Wrangel at Gallipoli

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Peter H
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Wrangel at Gallipoli

Postby Peter H » 19 Mar 2006 04:52

Wrangel's White forces were evacuated from the Crimea to Turkey in 1920.A large camp was set up at Gallipoli for them.

Has anyone any information on the number of Russians detained there and for how long?

Most ended up living in France,Serbia and Bulgaria?

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Klemen L.
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Postby Klemen L. » 19 Mar 2006 15:24

Wrangel's White forces were evacuated from the Crimea to Turkey in 1920.A large camp was set up at Gallipoli for them.


The evacuation of General Wrangel's Army lasted from 20th November to 26th November 1920. There were two main evacuation points: Novorossijsk (under British Command) and Sevastopol (under Russian (Wrangel's) Command). The Allies (USA, UK and France) send about 100 steamers and other vessels to help general Wrangel to evacuate his army. The last steamer left Crimea on 26th November 1920. As soon as the Bolsheviks entered Sevastopol on the 26th they shot all dock workers who were working on the evacuation. The entire convoy left from Novorossijks and Sevastopol to Istanbul, where it remained for a day. The evacuees were not allowed to set foot on the ground (officially because of health reasons), except General Wrangel and his headquarters which probably went to report the Allies about the successfull evacuation. In istanbul the convox split into three different echelons: one went to gallipoli, the second headed to the Island of Lemnos in the Agean Sea and third remained in the vicinity of Istanbul.

On Gallipoli Peninsula were stationed the 1st Army Corps of General Kutepov's 1st Army with Kornilovskaya, Markovskaya and Drozdovskaya Infantry Divisions, General Barbovich's Horse Corps with 1st and 2nd Cavaly Divisions, technical units, three to four military hospitals, cavalry and infantry school, artillery and tank & air units, re-organized in a technical battalion which became a part of the newly formed artillery division. The Kazakh Corps was evacuated to Lemnos Island. It is estimated that about 60,000 White Russians have been evacuated from Crimea, of which a large part was taken to Gallipoli - I would estimate that at leats half of this force was camped there.

Most ended up living in France,Serbia and Bulgaria?


Around 40,000 soldiers and civilians of the Wrangel's Army came to Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (SHS) in 1921-22 (plus about 20,000 who came to Yugoslavia already before the arrival of Wrangel's Army, total ca. 60,000). The first to arrive was the 1st Army with Don and Kuban Cavalry Corps under General Postikov (ca. 4,000 men), which entered Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes at Gevgelija on 01.06.1921. Most White Russian refugees settled in France, USA, Yugoslavia, Germany and the Far East (Manchuria and Shanghai).

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Postby Tosun Saral » 19 Mar 2006 20:41

A postal service was established at that time in Turkey to help the white russians: the refugees were lodged mainly in camps around Istanbul, in Lemnos, in Belgrade, at Cattaro (Kotor in Yugoslavia and Bizerte. never heard of in Gallipoli

http://72.14.203.104/search?q=cache:jeG ... =clnk&cd=3

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Peter H
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Postby Peter H » 20 Mar 2006 08:48

Thanks gentlemen.

According to here ( http://www.russie.net/france/corse.htm ):

146,200 Russians including 29,000 civilians were evacuated.Some had cholera and typhus.

Around 100,000 remain in Turkey in early 1921--the civilians near Constantinople,the Kuban cossacks at Lemnos,the 'regular army' to camps on Gallipoli.

The French run the camps on Gallipoli and disarm all the soldiers.Bread and food was brought in from Constantinople and desalinated water is used.

In early 1921 9,370 Russians return to their homeland:in April 1921 55,000 White Russians still remain in Turkey.

A later French scheme to send some to Brazil was also proposed but was rejected by the Russians:some ended up in Corsica as well.

Where they actually camped on the Gallipoli peninsula is not stated.

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Postby RCW Mark » 20 Mar 2006 10:26

On Gallipoli Peninsula were stationed the 1st Army Corps of General Kutepov's 1st Army with Kornilovskaya, Markovskaya and Drozdovskaya Infantry Divisions, General Barbovich's Horse Corps with 1st and 2nd Cavaly Divisions, technical units, three to four military hospitals, cavalry and infantry school, artillery and tank & air units

While not untrue, a bit misleading. The entire "Russian Army" was evacuated with the fall of the Crimea. The organisation outlined above is the reorganised version of the army -- all tidied up with everyone placed into a neat arrangement (and the "tank" and "air" units had no machines). The evacuated units were quite different.

