USSR artillery shell production

Discussions on all aspects of the USSR, from the Russian Civil War till the end of the Great Patriotic War and the war against Japan. Hosted by Art.
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LWD
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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by LWD » 19 Jul 2008 12:34

Art wrote:...One can derive using simple calculations that if all that toluene was used for TNT production then it must yield about 750 thousands tons of TNT. The actual figure is <500 thousands. I don't know what account for such a difference, probably the fact that the table above include some production outside the war period or the fact that toluene was used for some other applications.
Well there's also the possibility that some of it wasn't used. For example:
1) How much of that delivered in 45 was actually used for war production?
2) How about spillage?
3) How much was in the wrong location? If a chemical plant gets more than it needs it may just sit around until used.

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Art » 19 Jul 2008 18:05

These are justified questions, of course, but I don't have answers to them unfortunately. Just for case, that what I can find:
Consuption of chemicals by Soviet industry

Nitric acid
Year - Total consumption (thous.tons)/in ammuntion production
1942 206,6/184,8
1943 314,8/289,6
1944 328,4/302,0
1945 180,9/155,2

Sulfuric acid
1942 548,6/250,5
1943 814,1/404,9
1944 849,4/410,1
1945 683,8/215,6

Ammonium nitrate
1942 114,7/95,5
1943 233,6/198,7
1944 270,1/228,1
1944 376,0/156,0

Source: N.Simonov "USSR's military-indastrial complex in 1920's-50's"

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Art » 17 Sep 2008 12:33

Some data on ammunition production I've compiled using various sources.
1. Overall production of artillery shells and mortar rounds (in thousands). Numbers are taken from the Soviet official history of the WW2. Production of ammunition for aircraft guns is not included:
Image
2. Production, deliveries and expenditure of various types of shells and mortar rounds (thousands). Compiled using a handbook on ammunition production from here.
Image
"Deliveries" stand for amount of ammuntion recieved by the Red Army troops from industry or from central depots. "Expenditure" includes both normal expenditure and losses of ammunition, except the year 1944 where it means the sum of expenditure by fronts and amount sent ot other recipients. Note that the same source gives somewhat different figures for 22.06.41 ammunition stocks and avaialbity, deliveries and expenditure figures don't fit with each other. I don't know why it's so.
3. Mortar rounds production. Taken from Shirokorad's book on Russian/Soviet mortars and rocket artillery, in his turn the author used some identified Soviet era source:
Image
In the original tables figures for period July 1943 - May 1944 were suspiciously low, so I decided that they in fact stand for average monthly production and adjusted them accordingly. In this case they are in good agreement with other sources.
4. Rocket ammunition production from Shirikorad:
Image
M-8 - 82-mm rocket
M-13 and M-20 - 132-mm
M-30 and M-31 - 300-mm

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 08 Nov 2008 17:25

For comparison here are the numbers from Table 4 of Ellis 'Brute Force'. The German column represents ammunition delivered to the Eastern Front. Ellis draws these from a variety of secondaary sources. Unfortunatly my eyes are not good enough to compare this with the tables in the previous post.

Numbers are in 1,000 ton increments

AFV 75mm+...German.... USSR
1943...........4,279......20,091
1944...........8,285......28,483

Aircraft
1943........... 7,753......29,841
1944..........14,667......33,199

Artillery 75mm+
1943...........10,200......48,400
1944...........18,300......56,100

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Art » 08 Nov 2008 21:43

Carl, you can click on pictures to enlarge them. I didn't mean that one have to try to discern something on a preview version

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Art » 11 May 2009 11:38

If someone is interested, here is data on Soviet ammunition expenditure in 1943. Format - type vs. expenditure in thousands rounds:

Antiaircraft guns:
25-mm mod. 40 - 339,6
37-mm model 39 - 6266,2
76-mm mod. 31/38 - 800,4
76-mm mod.14/15 -
85-mm mod. 39 - 2332,4

