Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Discussions on the final era of the Ottoman Empire, from the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 until the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
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jwsleser
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by jwsleser » 20 Aug 2012 17:40

Tosun

Thank you. I have asked to join the two groups.

Jeff
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demir
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by demir » 29 Oct 2012 10:39

demir wrote:The Turkish War Medal - Harp Madalyasi - Eiserner Halbmond

Author: M. Demir ERMAN

Printed: Ankara/Turkey, February 2012
ISBN 978-605-125-484-5

correspondence address: demirerman@gmail.com

ENGLISH and TURKISH

In English (65 pages) and Turkish (61 pages). 46 pages annex including color pictures, certificates and documents.
The medal in the cover is relief. Total 172 pages, app. 350 gr.


"The Turkish War Medal" - A Book Review

http://gmic.co.uk/index.php/topic/53717 ... ok-review/

CONTENTS

Preface and Acknowledgements 6
Very Brief History of the Ottoman Empire 9
World War I 12
Gallipoli War 13
Palestine, Caucasus and Galicia Battles 16
Independence War and the Republic 17
War Medals of the Ottoman Empire 18
The Regulation of the War Medal dated 1915 21
Amendments on the War Medal Regulation 24
The Effective Dates of the War Medal Regulation
and Amendments 31
Ministry of War and Army Orders About the War Medal 34
Law of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and the
Decree of the Council of Ministers 36
The First Type of the War Medal Which was Designed
According to the Regulation but Never Produced Due to a
Shape and Metal Change 39
The War Medal 41
The War Medal and the German Iron Cross 44
The Certificate of the War Medal 46
The War Medal Ribbon 49
The Package of the War Medal 53
War Medal Miniatures, Ribbon Bars And Pins 55
War Medals of the German and Austrian Make 56
No Name Medals 58
Views on the War Medal 59
SOURCES 62
ANNEX 66
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


Hello,
For those who has my book I would like to give the ERRATA list. Also for addition to Annex 3 (campaign bars) in the book please see
http://gmic.co.uk/index.php/topic/53717 ... ok-review/
Regards
Demir


ERRATA LIST:


Page/line/footnote Original text Corrected text

35/29/ .. von Sanders and by coincedence….. … von Sanders and by coincidence…..
52/18/ Foreigners usually worn the medal … Foreigners usually wore the medal …
53/11/ … envelope. Golden gilt imprint …. … envelope. Silver gilt imprint ….
97/- / annex 17 - 14a Stainhauer&Lück Steinhauer&Lück
109/ - / annex 24 GERMAN NURSE GERMAN NURSE – ALMAN HEMSIRE

Old Prohaska
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by Old Prohaska » 20 Aug 2013 18:49

May I offer "A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East" by David Fromkin.

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Attrition
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by Attrition » 17 Oct 2014 08:53

https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=42330

Kristian Ulrichsen. The First World War in the Middle East. London: Hurst, 2014. ix + 263 pp. $35.00 (cloth), ISBN 978-1-84904-274-1.

Reviewed by Elizabeth F. Thompson (University of Virginia)
Published on H-Diplo (October, 2014)
Commissioned by Seth Offenbach

The Hundred Years’ War in the Middle East

Kristian Coates Ulrichsen’s The First World War in the Middle East marks the centennial of the Great War with a comprehensive overview of the region’s major battles and their consequences. As such, it brings readers closer to Middle Easterners’ experience than did David Fromkin’s 1988 chestnut, A Peace to End All Peace, a diplomatic history written from the view of the British archives. While Ulrichsen opens his book by noting that the Great War’s shadow falls upon current events in the Middle East, he closes his book in the same place as Fromkin did, with an account of how the British, not local agents, determined history for the next century: Winston Churchill, as British colonial secretary, presided over the 1921 Cairo Conference that “sealed the geopolitical map of the modern Middle East” (p. 201).

Ulrichsen’s first major contribution is to lay the environmental, economic, and political foundations for the events of 1914-18. Part 1 gives a historical view of the region as a crossroads—and battleground—between European and Indian worlds. The Dardanelles Straits fought over at the 1915 Battle of Gallipoli had been prized by Alexander the Great, and East-West trade routes were coveted sources of imperial revenue long before the Suez Canal was built. The conditions for the Great War were set with Britain’s imperial expansion in the nineteenth century. In 1903, the British declared a kind of “Monroe Doctrine” in the Gulf. By 1914, India, Egypt, and the Iranian oilfields were strategically important territories guarded by the petroleum-fed Royal Navy. The British had lost interest in propping up the Ottoman Empire against Russia’s expansive aims.

