Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

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Der Alte Fritz
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Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 21 Nov 2015 15:53

There is a bit of information out in the world about the Heer range of wagons and carts, so I propose finding the same information for the Russians and Soviets.

Image

The obvious place to start is with the tachanka (тача́нка) three horse MG Wagon.

Also we have to take note of the use of one horse peasant carts in the winter of 1941 and the government actually placing orders for these.

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Anatol » 22 Nov 2015 18:16

Restoration and test drive of a tachanka:
http://livinghistory.ru/topic/30079-tes ... 1938-goda/

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 22 Nov 2015 19:04

NOTES ON RUSSIAN ANIMAL-DRAWN TRANSPORT

With a high degree of motorization in many modern armies, particularly our own, it is easy to overlook the important part animal-drawn transport has played in World War II. In the German infantry division, horse-drawn vehicles are extensively used. A two-wheeled animal-drawn cart is standard equipment throughout the Japanese army. Finally, it is felt that if Russia had not possessed a large amount of animal-drawn military transport, their supply lines might have long ago broken down with the consequent defeat of her armies in the field; this is true not because of a lack of motor transport, but rather because ground conditions in Russia during much of the year make it essential that motor transport be extensively supplemented by animal transport.

The Soviets have clung tenaciously to the small, time-tested two-wheeled cart and a light four-wheeled wagon for transport, notwithstanding the great strides in motorization. These vehicles are not only used in the army, but also play a very important role in civilian transportation facilities.

There are definite reasons why Russians use a light vehicle instead of a heavy wagon. First, the Russian horse is of small stature, averaging less than 15 hands and, although he is a hardy and tough animal, he is unable to pull the load of the larger draft animal. (It is very unusual to see anywhere in the U.S.S.R. a large horse.) Secondly, inasmuch as so very little hard-surfaced, cobbled, or even improved roads exist in the U.S.S.R., transport is confined to natural dirt roads and even cross country; in certain conditions this make passage all but impossible. For military purposes in particular, cross-country operation is the rule, and in periods of thaw and rain, Russian mud is well-nigh impassable to any type of transport except a small wagon and cart or sled. When a Russian four-wheeled wagon becomes bogged down, a handful of soldiers can extricate it with very little trouble and keep the column moving. Thirdly, the Red Army finds a ready means of supplementing its organic transportation wherever it moves, since every community contains its complement of the standard cart, wagon, or sled which can be quickly commandeered for military purposes.

In the rear areas of the group of Russian armies which surrounded Stalingrad, American observers report the presence of the four-wheeled wagon, and of sleds of the same dimensions and capacities; these were the only means of supply other than trucks. Where trucking was lacking for the supply during the encirclement of the Germans, thousands of four-wheeled wagons and sleds were recruited from the local inhabitants and elsewhere. The Russian general in command of operations in the Stalingrad area stated that movement from railhead to distributing point was a slow process requiring considerable valuable time, but by utilizing all types of transportation, including the two- and four-wheeled vehicles, he was fully supplied and on time.

The construction of the two-wheeled cart is very simple, and it is built to carry 450 to 500 pounds. It is fitted with shafts and drawn by one horse. It is 2 1/2 ft. deep and 4 ft. long. The four-wheeled wagon and the sled are about 2 feet longer and are drawn by one, two, three, or four horses in line.

It is noteworthy that nowhere is there evidence of the use of large heavy wagons of the escort type.

In winter dogs are used to draw light sleds. In the more northern regions even reindeer are used; they provide the cheapest and most economical means of transport, since they feed on the tundra (open, treeless plain).

SOURCE LONE SENTRY

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by steverodgers801 » 22 Nov 2015 23:38

The Germans quickly adapted the cart for their use

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Stephan » 27 Nov 2015 19:42

Der Alte Fritz wrote:NOTES ON RUSSIAN ANIMAL-DRAWN TRANSPORT


In winter dogs are used to draw light sleds. In the more northern regions even reindeer are used; they provide the cheapest and most economical means of transport, since they feed on the tundra (open, treeless plain).

SOURCE LONE SENTRY
Not only in the winter. I have seen pics and read evidene they could be used on summer halfyear too. These examples I saw where in the wounded- transport groups, in the end phase of the war. So I dont know how common they really were, and when.