AT guns:
45-mm mod 32/34 - 12 428,8
57-mm ZIS-2/4 - 76

Infantry guns:
76-mm regimental mod.27 - 6760,83

Field guns:
76-mm mod. 02/30-36 - 20780,8
76-mm mountain mod. 09- 100,83
76-mm mountain mod. 38 - 175,5
107-mm gun mod. 10/30 - 142,9
122-mm guns mod. 31 - 701,3
122-mm howitzers - 5474,78
152-mm howitzers - 934,7
152-mm gun-howitzer - 2364
203-mm howitzer - 216,47

Mortars:
50-mm - 11207,3
82-mm - 37808,1
107-mm - 110,3
120-mm - 10886,9

Small-arms:
7,62 mm rifle - 2905355,2
7,62-mm Nagant pistol - 15350,4
7,62-mm TT pistol - 2446501,1
12,7-mm DShK MG - 21816,9
14,5-mm antitank rifle - 25719,6

Taken from the Russian forum
http://vif2ne.ru/nvk/forum/0/co/1813574.htm
The author made a reference to the documents of the Main Artillery Departement from TsAMO. I guess there are similar numbers for other years ther. From I understand expenditure includes losses as well as normal expenditure. Note that large expanditure of 7,62-mm TT cartridges was due to their use for sumbmachineguns.

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Art » 05 Jun 2009 15:27

Some more data on ammunition expenditure. Now the year 1942.
Type - expenditure (thousands)

Antiaircraft guns:
25-mm - 383,5
37-mm - 3495,8
76-mm - 1566,2
85-mm - 1569,2

AT and small caliber guns:
20-mm ShVAK - 3107,1
45-mm - 6140,4
57-mm - 50,5

Infantry guns:
76-mm regimental mod.27 - 5063,1

Field guns:
76-mm divisional - 10024,2
76-mm mountain - 654
107-mm guns - 322
122-mm guns - 599,1
122-mm howitzers - 4306,2
152-mm howitzers - 706,3
152-mm gun-howitzers - 1508,8
203-mm howitzer - 107,4

Mortars:
50-mm - 13144,2
82-mm - 15145,3
107-mm - 293,8
120-mm - 3008,2

Small-arms:
7,62 mm rifle - 2284369,8
7,62-mm Nagant pistol - 16876,6
7,62-mm TT pistol - 569321,9
12,7-mm DShK MG - 11311,2
14,5-mm antitank rifle - 9154,15

Here expenditure includes losses. Source:
http://vif2ne.ru/nvk/forum/0/co/1826364.htm

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Art » 05 Jul 2009 13:01

Another part. Soviet ammunition expenditure in 1944
Type - expenditure (thousands)

Antiaircraft guns:
25-mm - 707,6
37-mm - 7164,4
76-mm - 342,2
85-mm - 1787,7

AT and small caliber guns:
20-mm ShVAK - 684,5
45-mm - 11 778,2
57-mm - 460,3

Infantry guns:
76-mm regimental mod.27 - 6 233,1
76-mm regimental mod.43 - 714,3

Meduim-caliber artillery:
76-mm divisional - 24 825,2
76-mm mountain - 166,4
85-mm guns - 447
100-mm guns - 5,94
107-mm guns - 99,8
122-mm guns - 768,4
122-mm howitzers - 7 610,1

Large-caliber artillery
152-mm howitzers - 996,1
152-mm gun-howitzers - 2 537,1
203-mm howitzers - 167,77

Heavy artillery
152-mm guns Br-2 - 9,9
210-mm guns - 0,05
280-mm mortars - 3,322
305-mm howitzers - 0,656

Mortars:
50-mm - 3 236,5
82-mm - 42 550,7
107-mm - 386,4
120-mm - 15 454,2
160-mm - 12,2

