Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 02 Feb 2020 17:26

OpanaPointer wrote:
02 Feb 2020 15:17
Interbellum wrote:
02 Feb 2020 15:03
OpanaPointer wrote:
02 Feb 2020 11:58
Quite likely. When they call up the very old and very young we know they're worried.
What was the motivation to post this? Let’s discuss technical aspects of weaponry and their use!
I was talking logistics. I leave tactics to the amateurs.
You was talking mustaches not logistics, ahaha :D

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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 02 Feb 2020 19:24

Didn't have time to post the short info about 45-mm AT guns, so here it is! The colour photo see in my yesterday's post above :wink: .

Crew of the 45-mm anti-tank gun model 1942 (M-42) in combat under the cover of a smoke screen, Central Front, June 1943.

45-mm anti-tank guns formed the backbone of the Red Army anti-tank artillery in the pre-war period and in the first years of WWII. The 45-mm anti-tank gun model 1937 (53K) was inspired by the design of the 37-mm German Pak 35/36 anti-tank gun, it had a split trail gun carriage, a spring suspension with automobile-type wheels and a semi-automatic vertical wedge breechblock. Armor-piercing and armor-piercing tracer shells were used for firing at tanks, armored vehicles and firing points. At a range of 500 m with an angle of 90 degrees they pierced 43 mm armor, and at a range of 1000 m - 32 mm armor. An armor-piercing discarding sabot shell at a range of 500 m with an angle of 90 degrees pierced 66 mm armor, and at a close distance of 100 m - 88 mm armor. During the first year of the war, these figures were quite sufficient to deal with all Wehrmacht tanks. The 45-mm anti-tank guns model 1937 were produced by Plant No. 8 named after M.I. Kalinin in Podlipki near Moscow from 1938 to January 1941, in total 13647 guns were manufactured. The production of these 45-mm anti-tank guns curtailed before the war was restored at an exceptionally short time at several plants once the Axis invasion to USSR started; so in 1942-1943 additional 37354 45-mm anti-tank guns model 1937 were produced. These guns were used by anti-tank platoons of rifle battalions (2 guns in each platoon) and anti-tank battalions of rifle divisions (12 guns in each battalion). They also armed independent anti-tank regiments, consisting of 4-5 batteries (16-20 guns per regiment). In the design bureau of Plant No. 172 named after V.M. Molotov, located in Motovilikha (suburb of Molotov, now Perm), the 45-mm anti-tank gun model 1937 was modernized in order to increase its armor penetration more than by 1/3 and ensure ability to reliably hit German medium tanks Panzer III and Panzer IV at ranges up to 500 m - so the new 45-mm anti-tank gun model 1942 (M-42) with longer barrel appeared. In total, 10983 45-mm anti-tank guns model 1942 (M-42) were produced by Plant No. 172 from January 1943 to 1946, they replaced soon 45-mm anti-tank guns model 1937 (53K) in Soviet anti-tank regiments and brigades.
Last edited by Interbellum on 03 Feb 2020 01:37, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Art » 02 Feb 2020 19:58

Friends, let's avoid exchange of personal remarks.

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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Art » 02 Feb 2020 21:32

Two posts going offtopic were removed.

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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 02 Feb 2020 21:37

Writer and war correspondent Konstantin Simonov with his colleagues from Izvestia newspaper stays alongside overheated GAZ-4 pickup car, Belorussia, near Mogilev, 15 July 1941.