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 27 Nov 2015 20:28

From Brockhouse and Efron Jewish Encyclopedia
http://www.vehi.net/brokgauz/

повозок парных Two horse military carts, etc around 1907
Image
http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/brokgauz ... 0%BA%D0%B8


Also transport arrangements for 120mm mortar on mules
Image

and on trucks
Image

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 27 Nov 2015 20:45

Russian language article of Cossack saddles and equipment from the Soviet era
http://www.diorama.ru/forum/viewtopic.php?t=5967

This site has an old cavalry manual and a list of other horse orientated manuals
http://forum.guns.ru/forum_light_message/18/263489.html
Onesimus VN work horses in the artillery and baggage combined arms
/ VN Onisimov. - M .: Military Publishing, 1940 - 56. p .: with illustrations. ; 17 cm cm.

Manual for the preparation of artillery driving sleds
/ Ch. Ex. Chief of Artillery of the Red Army. - M .: Military Publishing, 1941. - 63 p. P .: with illustrations. ; 20 cm cm.

I. MEDVEDEV first aid to wounded and sick horses in battle and on the march
/ I. Medvedev, P. Andreev. - M .: Military Publishing, 1940 - 48. p .: with illustrations. ; 17 cm cm.

Vodzinskiy BK First aid horses in lesions poisoning and burns in battle
/ BK Vodzinskiy. - M .: Military Publishing, 1940 - 16. p .: with illustrations. ; 20 cm cm.

Memo junior commanders and fighters trooper tactical exercises
/ Inspection cavalry of the Red Army. - [AM]: Military Publishing, 1939 - 14. from.; 11 cm cm.

Memo gun commander and gunner anti-tank
/ Ch. Ex. Chief of Artillery of the Red Army. - M .: Military Publishing, 1942. - 32 p. P .: ill. and the devil. ; 15 cm cm.

Memo fighter - Cavalier
/ Ch. watered. Ex. Red Army and the Red Army cavalry Inspection. - [Sverdlovsk]: Military Publishing, Sverdlov. Dep-tion, 1942. - 16 p. p .; 14 cm cm.

Phyllis D. Basics of dressage and driving
/ D. Phillies. - 2 extra. ed. - M .: Military Publishing, 1940. - 240 p. p .: with illustrations. ; 20 cm cm.

KUZININ SA Education rider and dressage horses in the artillery
/ SA Kuzinin. - M .: Military Publishing, 1941. - 176 p. p .: with illustrations. ; 23 cm cm.

Manual for the care of horses in the Red Army
/ Cavalry Inspectorate Kr. Army. Vet. Ex. Kr. Army. - M .: Military Publishing, 1942. - 104 p. P .; 17 cm cm.

Manual Equestrian Red Army
/ Inspection cavalry of the Red Army. - M .: Military Publishing, 1939. - 296 p. p .: with the devil. ; 17 cm. Cm.

Dine. Tutorials on tactical training saber department
/ Dine. - M .: Military Publishing, 1941 - 32. p .: with the schemes. ; 17 cm cm.

Gorodovikov O. cavalry in World War II
(from the experience of fighting) / O. Gorodovikov. - M .: Military Publishing, 1942. - 80 p. P .: with the scheme. ; 16 cm cm.

Shcherbatov PY Skin diseases horse
/ PY ShCherbatyh. - 2nd, rev. ed. - M .: Military Publishing, 1941 - 32. p .: with illustrations. ; 17 cm cm.

Varvarin PS Shoeing horses
/ PS Varvarin. - Ed. 3, Corr. and add. - M .: Military Publishing, 1940. - 140 p. p .: with illustrations. and the devil. ; 21 cm cm.

Instructions for repair ware property, harnesses and saddles in the Red Army
/ mgmt. notation-ware supply of the Red Army. - M .: Military Publishing, 1939 - 96. from.; 17 cm cm.

Instructions horse equipment repair
/ Ch. Intendant. Ex. The Red Army. Those. com-t. - M .: Military Publishing, 1942. - 72 p. P .; 14 cm cm.