Small-arms:
7,62 mm rifle - 3 013 572,6
7,62-mm Nagant pistol - 16 289,1
7,62-mm TT pistol - 2 637 625,7
12,7-mm DShK MG - 27 490,7
14,5-mm antitank rifle - 17 234

As it might be seen the relative increase in expenditure from 1943 to 1944 was more moderate than the year before but still prominent.
Source:
http://vif2ne.ru/nvk/forum/0/co/1841892.htm

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Art » 06 Jul 2009 13:00

Finnaly, ammunition expenditure in 1945 (January-May)
Type - expenditure (thousands)

Antiaircraft guns:
25-mm - 212,4
37-mm - 4574,5
76-mm - 20
85-mm - 556,2

AT and small caliber guns:
20-mm ShVAK - 74
45-mm - 5659,7
57-mm - 580,1

Infantry guns:
76-mm regimental mod.27 - 2454,8
76-mm regimental mod.43 - 1099,3

Meduim-caliber artillery:
76-mm divisional - 14 301,9
76-mm mountain - 125,5
85-mm guns - 802,8
100-mm guns - 126
107-mm guns - 0
122-mm guns - 622,2
122-mm howitzers - 4041,8

Large-caliber artillery
152-mm howitzers - 669,3
152-mm gun-howitzers - 1 364,2
203-mm howitzers - 167,62

Heavy artillery
152-mm guns Br-2 - 3,036
210-mm guns - 0,792
280-mm mortars - 7,363
305-mm howitzers - 2,764

Mortars:
50-mm - 224,6
82-mm - 25 328,9
107-mm - 291,3
120-mm - 10 080,7
160-mm - 203,65

Small-arms:
7,62 mm rifle - 1 293 287
7,62-mm Nagant pistol - 9 411
7,62-mm TT pistol - 1 287 382
12,7-mm DShK MG - 19 656
14,5-mm antitank rifle - 6 517

A summary table with expenditure in 1942-45:
Image
Blank spots mean absense of data. 85-mm gun ammunition listed seperately from 85-mm AA guns stands most prorbably for T-34-85 or SU-85, 20-mm - for guns of T-60 and armor trains, but not aircraft guns.

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Art » 11 Dec 2010 15:50

Continuing to gather information: these are ammunition production figures for 1941-1942:
Item/1941/1942 (in thousands):

Aircraft board cannons:
20-mm /8 900/35 800
23-mm /2 080/12 900
Totals/10 980/48 700

Field and AA artillery:
25-mm /251/1 230
37-mm /5 863/11 600
45-mm /12 432/17 260
76-mm /8 800/27 280
85-mm /3 592/4 227
122-mm/4 310/3 956
152-mm/2 337/2 427
203-mm/1 325/ 143,4
Totals/38 910/68 123,4

Rocket ammunition:
M-8/570/1 900
M-13/417/1 685
M-20-30-31/-/496
Totals/987/4 081

Mortar rounds:
50-mm/15 910/17 600
82-mm/7 033/28 636
120-mm/1 140/7 335
Totals/24 500/53 637

Naval guns/1 563,9/1 082,7

Air bombs:
HE/1 226,5/953,7
Incendiary/1 859,4/1 343,2
Lighting/4,9/44,5
Chemical/21,7/97

Hand grenades/26 310/49 897
AP mines/5 032/7 663
AT mines/1 511/5 788

Small-arms ammo (in millions)
7,62 rilfe and machinegun/3 369/2 092
7,62 submachinegun/777/1 881
12,7-mm/96,7/99,2
14,5-mm (AT rifles)/0,725/47,9

From a report to the State Defense Committe by L.Beria et al, 17 January 1943//"Vestnik Arkhiva Presindenta Rossiyskoy Federatsiyi", May 2010, p. 210-214, with reference to AP RF f.3, op.46, d.353, l.29-33

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 12 Dec 2010 01:49

Art... thanks for providing this. Your effort is appreciated here.

