Italian Factory's

Discussions on all aspects of Italy under Fascism from the March on Rome to the end of the war.
Avalancheon
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Italian Factory's

Post by Avalancheon » 08 Oct 2020 01:35

Does anyone know the name and location of the factorys that produced Italys tanks? Or their motor vehicles? Or their artillery pieces?

There is a large body of literature dealing with the factorys that produced German equipment, but very little pertaining to Italy or the other Axis Allies. They mention a Fiat-Ansaldo factory that produced tanks, but give no details on where it was built, who the key people were, how many workers it had, etc.

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Helge
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Re: Italian Factory's

Post by Helge » 09 Oct 2020 02:00

Ansaldo. Organization and work

1. Organization of work
Although Ansaldo's economic results in its first thirty years were rather mediocre, al
practical knowledge and technical skills accumulated within it, making it an experience
unique in the post-unitary Italian panorama. The Ansaldina workforce, made up of turners,
adjusters, fitters, coppersmiths, founders, hammer workers, had been formed by "art leaders"
English and it was so rare that the company paid it even in times of low activity for not
run the risk of seeing her emigrate. A workforce capable of doing everything, from which
those master builders emerged, with excellent technical experience, who controlled the
hires, they negotiated the wages of the new hires with the engineers, they had a say
on the fixing of piecework and alongside the engineers, but often with a higher authority
deriving from "know-how", they were responsible for organizing the work. In fact, there
the possibility of controlling production costs was reduced because they were the master builders, attentive to
production quality but scarcely attentive to the overall cost, to dictate the times and methods of
work. In terms of employed, the workers of the Mechanic increased from 500 units in the 1950s to
700 at the beginning of the 1980s. It was with the passage to the Bombrini that the workforce steadily exceeded
the 2,000 units starting from the late 1980s, and then fluctuating between 3-4,000 in the period 1905-
1909 and grow decisively, starting with the extensions introduced by the Perrone brothers, from 1910.
On the eve of the war, around 10,000 workers were working in Ansaldo's 6 plants. This stage
expansion of employment occurred without substantially changing the criteria of
organization of work. The question of the control of production costs became relevant to the
eyes of the Perrons from the moment the company increased the range of goods produced. They were
organizational transformations proposed in order to consolidate the hierarchical lines, and, close to the
war, the Taylor system was carefully studied. With the war, the occupation grew
considerably and this posed significant organizational problems because they were men, women,
boys who had to be trained quickly to cope with war orders. In
this context, the Perrons moved energetically to introduce new methods of organization
of Taylorist derivation work. Driven by the war needs and by the wide availability of
unskilled labor, they started important experiences of mass production using
automatic machine tools, giving more powers to engineers, thus downsizing the
role of master builders. After the war the Perrones tried to consolidate these experiences,
providing the company with a General Inspectorate, whose activity was aimed at standardization and
to the organization of workshop work. However, these novelties were overwhelmed by their fall and the
the leadership of the years 1922-1935 fell back on traditional organizational methods. It was with Rocca,
expert connoisseur of American managerial methodologies, that the company structure e
the organization of work underwent significant changes in all plants, in
framework of a decisive orientation towards the "scientific organization of work". In particular
the number of engineers and experts who held key positions in the technical and production offices increased,
while the leaders were reduced to the role of controllers. Piece rate levels were frequently adjusted
to force the workers to a more intense pace of work. At the same time, however, they were
welfare and recreational activities were introduced and an Ansaldo-Siac apprentice school was opened
revealed an effective tool for the formation of human capital. The manpower that at the end of the
the 1920s had dropped below 10,000 units, in the second half of the 1930s it returned to growth,
exceeding 20,000 units, reaching over 30,000 units in 1943. After the war the model
Rocca was confirmed and during the 1950s it was updated by introducing experiences inspired by
human relations which in those years had found their first introduction in
Genoese Cornigliano, of the Finsider group. In recent decades, restructuring and revolution
of information have drastically reduced the weight of the blue overalls, while the weight of
technicians and engineers.

