Army, composed of the Armored Corps III., XIV. And Mountain XXXXIX; In addition to the CSIR and the 3rd Romanian Army, was moving favorably towards the Sea of ​​Azov. The necessary condition for the advance towards the mining and industrial basin of the Donetz, of great strategic importance, had been achieved.

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://www.unirr.it/memoria/gallerie-im ... unno-1941#
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.
http://www.maserada.com/pasubio.htm
https://reibert.info/threads/pavlograd- ... ov.174777/

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 03 Jun 2017 14:57

Hello to all :D; more..............................

Advance towards the Donetz.

Occupation of Stalino.

In its rapid progress towards the Sea of ​​Azov, the action of the German First Panzer Army had developed rapidly and brilliantly, and the Soviet South Front seemed to have lost all resilience. The German high command therefore wanted to exert pressure on the enemy in order to take full advantage of the successes achieved and on October 8 gave the order to von Kleist to continue towards Taganrog and Rostov on the axis of Stalino. A maneuver that would have involved a great mass of men and means, forced to move in a predetermined time, to avoid the congestion that could constitute an easy target for the artillery and the enemy aviation. In this maneuver the CSIR was to march to the conquest of Stalino with the XXXXIX German Mountain Corps; It was a matter of advancing rapidly starting from a front of about 150 kilometers, but with divisions echeloned in depth and equipped in different ways.

On October 12, 1941, the detachments of the "Celere" occupied Novo Nikolajevka, continuing the action along two lines: to the left, the two regiments of cavalry that maintained contact with the XXXXIX German Mountain Corps; To the right, two battalions of Bersaglieri that remained close to the Russian rearguards. On the 14th, the two cavalry regiments had reached the Jantschall River, while the 3rd Bersaglieri, on foot, barely reached the right bank of the Gaischul. Meanwhile, the "Celere", given the difficulties facing the XXXXIX Mountain Corps, began to perform a maneuver to relieve the Germans, that the same enemy, performing a sudden retreat across the river Ssuchje Jaly, not without having previously blown the bridges, turned it useless.

The "Legion Tagliamento" of Black Shirts were operating alongside the "Pasubio" and on October 16 were in Dimitrewka, trying to overcome the bridge destroyed by the Soviet sappers and fighting the enemy rearguards lines that sought to stop the advance of the Axis . The "Lancieri di Novara" were quite close to Uspenovka, protected by a small stream, but the numerous positions of automatic weapons blocked the regiment with an interdiction fire such that they forced it to suspend the action, that would be carried out the following morning with a combined attack with the German forces that led to the occupation of the locality. Taking into account that the "Torino" Division once again lacked any possibility of road transport, the last leap towards Stalino was coordinated between the "Celere" and "Pasubio" divisions, although poor road conditions reduced the capacity of Maneuver of this last unit, while the cavalry regiments of the "Celere" performed better in the mud.

After a brief fight, on October 20, 1941 the 3rd Bersaglieri took the locality of Sofija, continuing later to Stalino. The cavalry were with their regiments in Kurskovka and Mog-Pereskok, while at the same time the Chiaramonti column (80th Infantry and a battalion of the 79th Infantry), positioned in the Soviet rear, was able to occupy Grishino station and continue until reach Krasnoarmejskoje at night. The motorized grouping, once occupied Novo Pavlovka, occupied a defensive position to reject any counterattack. The final assault on Stalino was led by the 3rd Bersaglieri with a new tactic that proved to be very effective: that of small units and of great mobility, accompanied by the precise fire of the horse-drawn batteries, that surprised to the enemy with daring and very fast horse actions, which decompiled any attempt to react. This same day the Black Shirts occupied Podgorodnoje, recently evacuated by the enemy, who had left the place full of explosive traps.