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Art » 06 Feb 2020 09:25

Soviet production of artillery ammunition June 1941-May 1945 in thousands.
ammunition production.png
Expenditure on the front (thousand rounds)
ammunition expenditure.png
From "Artillery in the Great Patriotic War" by A.B.Shirokorad
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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by tramonte » 07 Feb 2020 21:00

Carl Schwamberger wrote:
08 Nov 2008 17:25
For comparison here are the numbers from Table 4 of Ellis 'Brute Force'.

Aircraft
1943........... 7,753......29,841
1944..........14,667......33,199

The question here is aluminium. The USSR aluminium production was far far below that of Germany and even much below of that of Japan. According study by Phillips Payson O'Brien with just low aluminium production USSR could have produced just about 60,000 aircraft. Yep, they used wood. But then we have to ask: what was the life cycle of those aircraft. And more question: how much aviation equipment, material and technology did USA send to USSR to make that aviation production even possible?
"Military history is nothing but a tissue of fictions and legends, only a form of literary invention; reality counts for very little in such affair."

- Gaston de Pawlowski, Dans les rides du front

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by tramonte » 17 Feb 2020 08:50

It's obvious that German artillery ammunition production >75 mm 56 million (1943) and 67.6 million (1944) includes also mortar (82 mm, 120 mm) or am i totally wrong? It's pretty hard to get numbers of German field artillery ammunition production and mortar ammunition production divided. Figures of Battle of Kursk (Citadel) is giving this share:

- Total ammunition: 51,083 tons of which
- Field artillery: 25,000 tons (49%)
- Rockets (Nebelwerfer& Wurfrahmen): 5,916 tons (11.6%)
the rest (39-40%) likely for both mortars, AT-guns...

For Red Army:
-Total ammunition: 21,867 tons
- Field artillery : 7,872 tons (36%)
- rocket launchers: 2,422 tons (11.1%)
the rest (53%) for likely both mortars, AT-guns....

It's also pretty confusing putting together mortar and field artillery when weight and range are suggesting classic apples & oranges dilemma. 82 mm mortar having 3.3 kilos shell while 76 mm field gun 6.3 kilos. It should be much more revealing to show the weight of ammo like case Citadel studied. It might surprise many. When i have red studies explaining how some army had fired 300,000 rounds it actually tells us not much.
"Military history is nothing but a tissue of fictions and legends, only a form of literary invention; reality counts for very little in such affair."

- Gaston de Pawlowski, Dans les rides du front

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Re: USSR artillery shell production

Post by Art » 02 Sep 2021 08:32

Report of the People's Commissariat for Ammunition on production of complete ammunition in 1941.

Type production 1940 (thousands)/production 1941 (thousands)

Aircraft ammunition
20-mm ShVAK incendiary 1491.1/434.9
20-mm ShVAK fragmentation 3312.0/517/9
Total ShVAK 4803.9/952/8
20-mm mod.41 incendiary-fragmentation 0/3729.7
20-mm mod.41 armor-piercing incendiary 0/3685.0
Total 20-mm mod.41 0/7414.7
23-mm VYa fragmentation incendiary 0/1118.1
23-mm VYa armor-piercing incendiary 0/900.7
Total 23-mm VYa 0/2081.8

Small caliber
25-mm mod.40 fragmentation tracer 0/251.4
total 25-mm mod.40 0/251.4
37-mm mod.39 fragmentation tracer 215/5555.3
37-mm mod.39 armor-piercing tracer 0/307.3
Total 37-mm 215/5862.6
45-mm mod.34/37 fragmentation 3788.7/8668.4
45-mm mod. 34/37 armor-piercing 3034.6/3648.3
45-mm mod.34/37 armor-piercing incendiary 150.0/0
45-mm mod. 34/37 canister 0/115.0
Total 45-mm 6973.3/12431.7
57-mm ZIS-2 armor-piercing 0/428.8
Total 57-mm 428.8

