Soviet Railways

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Der Alte Fritz
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Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 17 Feb 2016 08:34


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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 28 Jun 2016 08:28

What was the bridging equipment used by the Soviet Railway Troops for rebuilding damaged or destroyed railway bridges?

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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 02 Jul 2016 18:40

Found this reference to railway bridging material:

The bridge across the Don at Semiluki on the railway line Voronezh - Kastornaya (just outside Kursk)(bridge length 268 m, height 16 m, height of the embankment on the approaches to 13 m, the maximum depth of water in low water 7m) rebuilt during spring low water from 1 to 22 April 1943. The project was planned construction of 5 pile and pile-frame poles and supports over 2 ryazhevyh? destroyed capital supports.
The Spans overlap:
four crossing the floodplain by Voronezh -
with others riding on top 3x 18.5 + 1x 23.0, and four river-crossing collapsible CPM-31 spans of 45.12 m.

2,400 people worked on the project with 160 civilians a day coming from Voronezh

По проекту намечалось сооружение 5 свайных и свайно-рамных опор и 2 ряжевых опор над разрушенными капитальными опорами.Пролеты перекрывались: четыре пойменных со стороны Воронежа — пакетными с ездой поверху 3 х 18,5 + 1 х 23,0, а четыре речных — разборными пролетными строениями СРМ-31 пролетами 45,12 м.

http://militera.lib.ru/h/zheleznodorozh ... ka_rossii/

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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 02 Jul 2016 18:51

http://www.alexanderyakovlev.org/fond/i ... oc/1010695

A 1940 document which details the insufficient railway capacity through the newly acquired frontier regions of Eastern Poland which allowed only 310 trains a day compared to the German, Hungarian and Rumanian network which allowed 650 trains a day. Tables show each Railway companies traffic for individual lines, broken down into categories:

Пропускн. способность
Под опер. перевозки
Моб. перевозки
Снаб. перевозки
Для перевозки народно-хозяйственных грузов

I would be grateful if someone could confirm what these mean as they are abbrev.?

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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Art » 03 Jul 2016 09:26

The table shows planned distribution of different types of railroad traffic during mobilization period. Columns:
1. Section of road
2. Total capacity (here and after - pairs of trains)
3. Operational traffic (troops movements)
4. Mobilization traffic (men, horses, vehicles etc)
5. Supply traffic
6. Civil traffic

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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 03 Jul 2016 23:27

Вопрос не по теме, но близко. А кто собственно перешивал железнодорожные пути в Прибалтике? 
В составе РККА было 13 железнодорожных бригад (5 в составе особого железнодорожного корпуса и 8 в составе НКО). С бригадами особого корпуса полная ясность: 2 бригады остались на дальнем востоке а 3 согласно официальной истории ВОСО: "По решению правительства в районы Западной Украины были переброшены с Дальнего Востока 1, 4 и 5-я железнодорожные бригады особого корпуса железнодорожных войск в составе 18 строительно-путевых, 2 мостовых железнодорожных батальонов, 2 батальонов и 3 рот механизации железнодорожных работ, 3 рот связи и 3 эксплуатационных железнодорожных рот. Уже в начале марта все перечисленные части выполнили работы на линиях: Проскуров – Ярмолинцы – Копычинцы – Белобожница, Новоград-Волынский – Шепетовка – Лановцы – Тернополь – Потуторы – Ходоров, Красне – Сапежанка и на Львовском железнодорожном узле." 
А вот с бригадами НКО ясно не совсем. Согласно официальной истории ВОСО: 
"Во исполнение этого приказа семь из восьми железнодорожных бригад НКО были переброшены на западные границы СССР и развернули строительство новых железнодорожных линий: 1) Барановичи – Тимковичи – 6-я и 17-я железнодорожные бригады; 2) Беловежа – Оранчицы – 9-я железнодорожная бригада; 3) Луцк – Бойница – 15-я железнодорожная бригада; 4) Вапнярка – Ямполь – 19-я и 29-я железнодорожные бригады; 5) Ямполь – Окница – 13-я железнодорожная бригада". 
Таким образом из 8 бригад 3 в составе ЗОВО и 4 в составе КОВО, Прибалтийский округ не упоминается. Единственное упоминание о железнодорожной бригаде ПрибОВО мне лично попадалось у Иринархова "Прибалтийский особый". 
Упоминается 15 (30) бригада, которая завершила работы в Литве и была занята реконструкцией Таллинского узла и еще ряда узлов в Эстонии. Не сильно верю... по официальной истории 15-я железнодорожная бригада работает на участке Луцк – Бойница. Может быть речь идет о 30 бригаде, созданной с началом войны на базе 15 бригады (с началом войны каждая бригада разворачивалась в 2)? 
Еще более путанная информация на сайте rkkka.ru, который говорит о наличии в составе Северо-западного фронта 9, 11, и 15 бригад. 
- 9 бригада, постоянно базировавшаяся в ЛВО, переброшена в ЗОВО на участок Беловежа – Оранчицы , об этом упоминается как в официальной истории так и в воспоминаниях. 
- 11 бригада, формируется на базе 9 бригады в Ораниенбауме после начала ВОВ. 
О 15 бригаде я писал выше. 
Так кто-же строил железные дороги в Прибалтике? 