At the same time that the mountain troops of the XXXXIX German Corps entered Stalino, the Bersaglieri occupied the station and then joined their allies in the central square, where there was a somewhat mistreated Lenin statue, summarizing very well the conditions of the Russian troops in retreat. The commander of the "Celere", at the end of their operations, could well write:

"My task was facilitated to a great extent by the cooperation of all command and service officers, who were lavished on assistance with a thousand resources to overcome the lack of means and the many difficulties that have characterized this cycle of operations. Worthy of the highest praise and admiration are the courage, enthusiasm and generosity of all the fighters, who have shown themselves to follow the glorious tradition of our regiments, and hold high the prestige of the Division. "

It was just the praise of Messe: "The" Celere" on these days has done magnificent things that have rekindled the glories of their magnificent regiments, the decisive factor was their contribution to the occupation of Stalino's industrial area. I feel proud to be your Commander, because with your intrepid attitude have created new and superior motives of pride for Italy. Everything ... my warm praise ".

And General Kubler, Commander of the XXXXIX German Mountain Corps, in turn thanked the "Celere" Division for "the support provided, often on its own initiative, to his Army Corps."

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://www.unirr.it/memoria/gallerie-im ... unno-1941#
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.
http://photo.qip.ru/users/ligeron.fotop ... ode=xlarge
http://www.maserada.com/pasubio.htm.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 10 Jun 2017 18:15

Hello to all :D; more..............................

Advance towards the Donetz.

Gorlovka and Rikovo.

With the occupation of Stalino, the need arose to guarantee the defense of the area, also controlling the natural defensive complement consistent of the localities of Gorlovka, Rikovo and Nikitovka, as well as Trudovaja, terminal station of the Caspian Sea pipeline.

If the Russians had taken a great leap backward, from the Dnieper to Stalino, now - on the edge of the Donetz basin - they seemed ready for a new and more stubborn resistance. And it was precisely against this resistance that the German First Armored Army was going to collide. Therefore the C.S.I.R. was ordered to carry out the occupation of Gorlovka, Nikitovka and the station Trudovaja, without taking into account that more tasks and sacrifices were asked to units that have already been tested and were in a very obvious serious logistical crisis. In addition this time it would operate without the support of the XXXXIX German Mountain Corps, that was going to Rostov.

Since, however, this could not be resolved overnight, his commander General Messe, the only thing he could do was ask his men for an additional effort of goodwill, configuring at the same time (in this case using the black shirts of the "Tagliamento"), some rearguard detachments for the defense of the communication lines against a possible sabotage.

On the night of October 22, the "Savoia Cavalleria" forded the Krivoj Torez and after breaking some enemy resistance, established a bridgehead across the river, reaching with its most advanced elements to the station and the village of Pantelejmonovka.

The regiment "Lancieri di Novara" also occupied Skotovoje, and charging decisively, forced the enemy to withdraw without giving time to destroy the bridge. Meanwhile the XX Battalion of Bersaglieri, reached Jassinovatoje, remaining at the disposal of the Division Command.

After Grishino was passed on October 23, the Chiaramonti column (80th Infantry and one infantry battalion of the 79th Infantry) continued its advance eastward and on October 25th, it occupied Scelesnoje after a hard struggle against superior enemy forces and three days Later all the homonymous mining center, preventing the Russians to carry out a severe destruction.

After two hundred kilometers from the Dnieper and about fourteen hundred from the disembarkation at Falticeni, even the Division "Torino" finally arrived at Stalino and after having marched in front of General De Carolis along the main road, settled in the zone of Im Karova - Korsuni, to protect the southern flank of the "Celere" division. On 28 October, the anniversary of the "March on Rome", the 63rd Legion "Tagialmento" arrived in Slavianska and on October 29 at Sergejevka.

On November 1, with no apparent reason, the Russians, however, made a sudden retreat in the direction of Rikovo, and this was immediately exploited by the 3rd Bersaglieri that by a surprise action, marching through an area considered impassable by the Soviets, found the enemy in motion, and after a brief struggle, was able to achieve the occupation of the city. The 63rd Legion "Tagliamento" reached Grishino and continued the advance.

More resistance was found against the 79th and 80th Infantry, who came in contact with enemy units, supported by strong partisan elements in the suburbs of Gorlovka. The fight broke up in a maze of streets where house-to-house combat took place, with very low temperatures, under the constant threat of snipers and forced to be divided into small groups to avoid offering easy targets.