Instructions for the creation and maintenance of fund "defense - wagon with harness" collective and state farms
/ Approved. NKO, CGN NKSKH the USSR and the Soviet Union. - M .: Military Publishing, 1941 - 32. p .: with illustrations. ; 17 cm cm.

Quartermaster packs for transportation of goods by horse and mule
/ Ch. Intendant. Ex. Kr. Army Tech. com-t. - M .: Military Publishing, 1941 - 40. p .: with illustrations. ; 20 cm cm.

Packs for the transport of objects of engineering property and their exploitation
/ Ch. Intendant. Ex. The Red Army. Those. com-t. - [AM]: Military Publishing, 1942. - 38 p. P .: with illustrations. ; 20 cm cm.

Packs for transportation of items of small arms and their exploitation
/ Ch. Intendant. Ex. The Red Army. Those. com-t. - M .: Military Publishing, 1941. - 36 p. P .: with illustrations. ; 20 cm cm.

The pack saddle quartermaster for transportation of goods on a donkey and a camel
/ Ch. Intendant. Ex-Red Army of Tech. com-t. - M .: Military Publishing, 1941. - 31 p. P .: with illustrations. ; 20 cm cm.

Pack filter VF-200
[Operation and maintenance] / Ing. Ex. The Red Army. - M .: Military Publishing, 1940 - 32. p .: with illustrations. and the devil. ; 16 cm cm.

CHERKASOV VA Hygiene Skin Horse
/ VA Cherkasov. - 2nd Corr. and add. ed. - M .: Military Publishing, 1941 - 80. p .: with illustrations. ; 17 cm cm.

СТРЕЛКОВ А.М. Связь в коннице
/ А.М. Стрелков. - М.: Воениздат, 1940. - 120 с. с.: со схем. ; 22 см см.

ОНИСИМОВ В. Н. Работа лошади в частях артиллерии и в общевойсковом обозе
/ В. Н. Онисимов. - М.: Воениздат, 1940. - 56 с. с.: с илл. ; 17 см см.

Пособие по подготовке ездового артиллерийской упряжки
/ Гл. упр. начальника артиллерии Красной Армии. - М.: Воениздат, 1941. - 63 стр. с.: с илл. ; 20 см см.

МЕДВЕДЕВ И. Первая помощь раненой и больной лошади в бою и на походе
/ И. Медведев, П. Андреев. - М.: Воениздат, 1940. - 48 с. с.: с илл. ; 17 см см.

ВОДЗИНСКИЙ Б.К. Первая помощь лошади при поражениях отравляющими веществами и ожогах в бою
/ Б.К. Водзинский. - М.: Воениздат, 1940. - 16 с. с.: с илл. ; 20 см см.

Памятка младшему командиру и бойцу-кавалеристу на тактические учения
/ Инспекция кавалерии РККА. - [М.]: Воениздат, 1939. - 14 с. с.; 11 см см.

Памятка командиру орудия и наводчику по борьбе с танками
/ Гл. упр. начальника артиллерии Красной Армии. - М.: Воениздат, 1942. - 32 стр. с.: илл. и черт. ; 15 см см.

Памятка бойцу - кавалеристу
/ Гл. полит. упр. Красной Армии и Инспекция кавалерии Красной Армии. - [Свердловск]: Воениздат, Свердл. отд-ние, 1942. - 16 стр. с.; 14 см см.

ФИЛЛИС Д. Основы выездки и езды
/ Д. Филлис. - 2-е доп. изд. - М.: Воениздат, 1940. - 240 с. с.: с илл. ; 20 см см.

КУЗИНИН С. А. Обучение всадника и выездка лошади в артиллерии
/ С. А. Кузинин. - М.: Воениздат, 1941. - 176 с. с.: с илл. ; 23 см см.

Наставление по уходу за лошадью в Красной Армии
/ Инспекция кавалерии Кр. Армии. Вет. упр. Кр. Армии. - М.: Воениздат, 1942. - 104 стр. с.; 17 см см.

Наставление по конному спорту РККА
/ Инспекция кавалерии РККА. - М.: Воениздат, 1939. - 296 с. с.: с черт. ; 17 см. см.