Question off topic but close. And who actually altering the railway track in the Baltic States?
The RED ARMY had 13 rail crews (5 of Special Railway Corps and 8 in NKO). With the special team Corps clear: 2 brigade remained in the far East and 3 according to the official history of VOSO: "by the decision of the Government in the areas of Western Ukraine were transferred from the far East 1, 4and 5-th Brigade of special chassis rail railway troops, composed of 18 construction and travel, 2 bridge railway battalions, 2 battalions and 3 mechanization railway works, 3 mouth and 3 operating railway companies. In early March, all of the listed parts carried out on the lines of:Proskuriv-Yarmolincy-Kopychincy-Belobožnica, Novohrad-Volynsky-Shepetovka, Ternopol-Potutory-Lanivtsi-Khodoriv, krasne-Sapežanka and at Lviv railroad node. "
But with the teams of the NKO is not quite clear. According to the official history of VOSO:
"In pursuance of this order of seven of the eight rail crews were transferred to the NKO the western border of the USSR and started construction of a new railway lines: 
1) Baranovichi-Tsimkavichy-6-I-17and I train crews; 
2) Bialowieza-Orančicy-9-I train crew; 
3) Lutsk-Loophole-15-I train crew; 
4)Vapnyarka-Yampil-19-th and 29th Brigade's railway;
5) Yampil-Ocnita-13-I Railway Brigade. "

Thus out of 3 brigades consisting of 8 ZOVO and 4 of KOVO, the Baltic region is not mentioned. The only mention of the train crew PribOVO me personally came from Irinarhova "Baltic special".
Mentions 15 (30) team, which completed its work in Lithuania was occupied by the reconstruction siteof Tallinn and a number of other sites in Estonia. Not strongly believe ... According to the officialhistory of the 15-team works on the railway I stretch of Lutsk-Loophole. Maybe it is about 30 Brigadewas created by the war on the basis of 15 Brigade (with the war was unfolding in each Brigade 2)?
Even more putannaâ information on the website rkkka.ru, which is a part of the Northwestern front 9,11, or 15 brigades.
-9 Brigade permanently based in LVO, moved into the area of Bialowieza ZOVO-Orančicy, mentionedin the official history and memories.
-11 Brigade, formed on the basis of 9 Brigade in oranienbaum after the start of World War II.
About 15 Brigade I wrote above.
So who's built railroads in the Baltic States?

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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 06 Jul 2016 07:35

Restoration of Polish Network 1940 and 1941.jpg
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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 06 Jul 2016 07:43

The map shows the railways covered by Документ № 48 Справка начальника Военных сообщений Красной Армии о необходимой пропускной способности железных дорог по воинскому графику 1941 года [12.07.1940] document. ЦА МО РФ. Ф. 16. Оп. 2951. Д. 242. Лл. 164–167.

