Docs needed: Stalin's orders Nº 270 and 227

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sucubo
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Docs needed: Stalin's orders Nº 270 and 227

Post by sucubo » 19 Jun 2006 15:42

Hello to all,

Can anyone provide the above orders in English please?

Order 270 was signed on August 16th 1941

Order 227 was released in 1942 but soon withdrawn.

Both have to do with Red Army regulations with respect to surrendering to the enemy.

Also, any info on Red Army defections, surrendering to be made POW is greatly appreciated (I understand that almost 1 million red army troops joined the Wehrmacht, Einsatzgrüppen or others).

Many thanks for any help that you can provide!

Regards. :)

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Post by sucubo » 24 Jun 2006 06:25

To all,

Doing a search in the Forum I have found the Order 227 complete in English.

The one missing now is now 270.

Great reference source this forum!

Regards to all!

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Yuri
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Re: Docs needed: Stalin's orders Nº 270 and 227

Post by Yuri » 27 Jun 2006 12:49

sucubo wrote:Order 227 was released in 1942 but soon withdrawn.

Both have to do with Red Army regulations with respect to surrendering to the enemy.


From what you have taken, what the order of the National Commissioner of Defense for 227 from July, 28th, 1942 has been withdrawn?
Anything similar was not.

And then, Sir!
You has a little not correct representation about character of the contents of the text of the order of the National Commissioner of Defense for No 227 from July, 28th, 1942.
It is the order has no relation to the facts of delivery of Red Army men in a captivity to the enemy.

The order 227 from July, 28th, 1942 teaches how it is necessary to love the Native land!
This order was included into gold fund of Russian history!

/
udachi / Los aciertos! / Des Erfolges! / Good luck!

Yuri

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sucubo
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Stalin's Order N# 227

Post by sucubo » 28 Jun 2006 19:05

Sorry Yuri, you are absolutely right, I mixed orders 270 and 227, here is Order Nº 227 complete:


Order No. 227 by the People's Commissar of Defence of the USSR
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ORDER #227 BY THE PEOPLE’S COMMISSAR OF DEFENCE OF THE USSR

Moscow, 28 July1942


The enemy feeds more and more resources to the front, and, paying no attention to losses, moves on, penetrates deeper into the Soviet Union, captures new areas, devastates and plunders our cities and villages, rapes, kills and robs the Soviet people. The fighting goes on in Voronezh area, at Don, in the Southern Russia, at the gates of the North Caucasus. The German invaders are driving towards Stalingrad, towards Volga, and want to capture Kuban and the North Caucasus with their oil and bread riches at any price. The enemy has already captured Voroshilovgrad, Starobelsk, Rossosh, Kupyansk, Valuiki, Novocherkassk, Rostov on Don, half of Voronezh. Some units of the South front, following the panic-mongers, have abandoned Rostov and Novocherkassk without serious resistance and without order from Moscow, thus covering their banners with shame.

The people of our country, who treat the Red Army with love and respect, are now starting to be disappointed with it, lose faith in the Red Army, and many of them curse the Army for its fleeing to the east and leaving the population under German yoke.

Some unwise people at the front comfort themselves with arguments that we can continue the retreat to the east, as we have vast territories, a lot of soil, many people, and that we will always have abundance of bread. By these arguments they try to justify their shameful behaviour at the front. But all these arguments are fully false, faked and working for our enemies.

Every commander, every soldier and political officer have to realise that our resources are not infinite. The territory of the Soviet Union is not a wilderness, but people – workers, peasants, intelligentsia, our fathers and mothers, wives, brothers, children. Territory of USSR that has been captured by the enemy and which enemy is longing to capture is bread and other resources for the army and the civilians, iron and fuel for the industries, factories and plants that supply the military with hardware and ammo; this is also railroads. With loss of Ukraine, Belorussia, the Baltics, Donetsk basin and other areas we have lost vast territories, that means that we have lost many people, bread, metals, factories, and plants. We no longer have superiority over enemy in human resources and in bread supply. Continuation of retreat means to destroy us and also our Motherland. Every new piece of territory that we leave to the enemy will strengthen our enemy and weaken us, our defences, our Motherland.