Pickups of Gorky Automobile Plant (GAZ) - GAZ-4 (based on GAZ-A car chassis, 10648 were produced in 1933-1937) and GAZ M-415 (based on GAZ M-1 car chassis, 5382 were produced in 1939-1941) - were used as civil light utility vehicles of city mail service mainly. But GAZ-4 pickups were used also in the Red Army to deliver military reports, light cargos (up to 400-500 kg) or to carry as many as 6 soldiers. In 1932, the experimental airborne GAZ-4 pickup equipped with a machine-gun, strengthened suspension and cowl in front of radiator was built to be transported on external store by TB-1 or TB-3 bombers. There were command cars equipped with 5AK Prisma radio station, vans with high top and 5AK-1 radio station with two antennas (1937) and ambulance cars with enclosed all-metal body for 1 lying patient or 4-6 sitting patients - all based on GAZ-4. It should be noted that the car frame of civil GAZ-4 could not withstand heavy loads, twisted and the car actually torn in half quite often. New GAZ M-415 pickups were more reliable, they proved to be excellent light trucks in winter 1939-1940 during the Soviet-Finnish war (the first case of use GAZ pickups in combat conditions). In 1940 the prototypes of GAZ-11-415 (with more powerful GAZ-11 engine) and GAZ-61-415 (all-wheel-drive pickup) appeared, also 36 all-wheel-drive light artillery tractors GAZ-61-417 with a simplified car body were produced in 1941, but Axis invasion ceased their further production. Many GAZ M-415 pickups were sent to the front, for instance, they participated actively in transportations during the Battle of Moscow, one GAZ M-415 equipped with a radio station was used that time by headquarters of general Konstantin Rokossovsky, commander of the 16th Army. Almost all these civil pickups were lost during heavy conditions of front service, only two are known to survive by now...
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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 05 Feb 2020 22:09

Medium tank T-34 model 1942 equipped with the mine roller PT-3 during a battle service test, Kursk salient, summer 1943.

The wide use of mines during WWII raised a question of creating tank trawls. There was already some experience in the USSR, even before the war various types of tank trawls were tested there — rollers, flails, plows and others. In 1942, PT-3 mine treadway roller was developed. This trawl could be easily disassembled from a tank and transported in a truck. PT-3 was one of the best mine trawls of the time and it was effectively used in combats of WWII. In autumn 1942, PT-3 (PT-34) mine roller was modernized so that it could be installed not only on T-34 medium tanks, but also on KV heavy tanks. In March 1943, the production of this mine roller started in Tula machine-building plant. These mine rollers were used in engineer-tank regiments, which provided the successful overcoming of minefields by tank formations during the breakthrough of prepared enemy defense. In November 1943, the first such engineer-tank regiment consisted of two T-34 tank companies received baptism of fire on the Voronezh Front in the Kiev direction. This attack of Soviet tanks against the front line of enemy defense without preliminary minefield breaching was a complete surprise for the enemy and contributed to the success of the offensive. The good experience of using PT-3 mine rollers during the liberation of Kiev was used to create 5 motorized engineer-sapper brigades (1st, 2nd, 4th, 10th and 2nd Guards) in spring 1944, each of which included 1 engineer-tank regiment with PT-3 mine rollers (22 T-34 medium tanks and 18 mine rollers per regiment, in each engineer-tank company of the regiment there were 6 T-34 medium tanks with mine rollers - so 2 platoons of 3 tanks-mine exploders). On a larger scale, PT-3 mine rollers were used in 1944 during the liberation of Belorussia. So, in operation Bagration 4 separate engineer-tank regiments participated - 148th and 253rd from the 3rd Belorussian Front, 199th and 166th from the 1st Belorussian Front. PT-3 mine rollers were used quite active also during Soviet offensive operations in the Baltic states and on the Karelian Isthmus in summer 1944. Despite some shortcomings (eliminated during mass production), PT-3 mine rollers demonstrated their reliability and efficiency. In 1945 an improved model PT-3M (PT-M) was developed, recommended for use with KV and IS heavy tanks, and KV-1S was the best suited - its eight-speed gearbox provided better mobility with a mine roller, and the short gun was not damaged by mine fragments (due to the long-barreled gun the tankers were forced to elevate them while mine exploding to the maximum angle in order to avoid gun damage, so it was recommended not to use mine rollers with the T-34-85, T-44, IS-2 and IS-3 tanks in combat conditions).
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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 07 Feb 2020 22:17

Willys MB off-road light military utility vehicles with Soviet scouts and crews of anti-tank rifles, Voronezh Front, summer 1943.