Most railway lines across the border region are covered which adds up to a huge amount of track and a high standard of construction. The Minsk Brest line is put at 72 pairs of trains a day as are the Lemburg lines.

At the same time the railways have to:
1) Transport the Army forwards to occupy the new frontier
2) Transport the defences of the old border such as the Stalin Line and the Military Districts forward
3) Relocate some of the existing population away from the border region into the interior
4) Change the gauge from the Polish standard one to the USSR Union gauge.

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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 06 Jul 2016 09:49

Soviet account of state of railways in Occupied Poland (Western Ukraine and Belorussian) taken from Transport in the Great Patriotic War - Kovalev

Quote:
They came liberation campaign of the Red Army, which began September 17, 1939 As a result of his Western Belarus and Western Ukraine were rescued from Nazi oppression.*A dream come true western Belarusians and Ukrainians of reunification with Belarus and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.Military transportation during the liberation of Western Belarus and Western Ukraine were carried out in a number of military districts.
Quote:
As a result of the liberation campaign of the Red Army threshold at which to focus the fascist hordes to attack the Soviet Union, moved west to 300-350 km.*But the more important factor was perceived by some people simply, in particular without a thorough analysis of transport problems.*Meanwhile, the transport network is liberated territories of Western Belarus and Western Ukraine had its own peculiarities that must be taken into account.
Traffic routes in Western Ukraine and Western Belarus in 1939 were almost destroyed.*The railway network there was a relatively thick: it was created mainly at a time when these areas were part of the Russian Empire (and only a small part of Western Ukraine - the Austro-Hungarian Empire).*According to the cross-border provision of these areas the railway network was designed with the strategic appointment.*However, over the years between the two world wars, according to the general attitudes of the authorities*[24]*bourgeois Poland, see Western Ukraine and Western Belarus as Polish colony, railways these areas derelict.*They have been altered to Western European gauge (1435 mm), with some of the lines was made ​​the second main road, and the rails were used in the construction and reconstruction of roads in Poland itself.*New lines have been built a little bit, and all of them were built in preparation for war with the Soviet Union.*On most of the rail network in Western Ukraine and Western Belarus traffic volume in 1939 was at about 1913 Density of traffic almost everywhere was 1.5-2 million tkm / km or less, and only on the line Lviv - Przemysl exceed 5 million tkm / km.*{61}
Quote:
The length of railways in Western Ukraine and Western Belarus was 6.7 thousand km (including 4.9 thousand km of single track and 1.8 thousand km of double-track lines).*The roads were narrow gauge, and locomotive and car fleet heterogeneous.*Thus, the locomotive fleet of 120 steam locomotive 5264 series fleet of passenger cars - 129 types of freight car fleet - 60 types.*Rails and rolling stock were characterized not only large multi-type, but worn.*Almost 80% of locomotives, mostly foreign-built, were older than 15 years.*The average age of passenger cars was 28 years, cargo - 23 years.*Due to the large excess of the rolling stock (in stock was more than 25% of locomotives and almost 20% of freight wagons), cheap labor and the absence of mechanical means to repair the park in no hurry, repair base was poorly developed.
Quote:
In general, a fairly large in these areas density rail network capacity and carrying capacity of was low.*Calculations showed that the ability of trains to supply the new boundaries were reduced by more than 2 times.*Enemy could bring to the new western border of the USSR, as will be shown below, at least 2 times more trains than we do.
Quote:
The General Staff, especially since it was headed by Zhukov insisted on an dual gauge rolling stock to connect Western Belarus and Western Ukraine to broad gauge track, their technical reconstruction with bringing traffic, freight and unloading capabilities to a level which was achieved on the railways in the old borders.*The calculations showed that it would take about 10 billion rubles.*(Prices of those years).
Quote:
Decision on Altering and technical reconstruction of roads was taken only at the end of 1940, to which the Soviet government allocated large funds.*To the west were transferred part of the Special Corps of railway troops in the border districts, in addition to existing there individual railway regiments formed eight new railway brigades*{65}*, the People's Commissariat of Defense, the Far East and other parts of the country imported a large number of rails, sleepers and other materials .*By the spring of 1941, conditions were created for the work on the reconstruction of railways.
Quote:
By the time of the development of traffic schedule for the summer of 1941 in the strategically important Kowel railway malfunctioned, the main factors were performed poorly.*In particular, the train speed was lower than planned*{66}*.*The presence of Western European gauge on three sections of road congestion and create unnecessary congestion nodes.*
Quote:
True, Kovel road entered the Soviet network shortly before the war.*Besides technical equipment of roads adjacent to the western border of the old country, was not up to scratch.