This is why we have to eradicate the conversations that we can retreat without ending, that we have a lot of territory, that our country is great and rich, that we have a lot of population and we will always have enough bread. These conversations are false and harmful, as they weaken us and strengthen the enemy, for if we do not stop retreating, we will be left without bread, without fuel, without metals, without raw materials, without factories and plants, without railways.

The conclusion is that it is time to stop the retreat. Not a single step back! This should be our slogan from now.

We need to protect every strongpoint, every metre of Soviet soil stubbornly, till the last droplet of blood, grab every piece of our soil and defend it as long as it is possible. Our Motherland is going through hard times. We have to stop, and then throw back and destroy the enemy, whatever it might cost us. The Germans are not as strong as the panic-mongers say. They are stretching their strength to the limit. To withstand their blow now means to ensure victory in the future.

Can we stand and throw the enemy back toward west? Yes, we can, as our plants and factories in the rear areas are working perfectly and are supplying our army with more and more tanks, planes, artillery and mortars.

So what do we lack? We lack order and discipline in companies, regiments and divisions, in tank units, in the Air Force squadrons. This is our major drawback. We have to introduce the strictest order and strong discipline in our army, if we want to save the situation and defend our Motherland.

We can no longer tolerate commanders, commissars, and political officers, whose units leave their defences at will. We can no longer tolerate the fact that the commanders, commissars and political officers allow several cowards to run the show at the battlefield, that the panic-mongers carry away other soldiers in their retreat and open the way to the enemy. Panic-mongers and cowards are to be exterminated at the site.

From now on the iron law of discipline for every officer, soldier, political officer should be – not a single step back without order from higher command. Company, battalion, regiment and division commanders, as well as the commissars and political officers of corresponding ranks who retreat without order from above, are traitors of the Motherland. They should be treated as traitors of the Motherland. This is the call of our Motherland.

To fulfil this order means to defend our country, to save our Motherland, to destroy and overcome the hated enemy.

After their winter retreat under pressure of the Red Army, when morale and discipline fell in the German troops, the Germans took some strict measures that led to pretty good results. They have formed 100 penal companies that were comprised of soldiers who broke discipline due to cowardice or instability; they have deployed them at the most dangerous sections of the front and have ordered them to redeem their sins by blood. Further on, they have formed around ten penal battalions comprised of officers who had broken discipline due to cowardice and instability, deprived them of their decorations and put them at even more dangerous sections of the front and ordered them to redeem their sins by blood. And finally, the Germans have formed special guards units and deployed them behind unstable divisions and ordered them to execute panic-mongers at the site if they tried to leave their defensive positions without order or if they tried to surrender. As we know, these measures were effective, and now the German troops fight better than they fought in winter. What we have here is that the German troops have good discipline, although they do not have an uplifted mission of protection of the Motherland, and only have one goal – to conquer a strange land. Our troops, having defence of defiled Motherland as their mission, do not have this discipline and thus suffer defeat.

Shouldn’t we learn this lesson from our enemy, as our ancestors learned from their enemies in the past and overcame their enemies? I think that we should.

THE SUPREME COMMAND OF THE RED ARMY ORDERS:

1. The military Councils of the fronts and first of all front commanders should:

a) In all circumstances decisively eradicate retreat attitude in the troops and with an iron hand prevent propaganda that we can and should continue the retreat to the east, and this retreat will not be harmful to us;

b) In all circumstances remove from offices and send to Stavka for court-martial those army commanders who allowed their troops to retreat at will, without authorisation by the Front command;

c) Form within each Front 1 to 3 (depending on the situation) penal battalions (800 personnel), where commanding, senior commanders and political officers of corresponding ranks from all services, who have broken discipline due to cowardice or instability, should be sent. These battalions should be put on the more difficult sections of a Front, thus giving them an opportunity to redeem their crimes against the Motherland by blood.

2. The Military Councils of armies and first of all army commanders should:

a) In all circumstances remove from offices corps and army commanders and commissars, who have allowed their troops to retreat at will without authorisation by the army command, and send them to the Military Councils of the Fronts for court-martial;

b) Form 3 to 5 well-armed guards (barrage) units (zagradotryads), deploy them in the rear of unstable divisions and oblige them to execute panic-mongers and cowards at site in case of panic and chaotic retreat, thus giving faithful soldiers a chance to do their duty before the Motherland;

c) Form 5 to 10 (depending on the situation) penal companies, where soldiers and NCOs, who have broken discipline due to cowardice or instability, should be sent. These units should be deployed at the most difficult sectors of the front, thus giving their soldiers an opportunity to redeem their crimes against the Motherland by blood.