After a night in the open, in the early hours of November 2, fighting resumed with greater intensity and only in the afternoon the 80th Infantry was able to permanently occupy the northern part of the city, while the 79th Infantry, with the support of the "Lancieri di Novara", occupied the southern sector. Thus, the Russians sought new possibilities of resistance among the most solid constructions of Novo Gorlovka.

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://www.unirr.it/memoria/gallerie-im ... unno-1941#
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.
http://www.maserada.com/pasubio.htm.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 17 Jun 2017 15:54

Hello to all :D; more..............................

Advance towards the Donetz.

Nikitovka and Ubeschitsche.

On November 2, the 80th Infantry, which once occupied Horlivka had continued to seek the conclusion in Trudovaja, had been attacked near Nikitovka by strong detachments of the 74th Soviet Rifle Division who having identified the wide gap of Forty kilometers between the Italian Corps and the 97th German Division, tried to take advantage of it. The reaction of the 80th Infantry, however, did not wait: the enemy was rejected and defended with determination, but on November 6 was occupied Nikitovka. Only now that the 80th Infantry was well ahead of the Italian deployment, and the pressure of the enemy forces were exerting on the flanks of the outpost do not bode well.

A first attempt to unlock the 80th Infantry, carried out on November 10 by the 79th Infantry and the "Lancieri di Novara", did not produce any results, nor the following executed by the 3rd of Bersaglieri. These were days when the whole world was called to demonstrate great value and spirit of sacrifice in the face of unspeakable suffering, and there were particularly significant episodes.

On November 11 the situation had become desperate. The supply was now impossible, as was the recovery of the wounded. On 12 November, the XVIIIth and XXth Battalions of Bersaglieri, under the command of Colonel Caretto, managed to reach the first buildings of Nikitovka, but were stuck in open ground under the intense bombardment to which they were subjected. On the afternoon of the same day, Chiaramonti was informed that Caretto had been forced to retire. "Go ahead," the 80th Infantry Commander replied. "We'll try in the darkness." And it was actually thanks to a sudden and violent snowstorm that the men of the 80th Infantry were able to return to their lines, carrying with them the wounded and frozen ones. In this action they suffered a total of 130 dead (9 officers), 553 wounded (27 officers) and 16 missing.

Meanwhile the black shirts of the 63rd Legion "Tagliamento" on November 5 reached Galijuzinovka and on November 11 Jussova. This very day the "Tagliamento" was detached of the "Pasubio" to be attached to the "Celere" , which was to cooperate with the German 97º Division.

In the days following the battle of Nikitovka there was a period of adjustment; the C.S.I.R. Consolidated its positions, limiting itself to purely exploratory actions. On the German front, the III and XIV Corps of the 1st Panzer Army were preparing to march on Rostov from the north and the west, while the XXXXIX Corps would complete the surrounding maneuver. On the part of the enemy it was noticed a reinforcement of the forces confronted to the C.S.I.R. On November 17, the command of the 1st Panzer Army ordered General Messe to continue advancing towards Goroditsche, shifting a division to the Rassypnaja station, to protect the left flank of the army itself. The evident effort made by the Italian units and the logistical deficiencies they were suffering were not taken into account at all.

On November 19, the column of the "Torino" Division went on the attack; The 81st Infantry to Point 128, while the 82nd Infantry firmly clung to the centers of resistance around Ubeschitsche, through a landscape surrounded by a dense fog. Continuing with the bayonet, the 82nd Infantry was able to conquer the first houses and reach the course of the Bulavin, but here was the surprise of finding a completely frozen lake that constituted a wide uncovered area, dominated by the concentric fire of machine guns and Mortars placed on the ridges of the opposite hills. Taking into account the useless attempts to break the deadlock, on 21 orders were given to the regiment to return, having already had 13 dead and 79 wounded.