The Ottomans were vulnerable because they had built only skeletal networks of roads, railroads, telegraphs, financial institutions, and medical care. With Britain’s guard lowered, other powers moved in on Ottoman territory. In 1908 the Hapsburgs annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina. Bulgaria declared independence, and Greece annexed Crete. In 1911, Italy occupied Tripoli (Libya). In the Balkan Wars of 1912-13, Britain and France turned a blind eye as Russia supported the occupation of Ottoman Europe by the small and ambitious states of Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria. The Ottoman Empire lost 40 percent of its landmass and 15 percent of its population just before 1914.

This context helps to explain how and why the Ottomans entered the World War I allied with the Central Powers. In response to defeat, the Young Turks staged a military coup in January 1913, ending the fledgling constitutional revolution begun five years before. Anxiety about national defense trumped talk of political freedom and minority rights. Several Young Turk leaders approached Britain and France for alliance, but they were snubbed. This gave the upper hand to pro-German leaders of the Young Turk party, the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). On August 2, 1914, they signed a secret treaty of alliance with Germany and the Central Powers.

The great tragedy of the Middle Eastern war, Ulrichsen argues, is that Ottomans were forced to fight an industrial war with a pre-industrial social structure. The lack of railroads, factories, and hospitals forced the empire to squeeze drastic resources from its relatively impoverished population. Civilian suffering—and the deaths of soldiers from lack of food and medical care—far surpassed that in most of Europe. While British imperial forces suffered 260,000 deaths in the Middle East, 420,000 Ottoman soldiers died. And while France’s population fell by one percent in the war, the population of Turkey decreased by 20 percent (p. 3).

Ulrichsen makes a second important contribution to the historiography in part 2, by integrating the different theaters of war into a single narrative. He explains with clarity why battles roared or subsided at times, depending on the need of resources in other theaters. Most interesting is his demonstration of how critical India was to the British war effort in the Middle East. He also grounds the military discussion in the realities of climate, environment, and the region’s political economy set out in part 1. And in a real step forward from Fromkin’s Anglocentric narrative, Ulrichsen acknowledges the agency of local decision makers. The CUP leaders, for example, chose to focus their war strategy first on Russia, which made open claims on Constantinople and the Straits. Efforts to retrieve territory in the Caucasus, however, left the empire’s southern flank open to British advances. The Ottomans’ slender resources were immediately strained as the British waged war on the empire’s peripheries—in Mesopotamia, the Gulf (Arabia), and Egypt/Palestine.

Chapter 3 details the Ottomans’ campaigns in the Caucasus. CUP leaders aimed to take advantage of the Russian losses at Tannenberg to recapture their eastern provinces with an advance toward the crucial railroad head at Sarikamish in late December 1914. Clear skies suddenly gave way to a brutal winter storm, however, catching both armies high in the mountains. Nearly half of their troops died as temperatures plunged to minus 26 centigrade; more died as a typhus epidemic swept through. In January, less than one-fifth of the Ottoman troops returned to their base at Erzurum (p. 58). While both Russians and Ottomans scapegoated their Muslim and Armenian minorities respectively, the Ottomans would soon embrace genocidal aims. Ulrichsen draws on works by Taner Akçam, Peter Balakian, and Sean McMeekin to argue that decades of ethnic hatred boiled over when Ottoman officials overreacted to the defection of a small minority of Armenians to the Russians and the resistance of others to conscription.[1] After the fatal deportations and the Ottoman victory at Gallipoli, the Ottomans and Russians renewed their battles over the Caucasus in 1916. The Russians would reoccupy eastern provinces until the 1917 revolution forced them to withdraw. The March 1918 Brest-Litovsk treaty fueled new CUP ambitions in the Caucasus, and dreams of a pan-Turkic empire.

Chapter 4 retells a familiar story of the Gallipoli campaign based on Ulrichsen’s 2010 book The Logistics and Politics of the British Campaigns in the Middle East on British campaigns in the Middle East, as well as other secondary sources. Ulrichsen stresses that Mustafa Kemal’s heroic reputation gained at the trenches would serve to propel the Ottoman Empire toward becoming the Turkish Republic after 1918. Ulrichsen also interestingly notes that the British launched campaigns in Gaza and Iraq after their withdrawal from Gallipoli in early 1916, so as to salvage their imperial prestige. Other histories have overlooked the constant fear the British had of appearing vulnerable, which they believed would prompt revolt in India. Like Donald Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney a century later, Ulrichsen portrays Winston Churchill as living in a narcissistic denial of failure.