3. Corps and division commanders and commissars should:

a) In all circumstances remove from offices regiment and battalion commanders and commissars who allowed their troops to retreat at will without authorisation from divisional or corps command, deprive them of their military decorations and send them to the Military Councils of fronts for court-martial;

b) Provide all possible help and support to the guards (barrage) units (zagradotryads) of the army in their work of strengthening discipline and order in the units.

This order is to be read aloud in all companies, troops, batteries, squadrons, teams and staffs.


The People’s Commissar for Defence

JOSEPH STALIN



Regards.

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Re: Docs needed: Stalin's orders Nº 270 and 227

Post by Art » 17 Aug 2018 15:18

Worth to comment regarding penal units and sentences of courts possibly substituted with military service.
According to the comment to the Article 28 of the RSFSR Criminal Code of 1926
Privates and junior commanders of the Red Army sentenced by courts for military and general crimes to imprisonment without a strict isolation for less than 1 year, are sent to penal units.
Service in penal units for a duration of not more than two months follows the order established fir disciplinary arrests.
In July 1934 this comment was cancelled and substituted with the following one
Sentences to imprisonment of military personnel without limitation of rights in wartime can be postponed until the end of hostilities by a decision of a court that pronounced them with a provision that a convicted man is sent to the operational army.
In regard to military personnel that proved to be steadfast defenders of the SSR Union in the operational army penalty can be rescinded by a request of the respective military commander or substituted with a smaller penalty by a decision of the court that pronounced a sentence.
A meaning of this comment was that military men sentenced to jail could be sent to the operational army where they would be pardoned in case of good behavior. This legal possibility existed long before July 1942 and was actually quite widely applied in the first year of the war.

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Re: Docs needed: Stalin's orders Nº 270 and 227

Post by Art » 17 Aug 2018 17:06

For illustration:
Order to the troops of the South-West Front No.06, 26 July 1941

In accordance with the directive of the Red Army's General Staff No.U/3/575275s of 19 July 1941
the Front's Commander has ordered:

Privates and junior commanders sentenced for crimes, in regard to which it is specified by the Military Tribunal that execution of the sentence is postponed until the end of hostilities:
Those sentenced by the Military Tribunals and formations and armies operating on the front are to be sent to their units
Those sentenced by the Military Tribunal of the Front or Tribunal's sessions in the rear - are to be sent to rear replacement regiments or armies' replacement regiments from where they are to be sent to the front with the first march battalion.
It must be explained to them that according to the Article 28 of the Criminal Code the sentence can be rescinded by a request of a unit commander if the military men proves himself a steadfast defender of the SSR Union.

Chief of the South-West Front's Staff
Lieutenant general Purkayev

Military commissar of the South-West Front's Staff
Colonel Zinovyev
https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=114798449
Order to the troops of the South-West Front No.08 of 30 July 1941
Supplement to the order No.06 of 26.7.1941

In accordance with an additional instruction of the Red Army's General Staff No.U/3/575288s of 23 July 1941 the Commander of the Front has ordered:

Commanders, sentenced by the Military Tribunals with a proviso that the sentence is postponed until the end of hostilities, are to be sent to the front.
These commanders are to be sent to a replacement regiment of armies or a replacement regiment of the rear for further transfer to the front with a first march battalion.
https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=114798462

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Re: Docs needed: Stalin's orders Nº 270 and 227

Post by Art » 17 Aug 2018 17:14

And another one:
People's Commissariat for Defense
Organizations department of the South-West Front's Staff
8 October 1941
No. OU/0107

In accordance with the instruction of the Deputy People's Commissar No.41594/sh of 28.9.41 the assistant front's commander for formations has ordered:

Commanders and privates of units and establishments of the Operational Army and sentenced for crimes with a postponement of the sentence until the end of the war as specified by the article 28 of the RSFSR Criminal Code are to be sent directly to the operating units, instead of replacement or other rear units of the front.