ДАЙНЕГО. Методические разработки по тактической подготовке сабельного отделения
/ Дайнего. - М.: Воениздат, 1941. - 32 с. с.: со схем. ; 17 см см.

ГОРОДОВИКОВ О. Конница в Отечественной войне
(Из опыта боевых действий) / О. Городовиков. - М.: Воениздат, 1942. - 80 стр. с.: со схем. ; 16 см см.

ЩЕРБАТЫХ П. Я. Кожные болезни лошади
/ П. Я. Щербатых. - 2-е, испр. изд. - М.: Воениздат, 1941. - 32 с. с.: с илл. ; 17 см см.

ВАРВАРИН П.С. Ковка лошади
/ П.С. Варварин. - Изд. 3, испр. и доп. - М.: Воениздат, 1940. - 140 с. с.: с илл. и черт. ; 21 см см.

Инструкция по ремонту вещевого имущества, упряжи и седел в РККА
/ Упр. обозно-вещевого снабжения РККА. - М.: Воениздат, 1939. - 96 с. с.; 17 см см.

Инструкция по ремонту конского снаряжения
/ Гл. интендант. упр. Красной Армии. Тех. ком-т. - М.: Воениздат, 1942. - 72 стр. с.; 14 см см.

Инструкция по созданию и содержанию фонда "Обороне - повозка с упряжью" в колхозах и совхозах
/ Утв. НКО СССР, НКЗ СССР и НКСХ СССР. - М.: Воениздат, 1941. - 32 с. с.: с илл. ; 17 см см.

Вьюки для перевозки интендантских грузов на лошади и муле
/ Гл. интендант. упр. Кр. Армии, Тех. ком-т. - М.: Воениздат, 1941. - 40 с. с.: с илл. ; 20 см см.

Вьюки для перевозки предметов инженерного имущества и их эксплуатация
/ Гл. интендант. упр. Красной Армии. Тех. ком-т. - [М.]: Воениздат, 1942. - 38 стр. с.: с илл. ; 20 см см.

Вьюки для перевозки предметов стрелкового вооружения и их эксплуатация
/ Гл. интендант. упр. Красной Армии. Тех. ком-т. - М.: Воениздат, 1941. - 36 стр. с.: с илл. ; 20 см см.

Вьючные седла для перевозки интендантских грузов на осле и верблюде
/ Гл. интендант. упр-ние Красной Армии Тех. ком-т. - М.: Воениздат, 1941. - 31 стр. с.: с илл. ; 20 см см.

Вьючный фильтр ВФ-200
[Руководство по эксплуатации и уходу] / Инж. упр. РККА. - М.: Воениздат, 1940. - 32 с. с.: с илл. и черт. ; 16 см см.

ЧЕРКАСОВ В.А. Гигиена кожи лошади
/ В.А. Черкасов. - 2-е испр. и доп. изд. - М.: Воениздат, 1941. - 80 с. с.: с илл. ; 17 см см.

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 27 Nov 2015 23:47

Modern day (1991) specification for horse drawn vehicles http://6pl.ru/gost/G1142-90.htm

Military wagon from 1914-1921
Image

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 28 Nov 2015 08:08

Very nice article showing the different types of carts, wagons and carriages used in Russia.
Refers to a government body setting a standard for production of carts and wagons from 1928
Nice images of the different types.
http://worldgonesour.ru/konevodstvo/166 ... ystvo.html
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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 28 Nov 2015 08:11

This article from 1916 lists the types of vehicles held by the Imperial Russian Army with their individual statistics
http://www.imha.ru/1144538057-povozki-v ... lni6fnhDWJ

This site shows all the different types of civilian wagons
http://www.mintorgmuseum.ru/vocabulary/381/
it does mention the use of GOST standards in the production of carts and wagons

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 29 Nov 2015 16:37

I have been looking for
Instructions for the creation and maintenance of fund "For defense - wagon with harness" in collective and state farms / Approved. NKO, CGN NKSKH the USSR and the Soviet Union 1941

NKO 00139/002510 Partial call to mobilize recruits 1922-23. Produce and supply the army horses, harness and wagon train in specific areas of the USSR рождения и поставка в армию лошадей, упряжи и обоза в отдельных областях СССР