Therefore, the situation remained unchanged until a few days later, when a new battle for the conquest of the town of Mihailovka took place, in which the XVIII Bersaglieri Battalion and a Company of the XX were engaged. After a brief but furious battle, the Russians were forced to withdraw, while the Italians gained tactical contact with the German XXXXIX Corps. It was also decided to form a new grouping that included the 63rd Legion "Tagliamento", a squadron of the "Lancieri di Novara" and a battery of mounted artillery, which took a position to the right of the Division "Pasubio" to cover the gap between this and the 17th German Army.

At the end of November 1941, the deployment of the C.S.I.R. extended from Shelesnoje to Rassypnaja through an industrial and mining region and was rather precarious, not only because of the many localities in the sector which led to excessive fragmentation of forces, and because it lacked a second line of defense, But also by the wide uncovered area on the right of the deployment, which could be exploited by the Soviet command at any time. Hence the decision of a combined action between the C.S.I.R. And a German Division to shorten the front and reestablish tactical contact between the 1st Panzer Army on one side and the 17th Army on the other, along a hypothetical line defined as the "Z" line, while the battle that would follow was named by the people of Chazepetovka.

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://www.unirr.it/memoria/gallerie-im ... unno-1941#
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.
http://www.maserada.com/pasubio.htm.
Military Chronicles 02/2002. At the flanks of Stalingrad.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 24 Jun 2017 16:17

Hello to all :D; more..............................

Advance towards the Donetz.

Chazepetovka.

The action began on December 5, when the temperature hit 30 degrees below zero, and automatic weapons were blocked by frost. Patrols of the 79th and 80th Infantry, with the support of the artillery, began to advance along the railroad leading from Gorlovka to Rikovo, immediately finding a strong reaction of the enemy, who also delayed the movement of the 81st Infantry In the Oskad-Nekotimovka area.

The next morning, two columns, one formed by two battalions of the 82nd Infantry, a horse-drawn artillery group, an anti-tank company and a flamethrower team, and the other composed of two battalions of the 81st Infantry, a battalion of mortars, an anti-tank company, a horse-drawn artillery group and a flamethrower team, executed a pincer movement over the Chazepetovka area, however, they encountered a particular resistance from the enemy. The fighting continued with heavy losses on both sides until the fall of darkness, when it became indispensible to find shelter for the night, the 81st Infantry took refuge in the town of Verovka and the 82nd Infantry in Volinzievo. On the same day, the "Pasubio" Division had managed to occupy the towns of Sayzevo, Kalininsk and Nikitovka station, and the Bersaglieri - with the black shirts - Novo Petropavlovka, Ivan Orlovka and Ivanovskij.

At dawn on December 7, the attack resumed, with a combined action between the 81st and 82nd Infantry on one side and the 79th Infantry on the other, which lasted until December 8, when the three regiments were finally able to meet in the town of Chazepetovka.

Debalzevo's occupation was instead carried out by the German 111. ID and now by a joint effort would seek to dismantle the Russian defensive system present throughout the towns of Nekomitovka, Sofjno, Rajevka and Jelanovka. In these operations the work of the flamethrower was invaluable, with total contempt of danger, moved behind the enemy positions, always managed to reduce the occupants with their deadly releases.

On December 13 and 14, the Soviets also, evidently, in turn, seriously affected, began to retreat again towards a new line of defense in the Olkovakta area, and the Italian detachments were finally allowed to enjoy adequate protection and a minimum of comfort, taking advantage of all the buildings suitable to be transformed into strong points, along a deployment that ran from the station Bulavin to the station of Rassypnaja, with the Division "Torino" in the center, the "Pasubio" on the left and the "Celere" on the right.

A sad note these days was in the news of the death of General De Carolis, deputy commander of the Division "Torino", fulminated with his field adjutant, Lieutenant Colonel Taby, while trying to locate the movements of the enemy from the edge of a trench.

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://www.unirr.it/memoria/gallerie-im ... unno-1941#
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.
http://www.maserada.com/pasubio.htm
http://gilljan.livejournal.com/1862904.html.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 01 Jul 2017 14:24

Hello to all :D; more..............................

