Tank Technical Support

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Re: Tank Technical Support

Post by Art » 16 Apr 2018 16:17

GKO decree No.2568 of 5 December 1942
http://sovdoc.rusarchives.ru/#showunit& ... 04;tab=img

In order to increase output of tank spare parts the State Defense Committee orders
- GBTU (Main Armored-Tank Directorate) of the Red Army is to organize a factory for reconstruction of tank parts at Moscow which is to start operation by 1 April 1943.
- Output of spare parts at military repair factories and mobile workshops is to be increased and to reach 16 mln rubles worth of reonstructed parts and 6 mln rubles - newly produced parts
- three collecting point for parts collected from tanks in repair or damaged beyond repair are to be organized in December 1942.
- Collection of spare parts taken from damaged or wrecked tanks is to be organized in units.

NKO is to release 1500 men with limited physical fitness as workers at newly created spare parts factory.

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Re: Tank Technical Support

Post by Art » 16 Apr 2018 17:34

Changes in status of NKO's repair bases by the end of 1942

- All bases renamed as repair factories (see the previous posts)

- As a result of threat created by German operation "Blau" evacuated:
Base/Factory No.7 - from Voronezh to Saratov
Base/Factory No.12 - from Proklhadny (North-Caucasus) to Baku
Base/Factory No.66 from Kamensk to Tbilisi

- Removed from the order of battle (disbanded or came under local command) - Base No.17 (Otrado-Kubanskaya) and Base No.42 (Voronezh)

- Bases/Factories No.81 and 90 returned to Moscow from evacuation

- Newly established
Base/Factory No.20 at Moscow (previously under Kalinin Front's command)
Base/Factory No. 28 at Moscow
Base/Factory No. 29 at Ryazan (previously under Kalinin Front's command)
Base/Factory No.97 at Gorkiy

At the end of the year there were the following factories for repair of tanks, tractors and automobiles
1. No.1 - Moscow
2. No.2 - Moscow
3. No.3 - Moscow
4. No.4 - Leningrad
5. No.5 - Sverdlovsk
6. No.6 - Bogorodsk (Gorkiy region)
7. No.7 - Saratov
8. No.8 - Kazan
9. No.9 - Tambov
10. No.11 - Saratov
11. No.12 - Baku
12. No.13 - Tbilisi
13. No.14 - Tashkent
14. No. 15 - Novosibirsk
15. No. 16 - Kuibyshev
16. No. 18 - Khabarovsk
17. No.19 - Kuibyshevka
18. No.20 - Moscow
19. No.22 - Moscow
20. No.25 - Voroshilov-Ussuriyskiy
21. No.26 - Boksitogorsk
22. No.27 - Leningrad
23. No.28 - Moscow
24. No.29 - Ryazan
25. No.66 - Tbilisi
26. No.77 - Voroshilov-Ussuriyskiy
27. No.81 - Lyubertsy
28. No.82 - Moscow
29. No.83 - Engels
30. No.90 - Moscow
31. No.97 - Gorkiy
32. No.105 - Khabarovsk

At the end of the year monthly capacity of NKO's repair factories was approximately 350 tank repairs, 320 tank engines repairs, 570 tractor repairs, 1150 automobile repairs, 1270 automobile engine repairs, 300 motorcycle repairs. For comparison in June 1941 it was estimated by Fedorenko as about 350 tanks, 620 tractors, 1600 automobiles, 230 motorcycles, and 450 engines repaired monthly. So it didn't became any larger, partly as a result of evacuation and a loss of facilities. Due to this limitation a large part of repairs was performed by civil factories.

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Re: Tank Technical Support

Post by Art » 16 Apr 2018 17:48

Formation of motor maintenance units during the year 1942.

According to the official Soviet account formed in 1942 were
134 mobile repair bases (of them 93 were authorized by the GKO - see above)
31 army repair&reconstruction battalions
59 separate repair&reconstruction battalions (probably including those formed for the mechanized corps)
In addition 56 SPAMs (collecting point for disabled vehicles) and 56 evacuation companies (each with 15 tractors) were formed by the order of GABTU's chief general Fedorenko. The latter probably includes "legalization" of units formed by local orders previously. One SPAM and one evacuation company were supposed to be assigned to every field army.
These formations greatly expanded available capacity of field maintenance units.

