The USA and Turkey

Discussions on the final era of the Ottoman Empire, from the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 until the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
User avatar
Peter H
Member
Posts: 28628
Joined: 30 Dec 2002 13:18
Location: Australia

The USA and Turkey

Post by Peter H » 11 Apr 2007 09:13

Interesting that no state of war existed between the USA and Turkey in 1917/18.Turkey ruptured diplomatic relations with the USA on the 23rd April 1917 but that was about it.

After 10 years,in 1927,the first American Ambassador to the new Republic of Turkey was appointed.He was the professional diplomat Joseph 'Tiger' Grew,more well known as being the US Ambassador to Japan 1932-1942.

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... -4,00.html
After 1917 he specialized in the bloody Balkans. At Lausanne he helped make peace and in Ismet Pasha, now Premier of Turkey, he has jocularly been said to have met his match. Both deaf, they shouted back & forth across the conference table at each other in French. Ten years later Mr. Grew, one of the first career men to be promoted to an Ambassadorship, became the first U. S. Ambassador to Dictator Kemal Pasha's new Republic.
.


Rear Admiral Mark L. Bristol was also the US High Commissioner to Turkey 1919-1926.

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... 14,00.html
The State Department last week formally announced the appointment of Joseph C. Grew, Under Secretary of State, as Ambassador to Turkey, following the receipt of word from Constantinople that Mr. Grew was persona grata to the Turkish Government.

There has been no U. S. diplomatic representative in Constantinople since diplomatic relations with Turkey were broken off in 1917. Since 1919 Rear Admiral Mark L. Bristol (as High Commissioner) has represented the U. S. with great firmness but with warm sympathy toward Turkey. He will this autumn relieve Admiral Clarence S. Williams as commander-in-chief of the Asiatic Fleet.

User avatar
Peter H
Member
Posts: 28628
Joined: 30 Dec 2002 13:18
Location: Australia

Post by Peter H » 11 Apr 2007 09:40

Bristol was also the Commander of the U.S. Naval Detachment in Turkish Waters(1919-1924).

The US Battleship Arizona was first involved in Turkish waters in 1919.

http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/shi ... -ariz.html
The battleship stood out of Brest harbor on 3 May, bound for Asia Minor, and arrived at the port of Smyrna eight days later to protect American lives there during the Greek occupation of that port — an occupation resisted by gunfire from Turkish nationals. Arizona provided temporary shelter on board for a party of Greek nationals, while the battleship's Marine detachment guarded the American consulate; a number of American citizens also remained on board Arizona until conditions permitted them to return ashore. Departing Smyrna on 9 June for Constantinople, Turkey, the battleship carried the United States consul-at-large, Leland F. Morris, to that port before sailing for New York on 15 June. Proceeding via Gibraltar, Arizona reached her destination on 30 June.

The cruiser USS St Louis was the flagship of this detachment during the Greek-Turkish War.In July 1920 the USS St. Louis and six destroyers were dispatched to Turkish waters to protect American citizens during the disturbances resulting from the Greek-Turkish War.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_St._Louis_%28C-20%29
Designated CA-18 on 17 July 1920 and assigned to postwar duty with the European Squadron, St. Louis departed Philadelphia on 10 September 1920 for Sheerness, Cherbourg, and Constantinople. She disembarked military passengers at Sheerness on 26 September, then continued on to the Mediterranean and reported to the Commander, United States Naval Forces in Turkish Waters at Constantinople on 19 October. Standing up the Bosphorus from Constantinople on 13 November, St. Louis embarked refugees at Sevastopol and Yalta, returning them to Constantinople on 16 November. The following day, her crew formed boat landing parties to distribute food among refugees quartered aboard naval transports anchored in the Bosphorus. St. Louis continued her humanitarian duties at Constantinople and at Anatolian ports during the time of unrest caused by the Russian Civil War and the Turkish Revolution.

She departed Asia Minor for Naples on 19 September 1921. She next called at Gibraltar; and, on 11 November, arrived at Philadelphia where, on completion of pre-inactivation overhaul, she was decommissioned on 3 March 1922.

In 1921 the destroyer USS Humphreys sent ashore "a naval landing force at Derindge,Turkey"


In 1922 US Navy ships assisted the Greeks in the evacuation of Smyrna.The destroyers USS Edsall,Lawrence,Litchfield,MacLeish and Simpson were involved.

cstunts
Member
Posts: 564
Joined: 17 Aug 2006 04:45
Location: USA

Post by cstunts » 20 Apr 2007 04:59

The basic reason no state of war existed was that America--much like Britain, France, and Russian-very much desired getting into the Middle East's oilfields, largely (but not exclusively, IIRC) controlled by Turkey at that time. The chicanery which resulted during the Harding Administration revolved almost entirely around this preoccupation...in which ADM Bristol was a more than willing accomplice.

Tosun Saral
Member
Posts: 4029
Joined: 02 Nov 2005 19:32
Location: Ankara/Turkey

Post by Tosun Saral » 29 Jun 2007 10:20

from Jorge Blanco Villalta, Ambassador of Spain to Ankara "Atatürk" translated into English by William Campbell in 1991

p.197-198
"There arrived at Sivas in that month of September an important American mission, led by General Harbord, which was making studies in Anatolia. The American General and the Pasha had a long and interesting interview. "The Pasha" was the name by which Kemal was now universally known. There were anenormous number of Pashas in Turkey, for the word was applied to generals, amd was also given as an honorific title to civilians. But when "The Pasha" was spoken of, it was understood to refer to Kemal. Kemal explained to General Harbord the essential causes which had brought about the creation of the nationalist movement. Harbord asked him a question which went deep : "suppose that after all your efforts and after every imaginable sacrifice, you are defeated-what will you do then?" he Pasha replied "A people which expends all its efforts and every imaginable sacrifice in order to ensure its freedom and independence can not see its wishes frustrated. That would meanadmitting that that peoplewas already dead. For that reason, one cannot speak of defeat whilst a people is alive and ready for every sacrifice" General harbord left that interview convinced that with a commander like that, the Turkish people would achieve great things.

Return to “The end of the Ottoman Empire 1908-1923”