Advance towards the Donetz.

The Battle of Christmas.

The winter of 1941 arrived unusually early and it was hard and the CSIR conditions on the eve of the Christmas battle were anything but good. The "Torino" Division had suffered heavy losses in the battle of Chazepetovka and, among others, that of its second in command, General De Carolis, and most of the battalions were led by reserve officers as well as the companies. In similar conditions were the "Pasubio" and the "Celere" that occupied a front of 20 kilometers having only the 3rd Regiment of Bersaglieri and two battalions of the "Tagliamento" somewhat reduced in number.

On the eve of the Christmas battle, the CSIR was deployed between Chazepetovka and Rassypnaja: on the left the "Pasubio", a little below the "Torino", then the "Celere". About ten kilometers behind, in the area of ​​Olikowaja, was the German reserve as mass for a possible counterstrock.

The enemy had never ceased to exert its pressure on Italian positions with sudden incursions and rapid attacks, perhaps in the belief that by the natural adaptation and the most appropriate equipment to the season, his soldiers were in a position of superiority towards the opponent . Perhaps fooled by the success of some local counter-offensives, the Soviets believed themselves capable of successfully launching a larger offensive, which actually lost its purpose, because their command did not seem, at least until then, to have assimilated well Basic concepts of the maneuver's warfare, especially in the use of armored vehicles. In fact aerial reconnaissance and ground patrols had confirmed the presence of two Soviet rifle divisions in front of the sector of the "Celere" (the 136º and the 296º) and in the morning of the 20 of December the aviators indicated two divisions of cavalry in Second line (38º and 68º).

In the CSIR area, the Soviet attack was launched at 0600 hours on 25 December 1941 in an area between the Debalzevo-Rikovo road and the Tschernichino-Nikitino-Rassypnaja-Tschistinkov line, on the Christmas, and the initial shock was against Novo Orlovka on a company of the CXXIX Battalion of the 63rd Legion "Tagliamento."

The maximum effort, however, seemed to be centered on the right side of the "Celere", with the clear intention of breaking in the direction of the Krinka river, isolating the CSIR from the 1st Armored Army and forcing it to retreat in the worst possible conditions. In the zones of the divisions "Pasubio" and "Torino", the attacks were realized by Soviet cavalry squadrons, always blocked by the effective intervention of the Italian artillery. The focus of the battle was always on the "Celere" and especially against the garrisons held by the black shirts of the "Tagliamento", who fought with fury, often until their total annihilation.

It was inevitable that there would be some withdrawals, so Novo Orlovka was abandoned, then Krestovka, where the Command Post of the 63rd Legion "Tagliamento" was located; Until the enemy was stopped in front of Malo Orlovka. The same XVIII Battalion of Bersaglieri had to face two Soviet Battalions along with the gunners of the 5th Battery (horse-drawn), that after having run out of ammunition, were engaged in the battle fighting with the bayonets.

The same pressure was also exerted on the XX and XXV Battalions of Bersaglieri, in Stosckovo and Rassypnaja respectively. A furious struggle, fought with courage, tenacity and spirit of sacrifice, by all the men of the CSIR against a far superior opponent in men and means. So to relieve the pressure on the "Celere" entered the heart of the fight also the divisions "Pasubio" and "Torino", maneuvering in order to force the enemy to divert forces in the area to avoid the threat. In the afternoon a counterattack was also attempted with the German IR 318, but that did not work; Then, with the onset of darkness, all action was suspended. The next day, with a new counterattack, Ivanovskij was re-conquered and maintained the strong point of Rassypnaja, while Petropavlovka, was again occupied at first, but after a few hours was lost again.