Quote:
the situation in the border area in the transport relations were not in our favor.*Weak capacity of the railway to the west of the old borders of the USSR was the bottleneck of the transport pipeline.*So, in the east on the six railway lines with nine different tracks to the train Rokad Ovruch - Korosten - Shepetovka - Kamenetz-Podolsk could bring 259 trains a day (and the same to send back).*But to the west of this belt, the railway passes only*five railway direction with six tracks, which was passed only 108 pairs of trains.*Within Western Ukraine total capacity existing there six to eight railway lines of gauge is 168 pairs per day.*Railways in the Baltics, as noted, were low-capacity, stations in areas near the border of East Prussia were not ready for the mass unloading troops.
When the Germans came to cross this area they initially aimed for 25 trains a day each way for each Army Group ie. 75 trains a day, by around September.

So it seems pretty clear from the Soviet accounts that Soviet Poland had just finished converting gauge but had not had much in the way of track improvement or building of new lines, stations, etc before the German invasion of June 1941. Since Soviet Poland has 6,700km of railways of which 1,800 km is double tracked and 4,900 km single tracked the cost of reconstruction of 10,000 million rubles at 1940 prices and a construction time of two years is in line with the Five Year Plan figures of 3,370 million rubles for 1936 investment. This was clearly a large project.

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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 06 Jul 2016 10:09

I translated the entire document and you can see the other one (which is simply about the allocation of workers) here: http://liewar.ru/dokumenty/219-nakanune ... =&start=18, the first one is No 103 and the second one is No 106.

"On the plan of railway construction on the roads of South-West, West and North-West of the USSR and ensuring its implementation"

Extract from the resolution number No.309-146ss CPSU (b) and SNK
Moscow 14 February 1941

Top Secret

Assuming that the most important task of railway construction in 1941 to increase the capacity of roads in South-West, West and North-West of the USSR Central Committee VKP (b) and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR decide:

On the Brest-Litovsk railway
27. Construct a second track Zhabinka-Mikashevichy (and further Kalinkavichy). Bring capacity in 1941 in this area up to 30 pairs of trains and in 1942 to 48 pairs. To allocate for this work in 1941, 47.0 million. Rubles.
28. Make the development of Baranovichi site with the construction of the floor slides, a new Sorting Yard, car repair depot, increased water supply, reconstruction of the depot and power plants, construction of offices and cultural and community buildings. To allocate for this work in 1941, 10.7 million. Rubles.
On the Bialystok railway
29. To begin the construction of a new railway line Oranchitsy-Bialowieza and increase capacity of line Bialowieza Bielsko creating sidings at Cheremkha, Brest. To allocate for this work in 1941, 10 million. Rubles.
30. To begin the construction of the second track Zagat-Molodechno-Bogdanov for 140 km double-track direction Bologoe-Cheremkha. Bring capacity in 1941 in this area up to 36 pairs of trains. To allocate for this work in 1941, 35 million. Rubles.
31. To begin the construction of the second track Olekhnovichy-Molodechno (Minsk-Molodechno direction), for 30km in 1941. Appropriate to this work 5 million. Rubles.