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Re: Tank Technical Support

Post by Art » 17 Apr 2018 15:02

Summary on tank maintenance in 1942

Total number of tanks repaired by capital and medium repair - 24 590, of them approximately 6000 by capital (factory-level) repair. By month:
January - 1080
February - 1084
March - 1672
April - 1493
May - 1690
June - 1447
July - 2002
August - 3283
September - 3378
October - 2326
November - 2235
December - 2900
These numbers don't include minor repairs performed at units level. There was an obvious increase in the number of tank repairs throughout the year which generally corresponded to the growth of the number of operational tanks on the front. In addition to tanks 26 062 tractors and 274 180 automobiles were repaired during the year.
From:
http://tankfront.ru/ussr/repair_service/remont.html
(this document was published in "Главное автобронетанковое управление...." Vol.2)

For comparisons, according to official Soviet publications 6500 medium repairs of tanks and 84 000 repairs of automobiles were performed in the 2nd half of 1941 which in general corresponds to intensity of repair operations in the early months of 1942.

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Re: Tank Technical Support

Post by Art » 19 Apr 2018 07:48

Sample data: from a plan of technical support of the South-West Front, November 1942 (operation Uranus, Stalingrad)

SWF has three armies (1 Guards, 5 Tank, 21 Army) with 3 tank corps, one separate tank brigade, two flame tank regiments, three heavy tank regiments. Availability of tanks on 19.11.42 (Type/total/operational/in need of minor or medium repair/in need of capital repair:
KV - 158/143/14/1
T-34 - 230/215/13/2
T-70 - 182/172/9/1
T-60 - 65/50/7/8
Total 635 tanks (580 operational)

Available tank maintenance units:
1 repair&reconstruction battalion - monthly capacity 80 tank repairs per month
1 company/repair&reconstruction battalion - 40 repairs per month
6 mobile repair bases (3 belonged to tank corps, 1 to an army, 2 to the front) - total 180 repairs per month
10 technical companies (1 in each of 10 tank brigades) - total 150 repairs per months
All units - 450 tank repairs per month

Tractor repair:
2 mobile repair bases - 70 tractor repairs per month

Automobile repair:
2 repair&reconstruction battalions - 500 automobile repairs per month (*)
1 company/repair&reconstruction battalion - 120 repairs
3 mobile repair bases - 180 repairs
total 800 repairs per month
*Repair Battalion No.63 in addition to automobiles also repairs tank engines.

Distribution of tank maintenance units:
5 Tank Army (399 tanks) - 1 company/repair battalion, 5 mobile repair bases (*), 7 brigade technical companies - total monthly capacity 295 tank repairs
21 Army (223 tanks) - 1 repair battalion, 1 mobile repair base, 3 brigade technical companies, total capacity - 155 tank repairs
Under SWF - repair battalion No.63 - monthly capacity 40 tank engines
* Mobile repair bases No.144 and 164 of the SWF are attached to the 5 Tank Army

Tank evacuation units:
Under front - 1 evacuation company and 1 SPAM
Under armies - 3 (probably a typo) evacuation companies and 3 SPAMs
Availability of evacuation tractors - total 110 tractors authorized, 65 available (4 "Voroshilovets", 30 ChTZ-65, 31 ChTZ-31). Of them 44 are operational, 4 in need of field repair, 15 in need of capital repair.
130 Evacuation Company (SWF) is attached to the 5 Tank Army, 1 platoon of the 118 Evacuation Company (1 Guards Army) - to the 21 Army.

From a report on operations of SWF's tank units in November 1942:
https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=132335006

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Re: Tank Technical Support

Post by Art » 19 Apr 2018 08:37

Conclusions/recommendations from the same document:

- Tank crews should be trained in advance in towing disabled vehicles from the battlefield
- in raid operations a tank corps should have an attached repair battalion having an evacuation company with fast tractors and also a reserve of tanks with crews.
- tank battalions should be reinforced with brigade/corps maintenance elements
- mobile repair base should have "B" type mobile workshops
- a pool of tank engines for replacement is necessary - about 20% to the number of tanks

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Re: Tank Technical Support

Post by Art » 23 Apr 2018 17:30

Sample data: Tank corps of the South-West Front in the operation "Saturn" (December 1942)

Four tank cops (17, 18, 24, 25) had 634 tanks on strength (386 T-34, 286 T-70/60). Losses from 16 to 31 December 1942 were:
to enemy weapons or abandoned on the battlefield - 139 T-34, 64 T-70/60 (total 203)
technical (non-battle) losses - 119 T-34 and 47 T-70/60 (total 166)

From report on operation of SFW's armor units 16-31.12.42:
https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=132359284

From the same document even before the operation the SWF lost 85 tanks or 15% of the total number of tanks - they broke down en route from rail stations to the battlefield (although 63 of them were later repaired).