What came to decide the outcome of the battle was the maneuver implemented by the "Pasubio" Division, which, pressing in the sector of the upper Bulavin, seriously threatened the Soviets in the area of ​​OIkovatka, which forced to suspend all action towards the River Krinka. On December 27, it seemed evident that the Soviet effort was being exhausted, and in fact, in the afternoon, the enemy began to withdraw and therefore it was possible to re-occupy the previously lost ground. Among others, the 3rd Bersaglieri had lost in these struggles his military chaplain, Don Giovanni Mazzoni, born in 1886, which was decorated with a second Gold Medal, after the first won in the First World War. In the difficult situation in which the Soviets had remained, the German high command seemed to envisage the possibility of consolidating their positions and so on the morning of December 28, the Division "Torino" advanced in two columns that fell, however, immediately under a violent artillery fire of the enemy.

The 81st Infantry, supported by the XXVI Battalion of Mortars and the 1st Group of the 52nd Artillery, stopped, although also subjected to an air attack, then launched into the attack of the enemy positions; Though in vain. With the arrival of darkness, their reduced battalions were forced to retreat to Novo Orlovka. More favorable, however, was the progress of operations on the front of the "Celere", where a battalion of black shirts, after intense fighting, occupied Voroscilova, while the Germans occupied with the paratroopers Nikitovka station and with the IR 318 the locality of Greko; The next morning, the enemy reaction obtained only some result in Nikitovka. (As far as I know in the sector operated the Kampfgruppe Sturm composed of the I./FJR.2 and the II./FJR.2, with the IV. Bataillon Luftlande-Sturm Regiment, the 1./Fallschirm- Panzerjäger-Abteilung.7 and the Fallschirm-MG-Bataillon.7).

By means of the extreme defense opposed on December 30th by the LXXIX and the LXIII Battalions of Black Shirts, any Soviet attempt to retake Voroscilova was frustrated, it could be said that a battle which began on December 25 during Which, despite the difficult conditions and numerical superiority of the enemy, the CSIR had been able to withstand and counterattack before that date with great firmness and operational capacity.

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://www.unirr.it/memoria/gallerie-im ... unno-1941#
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.
http://www.maserada.com/pasubio.htm
http://www.lexikon-der-wehrmacht.de/Gli ... FJR2-R.htm
http://www.fjr5.es/articulos/fallschirm ... -russland/

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 08 Jul 2017 14:45

Hello to all :D; more..............................

First Winter in Russia.

Voroscilova January of 1942.

Although there were no major offensives on the part of the Soviets, there were still intense struggles throughout the sector defended by the Italians. One of the places that was abandoned by the Soviets, and whose possession was a constant source of sacrifices and losses for the Italians, was undoubtedly Voroscilova, a small group of Isbas located on the northern slopes of the Nikitino - junij Komunar watersheds, Dominated by Molotova heights, in which was the 63rd Legion "Tagliamento" which was subjected daily to aerial attacks and the constant hammering of mortars and Soviet machine guns located in the heights that dominated the locality. It would have been more logical to leave that hole and defend as a strong point the Point 311.7 that dominated it, were it not for the village had been previously prepared with ditches, trenches and shelters, and in the meantime the XLIX German Mountain Corps had ordered the defense at all cost, so that the black shirts, obeying, wrote with that resistance, many of its pages more heroic.

On January 18, 1942, as fighting continued in the more northern Barvenkovo ​​sector, the Soviets launched an attack on the 3rd "Celere" Division on an 8-mile front between Greko-Timofeyevskiy and Rassipnaya. This attack was stopped by the fire of artillery and rifles and its defeat was complete thanks to the action of the bersaglieri and the black shirts. Nevertheless the Soviets continued with such attacks against the Italian lines until the end of January.

The relief finally took place on January 20, 1942 and the position was occupied by the XVIII Bersaglieri Battalion, which on 23, under much stronger pressure from the enemy forces, was forced to retreat towards Point 311.7. On the 25 it was tried a counterattack, but without success. Then, seeing that the enemy had already taken steps to strengthen their positions, the action was suspended and the defensive line remained well anchored permanently on Point 311.7, after this narrow sector of the front had already caused 24 killed (6 Officers), 86 wounded, 42 missing and 180 frozen.

Although the Soviets had suffered heavy losses, the Voroscilova episode proved to be almost insignificant in the context of the action that had begun in the front sector of the 17th German Army, which would bear the name of the city of Izium and would last between January and May of 1942.

