Hicaz Front (1914-1919)

Discussions on the final era of the Ottoman Empire, from the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 until the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
Tosun Saral
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Hicaz Front (1914-1919)

Post by Tosun Saral » 03 Feb 2007 11:40

22nd Hicaz Div.: Col. Vehip (Vehip Pasha, Kaci)
The 22nd was an indepented division attached directly to the General HQs at the beginning of WW. The 22nd Hicaz div. was attached to 4rh Army on Jan. 11, 1915
Col. Vehip left the area just after the beginning of WW and served at Gallipoli as South Group Commander.
Deputy commander of 22nd Div.. Col Ahmet
For to join the Canal Expedition a new Hicaz Expeditory Forces was establiched by a great majory of 22nd. Col Ahmet was appointed as commander of the division that stayed in Hicaz. The Forces which was transported on December 1914 from Mecca reached to Maan on Jan. 21st 1915. But it was too late. Some of the units were left at the north of Maan and the others were send back to Hicaz (Mecca)
- Chief of Staff: Maj. Ahmet Dervis ( Lt. Gen. Derviş) Maj. Ahmet dervis was taken POW on July 9th 1916 by the revolting Araps at Mecca with other 27 officers. He was send to POW camp at Egypt and released on 1920. He joined immeditaely to the Nationalist Forces of Mustafa Kemal Pasha.(Ataturk)
- After Ahmet Dervis was taken POW Maj. Sabit (Gen.of the Army Noyan) was made chief of Staff.
-- 128th Regiment in Cidde :Maj. Huseyin Husnu (Lt. Gen. Kılkış)
-- 129th R.: Lt. Col. Halil
-- 130th R.: Lt. Col. Süleyman Şevket

Governor and Commnader of Hicaz: Maj. Gen. Galip (Lt. Gen. Pasinler)
Galip washa defended Taif 3 1/2 months under extreme conditions ans was taken POW on Sep. 22nd 1916. He was deported to Malta as war criminal by the British. Found unquilty. After his releasement from Malta he joined the Nationalist forses of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and was made governor of Konya. He was also a Turkish Free Mason.
- Commander of Region North at Taif: Capt. Ismail Hakkı
- Commander of Railway Station at Taif: Maj. Suleyman
-Commander of South Region at Taif: Lt. Col. Halil
- Commnader of reserve units at Taif: Maj. Osman

Commander of Hicaz Expetitory Forces at Maan: Lt. Col. Refet
-Chief of Staff: Lt. Col. Emin
Guard of Medina: Brigadier Basri Pasha ( Gen. Noyan)

Hicaz Expeditory Forces: Maj. Gen. Fahrettin Pasha (Lt. Gen. Türkkan)
After the riot of Araps under Emir of Hicaz Serif Husseyin Hicaz gained importance. For that reason a new army was astablished called "Hicaz Kuvvei Seferiye" (The Hicaz Exp. Forces). The forces was reinforced by 4th Army. All the units at that region was atted to the Exp. Forces. The commander of 12nd AC Fahrettin Pasha a good soldier and veteran of balkan wars was made commander on June 30th 1916. After the Nablus battle Fahrettin Pasha lost contact with the main land. He stayed under siege of Araps and British at Medina. He defended the city till Jan. 13rd 1919. He got the nickname "Tiger of the Desert" Just before the Nablus Battle he sended the weak, wounded with the last train to safer places. He also collected all holy material in Medina and sended to Istanbul with that last train. To day all holly belongings and material of Mohammed /SA/ is in Topkapi Place Museum. Fahrettin Pasha was also arrested by British and deported to Malta as War Criminal. He was accused not to surrender after the Armistrace. He was found Unquilty. He joined to the Nationalist Forces of Mustafa Kemal Pasha after his releasement
- chief of staff: Lt. Col. Emin
- Chief of staff Lt. Col. Kemalettin Sami (Lt. Gen. Gökçen) He sereved between Augus 18th 1917-Jan. 28th 1918)
- 58th Div.: Lt. Col. Ali Necip
The 59th was established on Oct. 28th 1916
Chief operations officer: Capt. Ibrahim
-- 42th Regiment. Lt. Col. Nuri
--55th R.: Lt. Col. Tevfik
130th R.: Lt. Col. Süleyman Şevket
58th Artillary R..Maj. Maruf

Commander of Mecca: maj. Ziya
Commander of Medina: Lt. Col. Galip
Platoon commanders: Maj. Emin, Maj. Atif, Maj. Tahsin

TS!s note: My great uncle Orhan Aydar also served at Medina. He published his memories in a book " Bir Yedek Subayın Hatıraları" (Memories of a reserve officer)

May all rest in peace
I mote it be!

leopard2
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Post by leopard2 » 03 Feb 2007 15:06

thanx good job

stevebecker
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Post by stevebecker » 03 Feb 2007 23:28

Tosun,

Thank you also.

Can you tell me what the 21st, 39th and 40th Div's were doing in Arabia?