The Arab provinces, meanwhile, were hit hard by the British naval blockade. It imposed tremendous strain on the Ottomans’ ability to shift supplies—especially food and troops—to fronts where they were needed. Mountains and the arid climate undermined armies on the march with thirst and rapid shifts in temperature. Total war brought famine and death to civilians on a scale unseen in western Europe, too. Chapters 5 and 6 take the British viewpoint on the battles for Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia. Memoirs supplement Ulrichsen’s broad use of secondary histories to weave the story. In 1915-16, the British failed to move north either from their occupied port of Basra in Mesopotamia or from their base in Egypt toward Palestine and Syria. But by early 1917 they had built the necessary infrastructure to overcome obstacles of muddy rivers, deserts, and harsh climate to claim dramatic victories.

The British imposed a protectorate on unwilling Egyptians in 1914 and repelled Ottoman attacks at the Suez Canal in the subsequent two years. The dreaded desert of Sinai, known to film audiences for swallowing one of T. E. Lawrence’s young guides in Lawrence of Arabia, was tamed with a new railroad and water pipeline, and finally the capture of the forward base of El Arish in December 1916. By then, the Egyptian Expeditionary Forces had been bolstered by use of resources and troops returned from Gallipoli. Similar infrastructural enhancements enabled the British to capture Jerusalem within a year, as a Christmas present for exhausted Britons in 1917. Meanwhile, a new Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force—comprised largely of Indian troops—made its way victoriously to Baghdad under Lt. Gen. Sir Frederick Maude. Here, Ulrichsen lays great emphasis on the manipulation of events by the imperial elite. Sir Mark Sykes, who negotiated treaties with France to occupy Arab lands after the war, wrote Maude’s proclamation that the British had come only to liberate Mesopotamia. But Ulrichsen resists flat accusations of hypocrisy: mission creep and a belated appreciation of the oil fields near Mosul led the British to expand their claims by war’s end.

The final part of the book examines politics and diplomacy at war’s end. It is succinct, and regretfully does not fully deliver on Ulrichsen’s earlier promise to show how local actors played a significant role. His reliance on English-language sources is perhaps the reason he gives short shrift to Arab politics. He mentions briefly the hardships suffered by the population, but does not connect these facts to the political developments of 1918-23. With little explanation, he downplays the Arab Revolt as a sideshow to Gen. Edmund Allenby’s Palestine campaign, but credits Zionism as a more powerful force (p. 161). Ulrichsen does, however, note that Egyptians’ 1919 Revolution made a small impact. Although the British suppressed it with undue violence, they could not maintain the protectorate. Local power forced the British to sign a highly conditional treaty declaring Egypt independent. The book’s last chapter, on postwar settlements, has the feel of having been written in a rush. The discussion of the “Denouement in Syria” makes reference to none of the recent literature on Arab politics in 1918-20 and contains several errors. Puzzlingly, Ulrichsen refers to a Syrian revolt in 1919 (p. 185); some Syrians took up arms against the French advance only in 1920-21 and later against the French occupation in 1925. He also gives an incorrect date for the formal assumption of Britain’s mandate in Palestine as June 1922 (it was confirmed in July and ratified the following year with the Treaty of Lausanne) (p. 191). Ulrichsen ends the chapter with a discussion of the 1920 revolt in Iraq that relies heavily on British sources. He consequently downplays the significance of an event that many Iraqis today consider a foundational, national revolution.

The drift away from the book’s strong, integrative beginning toward a familiar Anglocentric narrative in the final chapters is unfortunate, but perhaps understandable since Ulrichsen appears to have intended his book as an interpretative essay, not as a monograph based on new primary research. He also aimed the volume at European—and especially British – historians who have neglected the Middle Eastern theater. In the book’s introduction, he concedes that the Great War was won and lost in France and Flanders. But, he says, “to dismiss the Middle Eastern theatre as peripheral to the conflict as a whole would do gross disservice to the near-total impact of the war on its societies” (pp. 2-3). Insofar as he succeeds in giving a thoughtful overview of the war’s major theaters of battle, grounded in the social realities of the time, the book would serve well as an introductory text to nonspecialists and to students.

Note

[1]. Taner Akçam, From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Question (London: Zed Books, 2004); Peter Balakian, The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response (New York: HarperCollins, 2003); Sean McMeekin, The Russian Origins of the First World War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011).

