Siege of Ioania

Discussions on the final era of the Ottoman Empire, from the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 until the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
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Peter H
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Siege of Ioania

Post by Peter H » 09 May 2007 12:53

Ioania(Yanya) was a fortess city in Greece in 1912.Defended by VIII Provisional Corps and the Independent Yanya Corps its role was to stem any Greek advance into Epirus and Albania.According to Erickson "the fortress had recently been modernised under the direction of General von der Goltz",called the Yanya Fortified Area with 11 forts.The strongest fort was the Bijan Fort,one of a chain of forts surrounding the city.

The Greek Epirus Army launched their attack on the fortress in December 1912.Attacks continued in January 1913.A lull then occurred until March.Using heavy artillery the Greeks captured the town on the 6th March 1913.

Erickson Defeat in Detail;
In the final battle of Yanya,the Turks lost about 2,800 men dead and about 8,600 men collected up as prisoners.The remainder escaped the cauldron and fled into Albania...Over 26,000 men were lost to the army,as well as 108 artillery pieces and the entire logistical facility of the Yanya Fortified Area.Morever the 13th,19th,21st,and 23rd Nizamiye Divisions and the Yanya Redif Division were stricken from the Ottoman divisional order of battle.

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 09 May 2007 13:04

From: http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/fo ... sprune=365

Greek troops
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Greek artillery at Yanya
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Post by Peter H » 09 May 2007 13:11

Crown Prince Constantine(the Kaiser's brother in law) enters Ioannina in triumph

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Within two weeks Constantine would be crowned King of Greece,after his father King George was assassinated at Salonika on the 18th March 1913 by a Greek anarchist.

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Post by Peter H » 09 May 2007 13:21

Ruins of an Ottoman fort at Ioannina

http://tabisite.com/gallery_eu/greece/meten.shtml

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Mr Holmes
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Post by Mr Holmes » 09 May 2007 13:50

Sir! Those pictures are great finds! I have seen the second picture you have posted (of the Greek artillery), but none of the others. I have to see if I can get my scanner working here to add what I have. (I am such an idiot... I could have photocopied and scanned a thousand pictures when I had the book here last year, unfortunately, I have not got any further access to it). Anyhow, I quickly skimmed (once I saw this thread) through the Year 12 Greek school textbook which, stated that the Turkish garrison defended the fort very strongly. I'll translate the relevant section soon enough (just for further perspectives).

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 09 May 2007 14:26

Nick,

More Greek photos here:

http://forum.uniforminsignia.net/viewto ... 150&t=2941

Hopefully not off topic.Ottoman pictorial records on the Balkan War are hard too find.

The Greeks proved to be tough fighters in 1912 & 1913.

Regards
Peter

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Post by Peter H » 09 May 2007 14:33

King Constantine visits the Kaiser 1913.Thats him second from right in German uniform.Note Greek aide on left.
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The Kaiser's sister,Queen Sophia of Greece,was also the Colonel of the 3rd 'Queen Elizabeth Garde Regiment.Her husband,King Constantine of Greece,was a honorary Field-Marshall and "Chief of the 88th(2nd Nassau) Infantry Regiment and 2nd Prussian Foot Guards--he was similarly associated with the 1st Russian 'Neva' Infantry Regiment."

Queen Sophia
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Post by Mr Holmes » 09 May 2007 14:47

Again thank you for the pictures, this time of royalty. (I was a member of that forum you pointed to, can't remember username nor password though, but could never get to see past the first few photos of that thread... net connection problems, which has since been fixed, so thanks for the link :-D). There may indeed be links to Greek websites with photos of the Turkish military in the regions that concern us here. I'll try to dig something up via Greek language searches.

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Post by Tosun Saral » 09 May 2007 19:44

Ismet Gorgolu "On Yillik Harbin Kadrosu" (Personal of Ten Years long war 1912-22) p.39,40

Independant Yanya AC: Esat Pasha (Lt. Gen. Bülkat)
c.o.s: Maj. Ali Fuat (Lt. Gen. Cebesoy) later:Lt. Col.Turgut
c.operations officer: Capt. Kemalettin Sami (Lt.Gen.Gökçe)
c. medical officer: Lt. Col. Dr.Süleyman Numan MD
Adjutant of East Pasha: Lt. İsöail Hakkı ( Okday)
23th Div.: Cevat Pasha
23th Div.: Maj. Ali Fuad was made commander until March 1913
c.o.s.: capt. Vecihi
67th Reg.:Col.Mehmet Ali, later Maj.İsmet
68th Reg.:