Cheers

S.B

Tosun Saral
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Post by Tosun Saral » 04 Feb 2007 11:39

Steve,
21st was in Asir. 39 and 40 were in Yemen

Asir Front (1914-1919)
Independent 21st Asir Division: It was directly attached to HQ in Istanbul. The name of the division was "Independent 21st Asir Division" commanded by Col.Muhittin (Maj. Gen. Akyüz)
- 121st Inf. R.: Lt. Col. Asım
-122st Inf. R.: Lt. Col.Şükrü
Region commander at Konfide:Maj. Ali Rıza
Platoon commander at Mihail: Maj. Sezai
" " at Temniye:Maj. Fevzi
Commander of mixed battalion at Koz: ?
Platoon commander at Rufeyde and Rabia: Maj. Mehmet
Commander of Platoon called Fuat Bey: Maj. Fuat
Artillary commander: Capt. Fuat

Just before the end of the WW it was ordered from the HQ in Istanbul that 21st was reorganized under a new name "23rd Hicaz AC" and attached to the 4th Army and General Command of Syria and West Arabia. But because of Armistrace of Mondrus this order could not be applied.

The 21st Div. abondened the Asir Region acording to an agreement with the British on Jan. 19th 1919 and became POW.

stevebecker
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Post by stevebecker » 05 Feb 2007 01:33

Mate,

Do you know what happened to the 123rd Rgt from this Div had ot moved to the 42nd Div or was the 123rd Regt ever in the 21st Div?

Also what Artillery did they have (if known)?

Cheers

S.B

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Bill Woerlee
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Post by Bill Woerlee » 05 Feb 2007 03:38

Tosun

May I also add my thanks mate - a job well done.

Bill

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 16 Apr 2007 13:25

More on Fahreddin.From The End of the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1923,A.L. Macfie
Ottoman control of Medina, sustained throughout the war by a garrison of some 3,250 officers and men, obliged Sherif Husein to keep most of his forces in the southern part of the Hedjaz until the closing stages of the war, for it was deemed inadvisable to risk the advance of substantial forces while so strong an enemy remained in the rear. The story of the defence of the city, led by Fahreddin Pasha, the 'Tiger of the Desert', has, thanks to an account of the defence later rendered by Naci Kashif Kiciman [Naci Kaşif Kıcıman], an intelligence officer attached to Fahreddin Pasha's staff, become something of a Turkish legend.

...Fahreddin issued a proclamation declaring his intention to defend Medina, the 'apple of the eye of the Caliphate', to the last bullet, the last drop of blood, and the last soldier... Following the proclamation the defences of the city were strengthened and the bulk of the civilian population evacuated, for food was in short supply... On 16 December [1917] the birthday of the Prophet was celebrated with a recital of the Mevlid (a Turkish poem celebrating the birth of the Prophet), and the troops were feasted with a menu of helva and pilaff—though the food situation remained critical. In February 1918, when Fahreddin rallied forth to confront the forces of Abdullah, surrounding the city, Abdullah simply fled, leaving behind 45 camels; but in March the railway link with Damascus was finally cut. Thereafter the garrison remained isolated; but Fahreddin refused to give up. In April a freak hailstorm occurred, covering the city with white, icy hailstones. A day or two later the temperature reached 35°C in the shade. In June, when the temperature reached 47°C [116.6°F] in the shade the rations of the officers and men were further reduced...

Reports of the loss of Damascus and the Mudros Armistice, which ended the Ottoman participation in the First World War, did nothing to quench Fahreddin's spirit. Ordered to surrender by Ahmed Izzet Pasha, the grand vizier and minister of war, on 6 November 1918, he refused to obey unless instructed to do so by the sultan-caliph. On 6 December he delivered the sermon for Friday prayers in the Prophet's Mosque; and in the following weeks he continued to repel Bedouin attacks on the outposts of the garrison. By then, however, as even Fahreddin had come to realise, the position was hopeless. Supplies were again running short; and both officers and men, afflicted by an epidemic of Spanish influenza and hunger, were deserting. As a result on 5 January, Fahreddin, finally defeated, ordered the closure of the special fund [for contributions by officers and men to buy food from the Bedouins] and resigned. Shortly thereafter, Colonel Necip Bey, his successor, concluded an agreement with Husein's son, Ali, arranging for the surrender of the city.

Tosun Saral
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Post by Tosun Saral » 08 May 2007 20:09

Governor and Commnader of Hicaz: Maj. Gen. Galip (Lt. Gen. Pasinler)


Image

Tosun Saral
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Post by Tosun Saral » 20 Jul 2007 16:54

Asir Front (1914-1919)
Independent 21st Asir Division: It was directly attached to HQ in Istanbul. The name of the division was "Independent 21st Asir Division" commanded by Col.Muhittin (Maj. Gen. Akyüz)
(Istanbul 1870- Ankara Oct.13rh 1940)
He graduated from War School the Harbiye in 1888. As he was a teacher at Harbiye he was arrested by secret police the Hafiye of Sultan Abdulhamid accusing for secret coup to over trone the Sultan. He was expelled from the army and exiled the most remoute place of the Empire to Fizan of Libya. His friends found a way to take him to Diyarbakir later Erzurum. After the proclamation of 2nd Meşrutiyet the Constitutional Government his militery ranks were given back. He fought the Balkan War. In 1916 he promoted to Pasha. At Asir in 1919 he surrounded to British nad send to POW camp in Egyp In Sept 1 1920 he joined to the Nationalist Forces of Mustafa Kemal Pasha. During the years 1920-1921 he commanded the regional forces at Kastamonu, during 1921-1922 he commanded the forces at Adana Front.In 19221 ambassador at Tahran, 1926 at Cairo, In 1931 he prepesented Turkish Nation as Kars MP in Ankara until his dead.
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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 21 Jul 2007 13:48

An old British map of the area being discussed.

Have I got the regions correct?
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