I have found two mentions in the archival record of this Fund For Defence! - Wagons with harness. One in 1941 and the other in 1942. Here is the 1941 document:
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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 29 Nov 2015 16:38

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 29 Nov 2015 16:50

The restructuring of the national economy on a war footing,
organizing assistance to the front
About alerting Fund "Horse of the Red Army"
and "defense - wagon with harness"

From the decision number 68 of the narrowed meeting of the executive committee of the Altai Krai Soviets Bratislava August 13, 1941

1. Due to the fact that the mobilization of the bulk composition of the horse is taken from the fund "Horse of the Red Army", which significantly reduced the fund to provide further deliveries conditional horses Red Army, on the basis of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of August 20, 1938 for № 160/6 of the RSFSR People's Commissariat of Directive number M / 63 / 9/121 of 12.7.41g., In accordance with the instructions on the organization and content of the Foundation "LCA" collective and state farms, state, society-governmental institutions and enterprises, Krayispolkom NW DECIDED:

Set up of the fund, "Horse of the Red Army" in the field of oyrotskih the number "3247" goals. Including:
mature horses 1948
among them:
riding 803 animals
draught 172 animals
denoted 973 animals

young animals 1299
among them:
riding 537 animals
arteller. 115 animals
denoted 648 animals

Presented Kreis distribution plan for areas of the region to adopt
(attached). Release from the creation of the fund "LCA", as having a maleic
O horses completely Uglovsky area and malloinovye area Volchihinskoth and Rubtsovsky areas.

2. Under the responsibility predratsya / Mountains / executive committees of a 2-day period set to contain and bring to the economy in accordance with the position of the Fund "LCA" plan to fund "LCA" and until 27 August this year, ensure full dovydelenie missing in the prescribed manner to plan the number of horses on all farms.
Fund "LCA" to complement the best horse farms. Horses zane-
hay in the studbooks are not subject to the allocation of the fund.

3. To instruct the Pred.ray / Mountains / executive committees by 27 August this year, result in complete
readiness and foundation "Defense wagon with harness." In those economies where the fund was not created in whole or part of the fund where the carts have put the Red Army immediately dovydelit number of missing co-cording to NKOs, CGN and the People's Commissariat of the USSR from 24.10.40g. bringing the number to the size of the fund is fully plan.
Carts and harnesses do not meet the requirements of the fund to replace friction a super- same repair immediately repaired. Provide state funds wagon parts and accessories.

4. Rise and district executive committees through military enlistment office to establish a systematic overall control over the maintenance and operation of defense funds "Horses and carts with harness", demanding the heads of households you unconditional, complements the requirements of the instructions on the content of these funds.
Oblige Pred.ray / Mountains / executive committees for failing to plan for the fund "LCA" and "Defense wagon with harness," as well as mismanagement Soder-content of, feeding and the use of horses as well as the contents of carts with harness, conductive to at least temporarily unfit them for military and horse and carriage driving supplies, collective farm chairmen, directors heads of state and others. Organizations that are required to create funds will be prosecuted under martial law

5. Warn Chairmen paradise / Mountains / executive committees of their personal responsibility for the readiness of defense funds to delivery and implementation this decision NW executive committee.
Chairman of the executive committee Smerdov
Secretary NW of Atlantis

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 30 Nov 2015 09:46

From this we can conclude that for the Red Army, specialist horse drawn vehicles were supplied by organisations such as GAU Main Artillery Directorate and were items such as limbers, caissons, etc. But I cannot find any details of the types of these.

For the general purpose wagons and carts, these seem to have been made to a government standard pattern that was used in both military and civilian life, like on the state farms. So the information on the website quoted above would seem to hold good.

There does not seem to be the standardised range of 'military' wagons that the Germans used such as hf.1, hf.2 hf.7, etc.

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Re: Russian Army and Red Army Horse drawn wagons and carts

Post by Art » 30 Nov 2015 09:53

Der Alte Fritz wrote:From this we can conclude that for the Red Army, specialist horse drawn vehicles were supplied by organisations such as GAU Main Artillery Directorate and were items such as limbers, caissons, etc. But I cannot find any details of the types of these.
Description is available in service manuals for respective pieces.

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