Wrangel intended to reinvade Russia well into 1921, so the Whites remained an army in Gallipoli. That made placing them much more difficult, as they were not willing to give up their structure, weapons etc. They would probably have been moved out faster if they had realised that the game was up and that the Reds had won.

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Peter H
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Postby Peter H » 21 Mar 2006 02:48

Some of Wrangel's veterans formed the Russischen Schutzkorps in WW2:

http://www.armymuseum.ru/ruscorp_e.html

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Postby David Treloar » 03 Oct 2007 10:03

I could send anyone two photos taken on Lemnos, presumably in 1922 or 1923. One shows General Koutepoff farewelling a group of White Russian soldiers who are leaving for a new life in Serbia. The other shows the monument built by the White Russians on Lemnos. Its inscription is rather difficult to read but seems to begin (in Russian) with the words "The disbanded Russian Army". Does anyone know if the monument is still there?

In the first instance some thousands of Russians were accommodated on the island of Antigone in the sea of Marmara, and later moved to the quarantine station at Touzla south of Istanbul (commanded by my father), while others were at various other camps in Turkey, generally operated by either England or France. Stamp collectors collect covers with their various postmarks. The Greek government then offered facilities on the island of Lemnos, probably the same facilities used by the Allies during their Gallipoli campaign.

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Postby Peter H » 03 Oct 2007 13:19

Thanks David and welcome to the forum.

Russian White Army Graves at Gallipoli:

viewtopic.php?t=123506

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Re: Wrangel at Gallipoli

Postby Tosun Saral » 17 May 2008 12:30

According to Turkish Newspaper "Hürriyet" (Freedom) of to todays date May 17th 2008 the ruined monument of White Russians at Gallipoli is restored and shall be opened by a ceremony.
Journalist Yalçın Bayer writes at his columm.
"To the Memory of 25 000 White Russians
The famous Russian poet Vladimir Mayakovski wrote a poem about White Russians in Gallipoli
"Dan... Once Russians
Now new Gallipolians
come to Dardanelles"
Gallipoli was under French occupation after the WW1. In 1912 earthquake of Şarköy-Hoşköy (Ganos) ruined all towns and dwelling at the peninsula. Everyday life was in misarry. At the beginning of November 1917 the White Russian arny of General Wrangel lost also the last fort the Crim. They come to Istanbul on 130 vessels and ships. They were 150 000. After 15 day long communications with the High command of Allied Forces in Costantinopolis The French gave permission to land at Gallipoli. They decided to settle the new comers in different 3 military camps in Çatalca, in Gallipoli and in the island of Lemnos. According to the agreement the Russians should have to give all their valuable things to the French as random.
On 22.11.1920 two Russian ships "Herson" and "Saratov" anchored at the port of Gallipoli. The ships brought 9540 officers and 16400 men under command of Lt. Gen. Nikolay Kutepov. There were also many civilian refugees. The French send them to a dried river bed valley without water some 6 kms away from the town of Gallipoli called "Büyükdere Vadisi" the Great River Valley. There were only snakes and wild roses plants on that valley. The White russians called this place "Rose and Death Valley". Some of them named this place in Russian language as "Göleye Pole" the naked Valley. The Turks settled them in military Casernes, schools and mosques. Even poor Turkish pleasants guested them in one of their rooms. The White Russians restored all ruined dwellins. They even restored baking ovens. The Russians published a newspaper in Turkish tittle "Şifahi" the oral. They also opened two theathers for children and adults.
During the years between 1920-21 they lost 343 comrades. For that reason they builded on June 16th 1921 a monument made of 20 000 pieces of stones for the honour of those men died at gallipoli soil according to the order of Gen. Kutepov.
The last White Russians left Gallipoli May 6th 1923.
The monument was also ruined by an eathquake in 1949.
The new monuments is in the street of İpek on dictrict Gazi Süleyman Pasha in the town of Gallipoli. It costed 750 000 US dollars. It was also funded by the Organization of White Russians all over the World the Foundadion of Russian National Honour.
Today the Russian Minister of Culture, Ambassador in Ankara, Russian business men, Russian Children Chorous, rhe chief of Russian Orthodox Christians in Europa Mr. Mikhail and local administators will open the new Monument. Unfortunately Turkish Minister of Culture will not attend the ceremony."