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://www.unirr.it/memoria/gallerie-im ... unno-1941#
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.
http://www.maserada.com/pasubio.htm
Regio Esercito: The Italian Royal Army in Mussolini's Wars, 1935-1943. Escrito por Patrick Cloutier.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 15 Jul 2017 14:31

Hello to all :D; more..............................

First Winter in Russia.

First Izium offensive - January 1942.

Three weeks after the CSIR's victory at the Christmas Battle, the Soviets launched another larger offensive some 75 miles further north near a town called Izium. This offensive began on January 18, 1942 and continued throughout the month overcoming the rivers Bereka and Samara, reaching the city of Losovaja in the northeast and Krivoroshije to the south, but it also reached the front of the CSIR, which was aligned between Chazepetovka and Rassypnaja. The objectives sought by the Soviets were the reconquest of Dniepropetrovsk, about 100 miles to the southwest, then Melitopol, another 100 miles, thus taking the 1st Armored Army from the rear and surrounding it completely.

The German high command immediately dispatched all available reserves to the area, the Romanians sent the whole of their 1st Division and the 25th and 26th Skier Battalions. Desiring to demonstrate goodwill, General Messe organized the "Musinu" Group (named after Colonel Musinu, Rearguard Inspector, who took command), formed by the 1st and 9th Battalions of Bridge-building sappers, by a group of tankers on foot and one battery of 75/27. Another group, formed by the riders of the "Lancieri di Novara", was used in the sector of Meschevaja - Slaviansk.

The "Musinu" group was initially used in patrol actions, then, as a result of the worsening situation, as a liaison between the German assault groups Hube and Kohlerman, and finally in the vanguard in the struggle in Soviefka, Nikolajevka, Petrovka and Snamenovka. There were very difficult times, in which the men of the group were called to compensate only with the courage and the spirit of sacrifice, the lack of automatic weapons, mortars and artillery, they suffered 101 dead, 238 wounded, 28 missing and 7 cases of frostbite. On 28 January, the group was placed in reserve, replaced by a new grouping under the command of Colonel Giusiana of the "Novara", constituted by the "Lancieri di Novara", but on foot, and by a group of Tanks crew, also on foot.

On February 15, the 6th Regiment of Bersaglieri and the 120th Regiment of Motorized Artillery arrived from Italy, while on the 21st the Alpine Skier Battalion "Monte Cervino" arrived in the area. The first direct attack on the Italian positions occurred in Novaya Orlovka on February 22 and was quickly blocked by the artillery of the divisions "Celere" and "Pasubio"; Then the action was resumed by the Soviets on March 6, but again was frustrated by the intervention of the Italian artillery. On March 11, the pressure moved to the areas of "Pasubio" and "Torino", and in this case was the intervention of the 79th Infantry that blocked any ambition of the enemy. Therefore, in order to alleviate the pressure exerted by the Soviets in the bag of Izium, on March 22 a combined Italian-German attack was carried out.

Under the support of an intense artillery fire, the battalion "Monte Cervino" advanced towards Mogila Ostraja-OIkovatka, followed by the "Torino" Division. At this point, the Russians attempted a distraction action, but the participation of the XVIII Battalion of Bersaglieri, could counter it appropriately. Realizing that it was impossible to achieve concrete results, the Soviets began a retreat towards the starting points, although they nevertheless carried out a new attempt to break through the area of ​​Slaviansk which in turn failed. It was now clear that both the Soviets and the Germans were no longer in a position to change the situation in their favor, and so at the end of March, with the arrival of the thaw, all combat actions were suspended.

It was a particularly useful break for the CSIR, which was therefore able to integrate the newly arrived units from Italy. The "Celere" Division was now organized with two regiments of Bersaglieri (3rd and 6th) and the 120th Artillery Regiment, also retaining the other motorized units in its organic. The "Savoia Cavalleria" and the "Lancieri di Novara", with the horse-drawn artillery regiment, formed the "Raggruppamento a cavallo Barbò", by the name of their commander, the 63rd Legion "Tagliamento" passed directly under the control of the CSIR , While a Croatian legion, arrived in the area on April 19, and was assigned to the Division "Celere".