2. Production techniques and plants
At the time of its establishment Gio. Ansaldo e C. inherited the mechanical factory of
Sampierdarena of Taylor and Prandi, to which he added a shipyard of limited size in the
vicinity. It was with the passage to the Bombrini family that the plant structure expanded, following the
investments made by them. Between 1883 and 1889, for example, the installed power in terms of
horsepower went from 190 to 1,000, machine tools went from 163 to 700 and the surface
covered from 14,700 square meters to 32,900. The Cadenaccio shipyard in Sestri was also purchased, which it replaced
that of Sampierdarena. In the 90s the Bombrinis made other important investments, with the
purpose of giving shape to a vertically integrated business complex. In 1894 Ansaldo
incorporated the Italian company Delta, which in Cornigliano produced metal alloys in bronze and brass,
which were used in the production of propellers, valves, gaskets. In the port area of ​​Genoa it was
set up a repair and outfitting workshop for ships. In 1898 a factory was set up
steel plant in Cornigliano, later equipped with Martin Siemens furnaces. A year later, again in Cornigliano,
the Electromechanical plant was built, intended to supply on-board electromechanisms for the
ships. Between 1882 and 1902 the value of the plant and machinery recorded in the balance sheet went from 3.7
million lire to 11.5. During the management of the Perrones, investments were mainly sustained
after 1910, when a general modernization of the mechanical plant was carried out,
enabling it to manufacture Parsons licensed turbines, creating departments for the production of
artillery material, a workshop for galvanizing sheet metal, a department for the production of
internal combustion engines and the steelworks and foundry were significantly expanded. But it was during the war that
Ansaldo considerably expanded its production base, also increasing its skills
technological. It is estimated that between 1915 and 1918 a good 588 million in current lire were invested for
expansion and construction from scratch of workshops to which another 68 million must be added for
the acquisition of several joint stock companies. At the end of the war, Ansaldo had joined the
previous factories, inter alia lignite and iron mines, hydroelectric plants, another foundry of
cast iron (Multedo), the electro-steel plants in Aosta (under construction), two project factories in Sestri and
in Fiumara, a pipe factory (Genova Fegino), a yard for airplanes in Borzoli, the yard
ship of the Fiat San Giorgio of La Spezia, the Sit and the Pomilio of Turin, which built airplanes,
as well as two shipping companies. An important part of these plants was alienated over the years
winds, following the fall of the Perrones, and it was Fiat that benefited the most, returning to
possession of the La Spezia shipyard as well as the Ansaldo aeronautics. Between 1922 and 1933, year
of incorporation of Ansaldo into Iri, few significant investments were made so that
the company, apart from electromechanics where high-level technological skills were consolidated,
lost touch with technological change. To the point that in the mid-1930s Ansaldo
he had aged plants and machinery. In 1934, the first of the significant changes took place
introduced by the new ownership. The Cornigliano steel plant, one of the elements
fundamental to the Ansaldo vertical organization, it was spun off and incorporated into the Siac. In front of
upon the decay of the plants, the new Ansaldo management launched a vast program of
investments, which between 1936 and 1940 amounted to 455 million lire, geared towards the purchase of
modern machine tools, 1,850 units between 1935 and 1940. But the greatest financial effort was
carried out to adapt the production of guns to the state request. In this context,
Ansaldo acquired control in the Ligurian area of ​​the Savoia and Fossati shipyards, where the
tanks. During the war, the expansion of the plants took place only in the early years and yes
concentrated on strengthening the Campi plants that produced artillery. After the war i
war damage did not affect the fate of the company which instead had to face urgent
conversion needs that gradually changed the structure of the company. Ansaldo lost
the electromechanical, merged with the San Giorgio, the Fossati and the Delta; at the same time, within
of the shipbuilding choice, the shipyards of the Oto di Livorno and of the
Muggiano. It was precisely in the Sestri shipyard that massive investments were concentrated between 1960
and 1965 for more than 11 billion lire which profoundly modified the structure of the old yard,
modernizing obsolete systems. Since 1966, however, with the unification of all shipyards
public in Italcantieri, Ansaldo lost shipbuilding, a sector that had characterized it
history for almost a century, a fact that marked the definitive abandonment of the business model
vertically integrated. The current Ansaldo companies, after a long series of restructuring,
they occupy areas in the Campi area and in the original Sampierdarena area.

Source: Ansaldo. Organization and work
Roberto Tolaini
February 2008
Text for Storiaindustria.it
Sota ei päätä kuka on oikeassa, vain sen että kuka on jäljellä.
War does not decide who is right but only those who are left.

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