Willys MB, an American 4WD light military utility vehicle, was, without any doubt, the most legendary and popular car of WWII. This vehicle was used by Allies forces in all WWII theaters of operations since 1942. The delivery of Whillys jeeps to USSR started in summer 1942, they were transported mainly in a diassembled state in wooden boxes. Then they were assembled by one of the plants in Kolomna (Moscow Oblast). In total, until the end of the war, the Soviet Union received 50501 Willys cars. In the Red Army, they were used, first of all, as artillery tractors for 45-mm anti-tank guns with caisson as well as command vehicles. Soviet drivers appreciated the Willys for its good cross-country ability, high speed and maneuverability, also for small dimensions, providing easy camouflaging. Its use in combat conditions showed that as a command and reconnaissance vehicle it fully met its role, but it was not suitable for use as artillery tractor due to insufficient engine power.
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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 08 Feb 2020 22:36

130-mm naval gun model 1935 (B-13) in battle position, Soviet coastal battery on the Karelian Isthmus, Vyborg, 1944.

130-mm naval gun model 1935 (B-13) was the most famous Soviet naval gun of WWII period. By the beginning of 1941, there were 378 B-13 guns on warships and coastal batteries: 20 with a fine rifling of the barrel (16 of them were on the warships of the Black Sea Fleet), a small part of the guns with an ANIMI rifling of the barrel (developed by ANIMI, Artillery Research Marine Institute) and most - with a NII-13 rifling of the barrel (developed by NII-13, Research Institute No. 13). In addition, 108 guns model 1913 still remained in service, on the basis of which the B-13 was created. The presence of three different barrel riflings (designed to solve the problem of increasing barrel survivability) required various shells, shooting tables and sights, and this fact, of course, caused complaints from the seamen. During the war, 130-mm B-13 guns became the most common Soviet medium-calibre naval guns - they were installed on all destroyer leaders and destroyers of the Soviet era until 1945, a number of gunboats and some minelayers. By summer 1941, 169 of these guns were installed in the coastal defense batteries also, and during the war several dozens more were installed on stationary positions near Moscow, Sevastopol, Novorossiysk, in Crimea on Perekop and elsewhere. Also, B-13 guns, stayed on railway platforms, fought as a part of armored trains or railway batteries. During the war years, a number of shortcomings of the B-13 gun turned into its advantages. For example, the absence of electric drives of gun laying and manual bag loading (initially the engineers of the Bolshevik plant designed a quick-firing loading with a hydropneumatic rammer and electric drives, but they were canceled by the fleet command to reduce the cost of the gun) - thanks to this, guns designed for destroyers could be installed during just a few hours on the decks of barges, scows, ordinary railway platforms or improvised foundations in an open field. Neither electrical power supply nor a fire control radar system were needed. Initially, the B-13 guns were produced with a box-shaped shield (the first series), from the second half of 1939 the guns were produced with a streamlined shield (the second series, B-13-Is guns). In total, from May 1935 to 1954, 885 units were produced.
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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 15 Feb 2020 15:34

This PPD-40 submachine gun has a sector sight of the pre-war type but its simplified shoulder belt with ties was made in 1942-1943.
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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 16 Feb 2020 20:26

Some short info about submachine guns designed by V.A. Degtyaryov. 7.62-mm Degtyaryov submachine gun model 1934 (PPD-34) was officially accepted for arming the Red Army commanders only on July 9th, 1935. Because of this fact and also because of high price and low technological adaptability of PPD-34 to mass production only 5084 were produced by Plant No.2 in Kovrov (44 in 1934, 23 in 1935, 911 in 1936, 1291 in 1937, 1115 in 1938 and 1700 in 1939). After army tests took place in 1935-1937, the reliability of PPD-34 was improved, but in 1939 its production was cancelled. It was ordered to withdraw PPDs from the army and to send them to military depots for storage, onle a small amount of these submachine guns remained in NKVD forces (border troops and convoy troops). But when the Soviet-Finnish (Winter) war began, the successful use of Suomi KP/-31 submachine gun by Finns during the combats on Mannerheim Line impressed Soviet soldiers and commanders a lot, so in front reports they asked to equip with submachine guns at least one squad per company. So PPDs, kept in military depots and used by border troops, were immediately sent to the army units fought in Finland; the production of PPD started again in December 1939. On January 6th, 1940, an improved and technologically simplified Degtyaryov submachine gun model 1934/38 (PPD-34/38) was accepted for arming the Red Army. In March 1940, the Kovrov Plant started the production of the modernized Degtyaryov submachine gun model 1940 (PPD-40), and 81118 units were produced in 1940. In 1941, much more reliable and suitable for mass production Shpagin submachine gun (PPSh-41) appeared, but the production of PPD-40 was continued in Leningrad (since summer 1941 - by Sestroretsk Tool Plant and since December 1941 - by Plant named after A.A. Kulakov), 42870 units were produced in 1941-1942 during the Siege of Leningrad for the troops of Leningrad and Karelian Fronts. Also additional 5000 PPD-40 were assembled during the war from remained parts by Kovrov Plant.