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.
http://www.maserada.com/pasubio.htm
Regio Esercito: The Italian Royal Army in Mussolini's Wars, 1935-1943. Escrito por Patrick Cloutier.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 6996
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Re: Let's Build - the CSIR July 41 to March 42

Postby tigre » 29 Jul 2017 17:19

Hello to all :D; the end..............................

Second offensive of Izium - May of 1942.

On May 12, 1942, the Soviet Southwest Front (counting 925 tanks) unleashed a new offensive, whose aim seemed to be the release of Kharkov and the siege of the German 6th Army. For this end, to the Northeast and East of Kharkov the Soviet armies 21st and 28th were to press Westwards and join forces to the 6th Soviet Army that would advance from the south; This last army would be supported in its effort by the Soviet armies 57th and 9th.

Soviet forces, particularly those of General Bobkin, threatened to achieve their objectives and affected the timing of a German offensive against the bulge (Operation Fridericus). After five days the Soviet offensive reached its apogee and by May 17, 1942, Soviet spearheads had penetrated about 30 miles, reaching the suburbs of Krasnograd and crossing the Berestovaya River. Another column threatened Kharkov from the north.

The CSIR took part in the German counter-offensive, which was launched on May 17, 1942, with the "Raggruppamento Barbò", deployed in the Snamenovka area, to cover the left flank of the III. AK (Mot). The Italian grouping was the hinge of the door that the Germans closed to the left to catch the Soviet forces. The first echelon of the Raggruppamento was formed by the Cavalry Regiment Novara, the crews of the tanks of the San Giorgio Group (on foot), the Battalion of Alpine Skiers Monte Cervino and a company of bersaglieri. The Savoia Cavalry Regiment was placed in reserve. To the left of the Italians fought the Romanian 20. ID and to the right the 1. GD.

By May 18 the Raggruppamento received the mission of conquering a series of heights in the area Maliy Rostol - Klenoviy - Ivanovka. A German battalion of 240 men, sent as a reinforcement, could not capture Maliy Rostol but the Italians surprised the Soviets and captured Klenoviy after a hand to hand fight; Nevertheless due to a threat of encirclement they had to withdraw. The 3rd Squadron of the Lancers of Novara crossed the Samara in Lugovoy and established a bridgehead.

On May 21, 1942, starting from Lugovoy's bridgehead, the Italians conquered Ivanovka. By May 22, 1942, the III. AK (Mot) linked with the 6. AOK in Bayrak leaving the Soviet Armies 6th and 57th cut from the rest of the Front. As of May 26, 1942, other CSIR combat groups composed of a battalion and a battery of the divisions "Pasubio" and "Torino" participated in the cleaning of enemy pockets of resistance. Finally on the morning of May 28, 1942 some 240,000 Soviet soldiers surrendered to the Axis forces.

In June, the CSIR became tactically dependent on the 17th German Army and on the 27th of the same month the enemy unleashed a violent attack against the positions of the 6th Regiment of Bersaglieri located in the area of ​​Greko Timofejevskij. The fight presented several events, until the enemy was forced to retreat to their starting bases. This was the last operational activity of the CSIR as a large operating unit. At zero hours on July 9, 1942, but depending tactically on the 17th German Army, the CSIR was subordinated to the Italian 8th Army (ARMIR) and assumed the new name of XXXV Army Corps.

Sources: http://www.unirr.it/storia/c-s-i-r
http://digilander.libero.it/lacorsainfi ... russia.htm
http://www.ilduce.net/russia.htm
Emme rossa!: Le camicie nere sul fronte russo 1941-1943. Pierluigi Romeo di Colloredo.
http://www.maserada.com/pasubio.htm
Regio Esercito: The Italian Royal Army in Mussolini's Wars, 1935-1943. Escrito por Patrick Cloutier.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.


Return to “Italy under Fascism 1922-1945”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: CommonCrawl [Bot]