[Signatures]
https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=114790426

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Re: Docs needed: Stalin's orders Nº 270 and 227

Post by Art » 18 Aug 2018 15:44

According to a report submitted to Stalin by USSR's Prosecutor general Bochkov in the first 6 months of the war (22.6.41-31.12.41) military tribunals sentenced 90 322 men, including 31 237 sentenced to death and 58 995 to imprisonment. In regard to 37 478 the Article 28 was applied, which means that the sentences were deferred until the end of the war. Also 7057 death sentenced were substituted with jail terms, of them there were 4502 deferments in accordance with the Article 28. So total about 42 000 convicts or an equivalent of almost 4 divisions sent to the front. From an article in a Russian "Kommersant" journal
https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/1848414

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Re: Docs needed: Stalin's orders Nº 270 and 227

Post by Art » 18 Aug 2018 16:53

Another source ("History of military courts in Russia" by Petukhov") says that in the 2nd half 1941 deferments were used in 70% cases of sentences to imprisonment for military crimes, in 1942 - in 79%, 1943 - 84%, 1944 - 50%, first five months of 1945 - 34%
https://www.litmir.me/br/?b=283394&p=47
So the largest part of convicted military personnel had their jail terms substituted with a service in the operational army.

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Re: Docs needed: Stalin's orders Nº 270 and 227

Post by Art » 29 Sep 2019 14:09

Some curios overview of the 9 Penal Battalion of the Voronezh/1st Ukrainian Front found here:
http://voenspez.ru/index.php?topic=5397.5;wap2

Total personnel passed through the battalion from August 1942 to August 1945:
6607 officers, of them:
4302 sentenced by tribunals
1577 from occupied territories
728 - sent to the battalion by orders of unit commanders

By position:
above regimental level - 42
assistant regiment commanders or higher - 89
staff officers - 281
battalion commanders and deputy battalion commanders - 332
company and battery commanders and deputy commanders - 1317
platoon commanders - 1951
other officers - 2597

By grade:
Command personnel - 4206
Air forces - 120
Intendancy officers - 728
Technical officers - 674
Administrative officers - 302
Political officers - 253
Medical officers - 193
Veterinary officers - 102
Juridical officers - 29

By military education:
graduates of military schools - 2990
courses of junior lieutenants - 1245
advanced training courses - 886
political courses - 134
without military education - 1249

By ethnicity:
Russians - 3754
Ukrainians - 1978
Belorussians - 176
Jews - 191
Tatars - 77
Georgians - 70
Armenians - 34
Ossetians - 11
Roma - 3
people of Dagestan - 1

Of all men passing through the battalion
828 were killed or died
2676 were wounded
934 were released and cleared of penalty after their term in the penal battalion had expired
1988 were released ahead of the term
116 were pardoned following a post-war amnesty
24 - restored by military tribunals (sentences rescinded)

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Re: Docs needed: Stalin's orders Nº 270 and 227

Post by Stephan » 29 Sep 2019 21:24

Interesting to notice both the statistics, and the norm. I had hithertho though the penal company were more or less permanent... But this isnt correct... There WAS a time limit 2 month said here, 3 month said by another serious poster-, and also good possibilities to be released earlier.
I suppose these wounded whom survived got in practice a release too,
So, big risks in such a penalty company, more than half wounded or killed - as I understand more than in a normal rifle regiment, but also very good chances to be rehabilitated. This way or another.

And those whom died they died, but left a better mark after them then they had before... Much better than for example, those made off in a cleansing....

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Re: Docs needed: Stalin's orders Nº 270 and 227

Post by Art » 16 Oct 2019 21:07

Records of casualties of penal units from https://obd-memorial.ru/ (dead, missing, prisoners, and other irrevocable causalities)
Total 91 215
By year:
1941 - 42 (errors or typos in reporting)
1942 - 2842
1943 - 32 629
1944 - 39 680
1945 - 15 638
Du to many repetitions and duplications these numbers shouldn't be taken as exact, rather they indicate the general scale. According to Krivosheev aggregate casualties of penal units in 1944 were 170 298 (including wounded and sick) whihc is a reasonable agreement with the data above.

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