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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 17 Feb 2020 22:36

Some amount of PPD-34 was sent to Republican Spain in 1936. About 5500 PPD-40 were given to the National Liberation Army of Yugoslavia in 1944.

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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 22 Feb 2020 16:56

Motor torpedo boat TKA-15 of D-3 type in Polyarny naval base, the Northern Fleet, 1942.

In 1939, a long-range motor torpedo boat of D-3 type was designed under the leadership of L.L. Yermash. Unlike small motor torpedo boats of Sh-4 and G-5 types, seagoing MTBs of D-3 type were intended for torpedo attacks not only in coastal areas, but also in the close sea zone away from basing sites. The hull of D-3 was made from two-layer wood - the inner layer of pine swelled and tightened the minor damages and holes. The straight deck made it possible, if necessary, to transport up to a platoon of marines. Along with the wooden D-3, its analogue with the steel hull, SM-3 was developed also, but it remained in a single copy. On MTBs of D-3 type, for the first time, two side hook torpedo launchers were installed, which made it possible to launch a torpedo salvo even from a stop. Small arms consisted of two 12.7-mm DShK machine guns. In the stern of MTB there was a depth-charge rack for eight depth charges. D-3 MTBs were built by Plant No. 5 in Leningrad, 26 boats of the first series were produced in 1940-1941.
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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 23 Feb 2020 17:02

In 1943, the production of MTBs of D-3 type was mastered by the Plant No. 640 in Sosnovka (Kirov Oblast). The MTBs of the second series had more powerful engines, providing speed of up to 45 knots, and 20-mm ShVAK gun in addition to two 12.7-mm DShK machine-guns. In 1943-1945, shipyard in Sosnovka built 47 MTBs of D-3 type of the second series. The lead MTB of D-3 type in August 1940 was included into the Black Sea Fleet. On June 13, 1942, this MTB sank the Italian midget submarine CB-5, and on August 1, together with SM-3 MTB, sank the German landing craft barge (Marinefährprahm) F 334. The serial MTBs of D-3 type were delivered mainly to the Northern Fleet, where their seaworthiness was very much in demand. They also had a quite high survivability. For instance, during the landing operation in Finnish Liinahamari (October 12-14, 1944), in which two groups of MTBs of the Northern Fleet participated under the command of captain-lieutenant A.O. Shabalin and captain 2nd rank S.G. Korshunovich, Soviet MTBs came under German strong artillery fire. TKA-114 received damage to the rudder control rod, but using engines only the crew took the ship out of fire. As it turned out, there were about 200 holes in the hull of that MTB of D-3 type. TKA-209 under the command of senior lieutenant A.I. Kisov was even more tenacious of life - in May 1944, German aviation attacked it near the Kiy Islands (Varangerfjord), 320 holes appeared in the MTB hull from machine gun and cannon fire and bomb fragments, however, the crew not only saved their MTB of D-3 type, but also shot down one enemy aircraft. The most famous among MTBs of D-3 type was TKA-12. Built in Leningrad, it was transported by rail to Murmansk together with 4 other MTBs on August 1, 1941. Under the command of junior lieutenant A.O. Shabalin, this MTB entered the 1st independent division of motor torpedo boats of Guard the sea area of ​​the Main base of the Northern Fleet. On the first combat duty on September 11, 1941, during an attack on a convoy, TKA-12 torpedoed an enemy escort ship converted from a fishing trawler (Vorpostenboot). Three weeks later, in the Varangerfjord, TKA-12 sank a coaster transported German cargos and MTB’s crew became the first fully-awarded crew in the Northern Fleet. On December 22, 1943, during an attack on a convoy in the Varangerfjord, TKA-12 sustained serious damages, but its commander, lieutenant G.M. Palamarchuk wounded in both legs, successfully brought the MTB to the base. By February 1944, TKA-12 had 7 victories. On July 15, 1944, near the Bøkfjord, TKA-12 under the command of senior lieutenant L.G. Chepelkin sank enemy coaster, which became the last victory of this MTB. After the war, TKA-12 was handed over to the Museum of the Northern Fleet, and in 1983 it was installed on Courage Square in Severomorsk as a part of the Memorial to MTB sailors.