Medium caliber
76-mm regimental mod.27 HE 174.98/1625
76-mm divisional mod.39 HE 812.2/2162.4
- HE-chemical 95.0/120.8
- armor piercing 30.0/689.5
- incendiary 0/43.8
- canister 0/7.6
- smoke 58.23/55
Total 76-mm divisional 995.43/3079.1
76-mm mountain mod.38 HE 443.2/342.9
- chemical 0/40.0
- smoke 0/30.0
Total 76-mm mountain mod. 38 443.2/412.9
76-mm mountain mod.09 HE 115.7/0
- smoke 25.1/0
Total 76-mm mountain mod.09 140.8/0
Additionally, production of 76-mm ammunition at Leningrad 0/848.7 (w/o breakdown by types)
Total 76-mm 1754.41/5117.0

76-mm AA 31 time fuse 1307.6/2843.5
- armor-piercing 0/13.2
- canister 749.8/125.0
Total 76-mm AA mod.31 2057.4/2981.7
85-mm AA mod.38 HE time fuse 139/3220.5
- armor-piercing 0/366.0
Total 85-mm 139/3585.5

107-mm gun mod.10/30 HE 482.4/513.
- HE chemical 5.7/0
- armor-piercing 0/33.6
- incendiary 1/21.9
Total 107-mm gun mod.10/30 489.1/569.0
107-mm M-60 HE 0/15.0
- armor-piercing 0/19.5
Total 107-mm M-60 0/34.5
122-mm gin mod.31 HE 448.3/919.1
- HE chemical 0/8.2
- armor-piercing 9.4/10.4
Total 122-mm gun mod.31 457.6/937.7
122-mm howitzer mod.10/30 HE 1822.6/2158.0
- HE chemical 0.7/0
- chemical impact 9.2/48.3
- chemical time fuse 20.5/18/4
- smoke 23.9/34.0
- lighting 7.5/45.8
- chemical (unstable) 94.3/-
Total 122-mm howitzer mod.10/30 1979.3/2304.5
122-mm howitzer mod.38 HE 130.1/1376.9
- HE chemical 0/109.9
- chemical impact fuse 0/5
- chemical time fuse 0/32.5
- smoke 0/22.5
total 122-mm howitzer mod.38 130.1/1546.8
Total 122-mm 2567.7/4799

152-mm howitzer mod.09/30 HE 530.7/489.4
- HE chemical 1.14/0
- concrete-piercing 141.3/7.5
- chemical impact fuse 0/0.6
- chemical time fuse 0/10.3
- chemical (unstable) - 14.98/0
Total 152-mm howitzer mod.09/30 688.1/507.8
152-mm howitzer mod.38 190.5/883.4
Total 152-mm howitzer mod. 38 190.5/883.4
152-mm gun mod.34/37 HE 729.5/1073.2
- concrete-piercing 96/92.3
Total 152-mm gun mod.34/37 825.5/1165.5
Total 152-mm 1704.1/2556.7
Total medium calibers 8711.6/20 483.1

Large caliber
152-mm BR-2 gun 0/45.6
Total 152-mm BR-2 gun 0/45.6
210-mm B-4 howitzer concrete-piercing 193.6/277.2
280-mm BR-5 concrete-piercing howitzer 0/0.5
Total large calibers 193.6/323.3

Total rifled barrel ammunition 16 093.6/39 780.9

M-8 rockets 125.1/502
M-13 rockets 31.7/312.1
Total rockets 156.8/814.1

Mortars:
50-mm fragmentation 10 897/16 275
82-mm fragmentation 6922.6/6870
107-mm HE 135.2/600.9
107-mm HE chemical 0/12.0
Total 107-mm 135.2/612.9
120-mm HE 330.3/1127.7
Total mortar 18 285.0/24 885.6

Total artillery and mortar ammo 34 585.0/65 480.6

From:
http://docs.historyrussia.org/ru/nodes/ ... rya-1942-g

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