32. Carry out work on the development of Bialystok site with increased water supply, depot equipment, build a site GRP. To allocate for this work in 1941, 5.0 million. Rubles.
On the Western Railway
33. Build a new railway line direction Lepel-Krulevshchizna stretch of 65 km to create an additional route in the direction of Orsha and Vilna. Appropriation to the construction in 1941 of 20 million. Rubles.
34. Construct a second track at bottlenecks on the direction of Minsk-Olekhnovichy for 48 km, Polotsk-Zagato 44 km and finish the construction of the second track Polotsk-Bigosovo.To allocate for this work in 1941, 23 million. Rubles.
35. Perform reconstruction of 350 km of track on the Moscow-Negoreloye. To allocate for this work in 1941, 52.5 million. Rubles.
36. Carry out work on the development of the Minsk site, track maintenance depot and water supplies. Allocated in 1941 8.1 million. Rubles.
On the Belarusian Railway
37. Build a new railway Timkovichi-line Baranovichi stretch of 70 km, creating a new route in the direction of Mogilev-Ossipovichi-Bialystok. To allocate for this work in 1941, 25 million. Rubles for the opening of the temporary track.
38. Construct second tracks at bottlenecks railway line Mikashevichi- Kalinkavichy (continued construction of Brest-Zhabinka-Mikashevichy). To allocate for this work in 1941, 23 million. Rubles.
63. To instruct the Communist Party Central Committees of the Union Republics, the Regional Committee of People's Commissars of the Union and autonomous republics and regional executive committees allocate for one year 128,000 construction workers to work on the construction of the People's Commissariat of Defense following republics and regions:
Name of the republics and regions
The number of workers allocated to defense construction Including: / to March 15, 1941 / to April 1, 1941
Allocated to Ukrainian SSR 57000 / 28500 / 28500
Including:
Kiev 6000 3000 3000
Kirovograd 6000 3000 3000
Poltava 5000 2500 2500
Vinnytsia 7000 3500 3500
Lviv 5000 2500 2500
Tarnopolskaya 6000 3000 3000
Odessa 5000 2500 2500
Mykolaiv 4000 2000 2000
Chernihiv 4000 2000 2000
Dnipropetrovsk 4000 2000 2000
Sums 5000 2500 2500
Allocated to Byelorussian SSR 13000 6500 6500
Latvian SSR 10000 5000 5000
Lithuanian SSR 10000 5000 5000
Moldavian SSR 6000 3000 3000
Voronezh 6000 3000 3000
Penza 4000 2000 2000
Orel 4000 2000 2000
Smolensk 5000 2500 2500
Bashkir ASSR 7000 3500 3500
Tatar ASSR 6000 3000 3000

Oblige the People's Commissariat of workers selected by national and regional organizations to send to build organized echelons.
Allow NKPS a single lump grant in the amount of 150 rubles each work aimed at building and concluded a contract for one year of work.
66. To instruct the Executive Committee, in whose territory the construction of defense facilities, to provide housing for workers sent to the villages located in the arrangement of buildings.
67. Allow People's Commissars of the Union and autonomous republics and regional executive committees to retain the farmers, aimed to work on railway construction defense, the right to receive a cash payment of products and free of other types of services provided by collective farms.
70. Allow NKPS:
c) produce occupation of land for the construction of defense facilities in coordination with the USSR CPC, CPC BSSR People's Commissars of the Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian, Lithuanian SSR and local executive committees to approval by the CPC of the USSR.
NKPS collective farms reimburse the costs of land acquisition, money.
75. Allow the People's Commissariat of Railways to make transfers within 5% of appropriations for capital construction prescribed by this Decision.
The Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the People's Commissars of the USSR oblige the Communist Party (Bolshevik), Communist Party (Bolsheviks), CP (B) of Moldavia, CP (b) of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and the relevant People's Commissars, regional committees and regional executive committees to provide on-site help stroyorganizatsy NKPS and ensure the implementation of the present resolution on defense railway construction.
The Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the People's Commissars of the USSR People's Commissariat require proper staffing and building organizations to fulfill the present regulation plan for major defense works on the railway construction.

Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b)
Stalin
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR
Molotov

NARB. F. 4n. Op. 21. D. 2311. L. 38-41. Certified copy.
Notes:
1 The resolution was adopted at a meeting of the Bureau of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of 08.03.1941, protocol number 50, paragraph 8. Extract sent to the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
Last edited by Der Alte Fritz on 06 Jul 2016 10:23, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 06 Jul 2016 10:11

Image

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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 06 Jul 2016 10:12

Given that this document covers the following railway companies:
South Western - main line Kiev - Fastov- Kasatin
Western - main line through Minsk to old 1939 border
North Western - runs up towards Lithuania

most of the construction is focused in the old Polish region beyond the USSR's 1939 borders. I have marked the 1939 borders and the 1941 borders on the map in green and using this German map have been able to see what work was completed by the German invasion of June 1941, this is marked in blue while the uncompleted work is marked in red. Most of the projects were raising the traffic level to 30 trains which would indicate that it was 12 or 24 trains a day at the time.

Given that 128,000 workers were committed for a year to this project, it would seem to be very substantial.

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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 06 Jul 2016 10:19

These later posts are taken from the German Railways in the East topic in the Economy Index
http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic. ... t=feb+1941

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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 06 Jul 2016 10:27

From the same source:
№72
Report command WSMD Defense Commissar of the USSR, SK Tymoshenko "Results of the combat training of troops of the Western Special Military District for the 1939-1940 school year"

October 29, 1940
Number 005208

Top secret
11. Подготовка железнодорожных частей

1. Тактическая подготовка

На инспекторских смотрах ж.-д. части поверялись по теме: «Марш с переходом к круговой обороне». Оценки: Хорошо — 5 ж.-д. полк, 8 узкоколейный батальон. Посредственно — 3 ж.-д. полк, 5, 8, 14 отд. ж.-д. батальоны и 23 отд. эксплуатационная рота.

Основные недочеты тактической подготовки: а) слаба связь между охранением и главными силами; б) командиры рот неумело работают на карте; в) неумелый выбор района обороны.

2. Огневая подготовка. Итоги в приложении № 4. Слабо отработано 2 упражнение начальных стрельб.

3. Строевая подготовка. Во всех ж.-д. частях строевая подготовка вполне удовлетворительная.

4. Специальная подготовка

Проходила на учебных городках частей, на центральном ж.-д. полигоне и на железных дорогах западных областей Белоруссии. Ж.-д. части получили большой опыт практической работы по перешивке ж.-д. колей. Эти работы дали возможность хорошо подготовить путейцев и, главным образом, костылыциков. Всего с европейской колеи на колею СССР перешито 1376 км. Выработан темп перешивки: 11—13 чел. на один км пути, что превышает нормы НКПС на 180—250%. По качеству — работы ниже как на оценку «хорошо» не сдавались. Кроме перешивки главных путей, ж.-д. войск перешивали стрелки и станционные пути. Такие ж.-д. узлы, как Барановичи и Лида, перешиты почти исключительно ж.-д. частями. Кроме указанного, 5 ж.-д. полк, работая в зимних условиях, произвел постройку подъездной ветки протяжением в 11, 16 км.

По годовому смотру ж.-д. войск специальная их подготовка получила оценку «хорошо», кроме 14 отд. жел. дорожного и 8 узкоколейного батальонов, имеющих оценку «посредственно».

Недостатки: а) технические условия постройки жел. дорог, организацию земляных работ с использованием средств механизации комсостав знает слабо; б) слабо делается разбивка земляных работ, резервов и кавалиров; в) комсостав путевых подразделений не имеет навыка в организации мостовых работ.

Необходимо и в дальнейшем ж.-д. части использовать в обучении на практической работе по расширению ж.-д. станций, разъездов, перешивке колеи и устройству объездных путей.

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Der Alte Fritz
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Re: Soviet Railways

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 06 Jul 2016 10:35

To sum up a comparison of the two maps - the one of mobilisation plans from July 1940 and the one about railway upgrades in Feb 1941 shows that progress was slow in implementing the plan. The Feb 1941 upgrade had not been carried out by the time of the invasion on 22nd June 1941.

For instance the Pinsk Railway was supposed to carry 30 pairs of trains a day but the 1941 upgrade only raises it to 27.
The Bialystock railway upgrades to 30 trains when the plan specifies 36 trains
The Molodeczno is planned to carry 36 trains but the upgrade specifies 34 trains
Around Smolensk it was planned to have 72 trains but the upgrade only lists 35

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