These data illustrate a high rate of attrition including losses to technical reasons.

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Re: Tank Technical Support

Post by Art » 23 Apr 2018 18:33

At the end of 1942 the Main Auto-Tank Directorate (GABTU) of the Red Army was reorganized. A new Main Automobile Directorate (GAVTU) was split from it, it managed procurement, operation and maintenance of wheeled vehicles. In the same way operation and maintenance of tractors was given to the newly created Mechanical Traction Directorate of the Main Artillery Directorate (GAU). Thus maintenance of tanks was formally separated from maintenance of other motor vehicles. After the reorganization the Main Armor-Tank Directorate (GBTU) had the following tank repair units:
110 mobile repair bases, 42 repair battalions, 5 repair trains (aka railroad workshops), 56 SPAMS, 56 evacuation companies, 9 garrison workshops, 17 military repair factories (former repair bases). Tank repair was also handled by 25 civil factories.
Accordingly GAVTU controlled automobile repair units:
47 mobile repair bases, 42 repair battalions, 51 railroad and garrison workshops, and 12 military repair factories
GAU received 4 military repair factories and 1 repair battalion. Tractor repair was also performed by 4 factories belonging to the GAVTU.
I've counted the following military repair factories in the three directorates at the start of 1943

GBTU (tank repair):
No. 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 20, 22, 27, 28, 66, 77, 82, 90, 97, 105 (total 18)
GAVTU (automobile repair):
No. 3, 5, 11, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 25, 26 (total 10)
GAU (tractor repair):
No. 9, 29, 81, 83 (total 4)

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Re: Tank Technical Support

Post by Art » 24 Apr 2018 11:33

Normal repair rates of tank maintenance units as established by the GBTU order of 20.02.1943 (medium repairs per month). They replaced earlier rates from the year 1942.

Mobile Repair Base (Soviet-built tanks) TO&E 026/131 - 4 KV, 10 T-34, and 9 T-70/60
Mobile Repair Base (foreign tanks) TO&E 026/131 - 4 MK-II, 6 Mk-III, 4 M3 medium, 6 M3 light
Separate Repair&Reconstruction Battalion (Front) TO&E 010/881 - 10 KV, 25 T-34, 20 T-70/60
Separate Repair&Reconstruction Battalion (Army) TO&E 010/881 - 10 KB, 15 T-34, 10 T-70/60, 10 armored cars, 10 motorcycles, 10 V-2 engines, 10 GAZ-202 engines
Army Repair&Reconstruction Battalion (Front) TO&E 010/390 - 25 KV, 30 T-34, 30 T-70/60
Army Repair&Reconstruction Battalion (Army) TO&E 010/390 - 10 KV, 20 T-34, 15 T-70/60, 15 armored cars, 20 motorcycles, 15 V-2 engines, 10 GAZ-202 engines
Railroad workshop (tank repair) - 10 KV, 25 T-34, 30 T-70/60
Railroad workshop (aggregate repair) - 50 V-2, 50 GAZ-202 engines

Units organic to tank/mechanized corps and tank armies
Mobile Repair Base TO&E 026/131 - 5 KV, 5 T-34, 5 T-70/60, 15 automobiles, 5 motorcycles
Separate Repair&Reconstruction Battalion TO&E 010/881 - 10 KV, 15 T-34, 10 T-70/60, 5 armored cars, 20 automobiles, 5 tractors, 10 motorcycles
Separate Repair&Reconstruction Battalion (mechanized corps) TO&E 010/415 - 5 KV, 10 T-34, 10 T-70/60, 5 armored cars, 30 automobiles, 5 tractors, 20 motorcycles
Army Repair&Reconstruction Battalion TO&E 010/390 - 10 KV, 30 T-34, 15 T-60/70, 5 armored cars, 30 automobiles, 5 tractors, 20 motorcycles.

From here maximal capacity of field maintenance units at the start of 1943 can be estimated as:
110 mobile repair bases x about 20 tank repairs = 2200 medium repairs of tanks per month
42 repair battalions x about 40 tank repairs = 1600 medium repairs per month
Total between 3500 and 4000 medium repairs per month. That doesn't include short-term repairs performed by maintenance elements of tank battalions/regiments/brigades, capital repairs at factories, and repair of tank engines and other aggregates.

The actual number of medium repairs performed monthly in the second half of 1942 was as large as about 2500:
http://tankfront.ru/ussr/repair_service/remont.html
or about 2/3 of the estimated maximal capacity.

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