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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 24 Feb 2020 16:31

Horse artillery with 76-mm mountain gun model 1938 moves to the new firing position, North Caucasus, defense of Tuapse, 1942.

The deployment of Soviet mountain rifle divisions since 1935 required the development of a new artillery for them, the features of which were determined by a poor network of narrow mountain roads, tight firing positions with rocky ground, an abundance of dead zones and the need to fire both on flat and high trajectories. The 76-mm mountain gun model 1909 available in the Red Army did not satisfy a number of requirements, especially in terms of maneuvering firing trajectories and firing ranges. Therefore, in 1938 a new Soviet 76-mm mountain gun was developed, its design was inspired by Czechoslovakian Škoda 75 mm M.36 mountain gun. On May 5, 1939, the 76-mm mountain gun model 1938 was put into service; its production was organized at the Plant No.7 Arsenal in Leningrad. The new mountain gun had a high combat rate of fire (up to 12-15 rounds per min), good move on mountain roads and the possibility of maneuvering firing trajectories. Caliber of 76 mm proved to be quite effective for a mountain gun - the explosive effect of a 3-inch 6.2-kg high-explosive fragmentation projectile was often increased by stone fragments or rockfall, armor-piercing projectile could penetrate 39 mm armor from a distance of 500 m, from the spring 1943 НEAT warheads became available also. The elevation angle reached 70 degrees, which, in combination with a variable charge, made it possible to use the 76-mm mountain gun model 1938 as a howitzer to hit an enemy hiding in the folds of the terrain. The sight and panoramic periscope provided direct and indirect fire. For transportation in packs with a length of not more than 1.5 m, the gun barrel was made sectional and it consisted of three parts. The assembled gun with a caisson was pulled by 6 horses or an artillery tractor, and in disassembled condition it could be transported in 9 horse packs. A 4-gun artillery battery required 92 pack horses.
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Re: Colorized photos of Soviet WWII weaponry

Post by Interbellum » 25 Feb 2020 19:04

By the beginning of Great Patriotic War in June 1941, the Red Army had 1121 mountain guns, of which 964 were mountain guns model 1938. Mountain guns played the role of both divisional and regimental guns. The light artillery regiment of the mountain rifle division consisted of 2 battalions (divizions) of 2 batteries of 76-mm mountain guns in each. Each mountain rifle regiment had a 4-gun mountain gun battery. In the mountain cavalry division there was a horse-mountain battalion of 2 mountain gun batteries. In January 1945, the table of organization and equipment of the mountain rifle brigade with a pack battalion armed with 76-mm mountain guns and mountain-pack mortars was approved, and in February 1945 - of the mountain rifle division with an artillery regiment of 3 same mixed battalions. The mountain rifle regiment retained a battery of 76-mm mountain guns. The instruction to the forces of the 4th Ukrainian Front, approved on August 19, 1944 during the preparation for battles in the Carpathian mountains, said that mountain-pack batteries and mortar batteries must support infantry in any mountainous terrain.

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