The Gallipoli commend of Russian Nobel Price Owner Ivan Bunin to the Newspaper "Gallipoli" published in Beograd on Feb. 15th 1923:
"Gallipoli is a part of great and holy realities that imerged during the years full of scandal and credicament. This is the sole hope of Russians for their awakaning, for their blessing by the God and the humanity and for forgiveness of their apology."

Some Photos published in the Magazine of Cremean Turks living in Turkey called "Fikirde Birlik" (Union at Ideas) Nr: 22, Feb. 2008. The article GELİBOLU’DA BEYAZ RUS ORDUSU VE KIRIMLI ASKERLER (Russian and Crimeans in White Russian Army in Gallipoli) is written by Mehmet GÜNAYDIN-Elmira GÜNAYDIN-Süleyman ÖNGEL

pic. 4- The foundation of the monument on Jan. 11.2007 that was ruined at earthquake of 1956
pic.5- Russian and Tatar soldiers repairing the dwellings.
6- The mosque at Gallipoli where the Russian settled.
7-Opening of the monument on July 10th 1921
8-Military parade of White Russian in Gallipoli
9-General Kutepov leaves Gallipoli
10- HQ of Russians at Gallipoli
TS's Nota: As I found that fhoto I was shoched! :o Because I lived in that house during the years 1956-58 while my late father Maj. Gen. Ahmet Hulki Saral was commaning the 4th Division at Gallipoli. The house was well restored by the miliary for the use of commaning officer.
11- The Gallipolian customs office used by White Russians as court martial.
12- White Russian exercising during their stay in Gallipoli
13- Disambarkement of goods for Russian.
14- Departure of White Russian from Gallipoli to Germany and Morocco on the ship no 412
15-Russian and Tatar children on a festival showing their skills on Gymnasium.
16-Russian theather performance at the castle of gallipoli
17- Russians also builded a tiny rail system im Gallipoli
18-A primary school for Russian and Tatar children with their teachers
19-HQ of Gen. Putepov
20-The new monument during reconstruction
21- The Mevlevi temple of the Whirling Derwishes which was used a dormitory for Russains in Gallipoli
22- The Kornilov Regiment at Hamzaköy near Gallipoli

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Re: Wrangel at Gallipoli

Postby David Treloar » 18 May 2008 04:53

Some of those photos have the same titles as some of mine. Mine have the subject written on the back in Russian and in English. I had thought that some of mine were taken in Lemnos not Gallipoli.

How can I get a copy of the magazine or copies of the photos?

I am quite willing to pay for them.

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Re: Wrangel at Gallipoli

Postby David Treloar » 18 May 2008 04:58

I attach one of my photos - General Koutepoff saluting the monument.
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Re: Wrangel at Gallipoli

Postby Tosun Saral » 18 May 2008 12:17

Davit Sorry I forgot to add the page:

http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:FtXV ... cd=1&gl=uk

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Re: Wrangel at Gallipoli

Postby David Treloar » 18 May 2008 15:17

Brilliant images. Many thanks. I have some others in that same series. Maybe as many as 15. I am willing to send them to you if you send me your email address. You could then publish them in a future issue, if you do not have the images already in your collection.

David Treloar

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Re: Wrangel at Gallipoli

Postby Tosun Saral » 18 May 2008 19:07

David, Thank you for your kindness. Your other images will add contribute to history. For that reason I give under the
e-mail adress of the Magazine "Fikirde Birlik". I want you to send the images to the Magazine editor.

fikirdebirlik @ hotmail.com

fikirdebirlik @ yahoo.com.tr

On the other hand would you please publish them in this forum.
cheers

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Re: Wrangel at Gallipoli

Postby David Treloar » 21 May 2008 09:20

Hi everyone
I am in the process of emailing to 'fikirdebirlik@yahoo.com.tr' a dozen photos of refugees from Wrangel's armies at camps at either Gallipoli or Lemnos. I attach one of those photos. My father, in later life, identified it as being taken on Lemnos but I understand that it might be taken in Gallipoli.

I have just a few "frontline" photos taken by my father during his time with the Volunteer Armies in 1919-1921. It seems exceptionally difficult to find any more such photos in books or on the internet, apart from photos of tanks and posed photos of generals and other groups. Can anyone direct me to sources of such images?

David Treloar
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