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Lord Gort
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Post by Lord Gort » 26 Apr 2003 17:52

How effective were the Communists in consolidating power in Russia between the years 1921 and 1924?

This is a question for A-level history and I dont have a clue how to answer it!

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Daniel L
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Post by Daniel L » 26 Apr 2003 18:09

Early in 1924 several uprisings, mainly due to famine, were crushed. During these years many contrarevolutionary and nationalist groups were hunted down and arrested. Unions had to obey the party which also saw that no splinter groups were formed. I also think you should look at is the introduction of the NEP.

Best regards/ Daniel

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Post by Marcus » 26 Apr 2003 18:12

Lord Gort wrote:This is a question for A-level history and I dont have a clue how to answer it!
No offence, but studying the books of your class might be a good place to start.


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Lord Gort
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Post by Lord Gort » 26 Apr 2003 18:40

True and I have had a look at the NEP but this is a big essay and I just dont see where the marks come from.


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Post by Ike_FI » 26 Apr 2003 21:09

I assume too that your answer is expected to deal mostly with the "Lenin and NEP" theme, and how the war-torn country succeed to get back on it's feet due to the reforms introduced during that era.

One suggestion for a good general source with timeline of key incidents: ... rono3.html

As an example of things indicating need for a change after so called War Communism, you may also want to mention something about the so called Worker's Opposition, an alternative pro-reform fraction within the Party:
Some Bolsheviks were critical of how Vladimir Lenin had reduced the debate on policy issues in the Communist Party after the October Revolution. In 1921 Alexandra Kollantai (Commissar for welfare) and Alexander Shlyapnikov (Commissar for Labour) formed a faction that became known as the Workers' Opposition.

In 1921 Alexandra Kollantai published a pamphlet The Workers' Opposition, where she called for members of the party to be allowed to discuss policy issues and for more political freedom for trade unionists. She also advocated that before the government attempts to "rid Soviet institutions of the bureaucracy that lurks within them, the Party must first rid itself of its own bureaucracy."

At the Tenth Party Congress in 1922, Vladimir Lenin proposed a resolution that would ban all factions within the party. He argued that factions within the party were "harmful" and encouraged rebellions such as the Kronstadt Rising. The Party Congress agreed with Lenin and the Workers' Opposition was dissolved.
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Post by Docent P » 30 Apr 2003 07:57

>How effective were the Communists in consolidating power in Russia between the years 1921 and 1924?

I can bring up some details I remember now although I'm not sure if it is exactly what you need.

In 1921 the main problem for the Communists were anti-Communist peasants' (so-called "Greens") uprisings. The largest one was the Kronstadt uprising. Others were: Makhno's and Grigor'ev's uprisings in Ukraine, Antonov's uprising in the Tambov region (who had own armoured trains and airplanes), Sablin's (former Red commander) in the Don region. It was the biggest anti-Communist action in Russia - the number of rebels was several times more then all the White forces over all the fronts of the Civil War 1918-1920 together. Nevertheless the rebels failed rather sooner than the Whites because they had no organisation and coordination between each others.

The next problem was the Far East - here the Commies had a puppet regime of the so-called Far East Democratic Republick in Blagoveshensk and independent Vladivostok that nominally was included into the FEDR but also had it's own government consisting of two brothers Merkulovs although really controlled by the Japanesse. Outside Vladivostok there were the last White Army unit - Kappel Division - commanded by General Diterikhs with the main base in Spassk. In spring 1922 Diterikhs became the governor of Vladivostok and at the same moment the Japanesse left this city pressed by the Britains and Fenches after the Genoa conference.

The pro-Communist FEDR government was immediately deposed by Communist Far East Forces Commander Blukher, who began advancing on Vladivostok then. After a fierce battle at Spassk Diterikhs retreated to China. The civil refugees were evacuated from Vladivostok by the White Siberian fleet, commanded by Admiral Stark, to Korea and the Phillipines.

The next step was Mongolia - there White General Ungern together with a local knight established anti-Communist and anti-Chinesse regime. Mongolian territory became an assylum for thousands of refugees from the Soviet Far East. In early 1923 the Soviets defeated Ungern's forces and occupied Mongolia establishing there pro-Soviet Sukhe-Bator's regime.

In 1923-1924 the Soviets completed establishing their power over Kamchatka, Chukotka and other remote areas. In 1921-1922 the Soviets without big problems occupied the Caucasian republicks - Georgia, Azerbajan and Armenia. In December 1922 Lenin officially declared the creation of the Soviet Union - USSR.

The greatest foreign the Comrades' success was the Genoa conference of April 1922. The Commies promised to pay the old Tzar's debts if they were recognized. THe Europian governments were under very strong Leftists' pressure. The Britishes had the Leftists at the power like Lloyd-George and Kerson. In two words the Commies got all they needed: disarmed Vrangel's Russian Army, recognition, trade contracts with Italy and Germany, Rapallo agreement etc. The Europians got absolutely nothing - questioned about the debts the Soviets started screaming about the damage caused by the intervention so loudly that Lloyd-George preffered to shut up. It was the first so hameful diplomatic failure of the Western democracy against totalitarism - not less shameful than Munchen.

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