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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by efwolverine » 28 Mar 2015 11:30

Anyone gotten a chance to read Eugene Rogan's "The Fall of the Ottomans" yet?

http://www.amazon.com/The-Fall-Ottomans ... 046502307X

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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by maxnechitaylov » 13 May 2015 11:50

jwsleser wrote:I finally bought a copy of 1. Dünya Savaşında Türk Askeri Kıyafetleri.
In all, I was hoping for more but happy with what the book offered. There is still a place for a study of WWI Ottoman uniforms and equipment. I agree that the book is well worth buying, but it is not the complete, detailed study I was hoping for
Interestingly, the similar book about the period 1843-1856 was published?
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by maxnechitaylov » 20 May 2015 17:54

Whether someone has this article?

THE UNIFORMS OF THE TURKISH REGIMENTS OF POLISH COSSACKS DURING THE CRIMEAN WAR
by Knut Erik Strom
Volume 16, No. 1 (April 1998) of THE WAR CORRESPONDENT, the journal of the Crimean War Research Society
The Russian elephant is a best friend of the Finnish elephant

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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by maxnechitaylov » 13 Jul 2015 20:11

Whether someone has this book?

Marcel Roubiçek, Early Modern Arab Armies, Jerusalem 1977.
The Russian elephant is a best friend of the Finnish elephant

Philip Loftus
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by Philip Loftus » 22 Oct 2017 08:13

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22448415_1465176356900918_4571401274334672708_n.jpg
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Tosun Saral
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by Tosun Saral » 25 Oct 2017 11:27

"Harbiye Askeri Müzesi Üniforma Katoloğu" 1861-2017 Uniforms catologe of Military Museum in İstanbul. 2017 0nly 1000 issues, 160 pages,
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Tosun Saral
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by Tosun Saral » 25 Oct 2017 11:41

The book of mine, the fakir derwisch in Turkish lanquage

"ÇANAKKALE VE SİNA-FİLİSTİN CEPHELERİ’NDE AVUSTURYA-MACARİSTAN ORDUSU TOPÇU BATARYALARI" (Artillery Batteries of Austria-Hungary at Gallipoli, Sinai and Palestne Fronts) Ankara, 2012, 142 pages.
PS I now extend the books adding new pages.
cover Page: Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) Pasha Commander of 2nd Army inspecting K.u.k. Autokolonne at Diyarbakir.
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Tosun Saral
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by Tosun Saral » 25 Oct 2017 12:00

maxnechitaylov my friend,

I bought the book 1. Dünya Savaşında Türk Askeri Kıyafetleri on the first day that it was published. I searched for Mr. Tunca Örses and now he is one of my best friends. He has done a nice job. It is the first book ever published in Turkey. If you want more information you can be a member of our facebook page where we discuss the WW1 Turkish army. cheers
https://www.facebook.com/groups/askerit ... oup_dialog

demir
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by demir » 09 Oct 2019 09:37


demir
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by demir » 01 Apr 2022 08:34

Some more facebook Groups

Ottoman Medals https://www.facebook.com/groups/osmanlimadalyalari/

The TURKISH WAR MEDAL & GALLIPOLI WAR https://www.facebook.com/groups/harpmadalyasi/

Korean War Medals https://www.facebook.com/groups/koremadalyasi/

Turkish Military Patchs etc https://www.facebook.com/groups/TSKBROVELER/

Turkish Military Uniforms https://www.facebook.com/groups/887973204550715/ Üniformoloji

demir
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Re: Recommended reading on the Ottoman Empire

Post by demir » 01 Apr 2022 08:53

More Books:

Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Askeri Kıyafetleri - 1826-1922 by Kadir Türker Geçer - February 2022 - Turkish (Military Uniforms of the Ottoman Empire)

Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Mecidi ve Osmani Nişanları- Ottoman Empire's Order of the Medjidie and Order of Osmanie by Avşar Ibar - June 2018 - Turkish And English

Çelik Kale Çanakkale (Chanakkale - GALLIPOLI 1914 ) by 34 writers, published by IBB - March 2022 - Turkish

Pride and Priveledge- A History of Ottoman Orders Medals and Decorations by Edhem Eldem, Osmanlı Bankası Arşiv ve Araştırma Merkezi - ISBN:975-93692-7-3, Istanbul, September 2004 - English

Osmanlı Madalyaları ve Nişanları – Belgelerle Tarihi, Ottoman Medals and Orders - Documented History by Metin Erüreten – ISBN:975-97637-0-2, Istanbul 2001 - Turkish and English Summary
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