As I am very limited in time at the moment, just brief info. Yes, Rolf Erikson mentioned correct data. This is interesting subject to discuss. In spring 1942 submarines were used as transport ships for supply Sevastopol. 24 submarines performed 80 transport navigations from Novorossisk and Tuapse to Sevastopol between 17.05.1942 - 01.07.1942 [68 navigations were successful, 12 navigations failed, 2 submarines were lost during transport operations]. 3695 tonns of cargos [shells - 2156 tons, food supplies - 1031 tons, fuel - 508 tons] were delivered to Sevastopol by submarines, also 46 men [signal officers and doctors]. Submarines evecuated 1392 men and 3 t of documents from Sevastopol. Submarines were used as transports because usual steamers couldn't be used under domination of German aviation over Black Sea that time.Jon G wrote:
Anyhow, Erikson spends a single brief paragraph on the use of Soviet submarines for resupply and evacuation missions for the besieged Sevastopol garrison in 1942:
Rolf Erikson íàïèñà:
...In all, thirty submarines successfully completed seventy-five missions and aborted seven due to damage or Axis opposition, with the loss of two vessels: Shch-214, lost to the Italian MTB MAS-571 on 19 June; and S-32, to German aircraft a week later. Although the transport of gasoline in ballast tanks caused at least four explosions and fires, the submarines transported 4,000 tons of material to the besieged city and evacuated about 1,400 wounded women and children to Caucasus ports...
...which has piqued my interest. At a glance, the tonnage of supplies delivered and the number of civilians evacuated seem impressive. Do you know where to verify and flesh out these numbers?
I don't know exactly. I can assume that some info from logbooks couldn't be officially published in Soviet period for sure. IIRC a lot of German, British and Finnish sources were analyzed carefully in addition to a lot of own data after WWII; but, of course, not all results of investigations during Soviet period were presented to public as they were. The major part was published for administrative use only, or never published.Juha wrote:
So wasn't the submarine logbooks also availlable to the soviet era researchers? Or where the "new" detailled info about the sub (ShCh-307) actions?
In some countries it was about the same.
Nonsense. It depends not on the country but on technical/detectable character of possible combat mistakes: hydroacoustic detection of explosions or artillery fire during the night time, for example.
This is not a "part of actions" during WWII but just a case which probably happened:? But the accident with "Metallist" is very well known in Polish and Russian sources. According to the most common version [which was published even in Soviet times already]: USSR wanted to force Estonia to sign pact of mutual help. So the possible provocation was organized: Soviet transport ship "Metallist" was attacked 27.09.1939 in the Gulf of Narva [59.34'/27.21']. Soviets claimed that "Matallist" was sank by unknown submarine, based in Estonian port. Many modern sources claim that Shch-303 [from 14th submarine division of Baltic Sea Navy] received the order to sank "Metallist" but two torpedos missed, later "Metallist" was ramed by patrol boat. AFAIK Germans knew this info for the first time from deserter Galkin [sergeant-major of Shch-303, we've shortly discussed already], and they used this fact as good anti-Soviet propaganda.Juha wrote:
The basic info source of yours also sheds some light to the perhaps lesser known part of the actions of the Soviet subs: trying to sink own ships in order to make that look like an enemy (Polish) sub had done that.
AFAIK quite many well-known Polish and Russian historians discussed the accident with "Metallist" - interesting, that Shch-303 was under repair 27.09.1941, several historians mention that there was no sea-going ship under the name "Metallist" in Baltic Sea steamship company [but it was on Black Sea - transferred to Baltic? - BP], and Polish submarine "Orzel" came to UK without two torpedos [but Poles had no reasons to hide the attack of Soviet ships in September 1939 if such case took place - the possibility that it was Polish subnarine is low - BP]. Also Estonian divers investigated that ship and came to several interesting conclusions about its type/dry-cargo ship and origin/Black Sea [ http://www.diving.ee/article.php?id=135 ]. AFAIK the type of the ship and its photos are disputed by many researches. Russian researchers mention that "Metallist" [or the ship sank there] was not planned to raise after WWII according to the plan from emergency rescue service of Baltic Sea Navy, also the fate of crew is very unclear. "Metallist" was built in UK and had the following names during its career - WEARDALE - SIRIUS - SWANSEA BAY - ÌÀÐÒÈÍ - ÑÂÎÁÎÄÀ - ÌÅÒÀËËÈÑÒ. Some info is here http://crolick.website.pl/orporzel/ Interesting, that another divers mention that there were no things on board which made ship identification easy [crew, probably, knew about operation - BP], also ship was exploded by its crew most probably. Also interesting that ship "Metallist" is mentioned in official [not secret] documents of Baltic Sea Navy as transport ship, participated in evecuation of Hango garrison in 1941 and sank by Finnish coastal artillery. I think this story is very unclear.
Yes, but she was born in SwedenJuha wrote:
Swedish/Finnish actress Irina Björklund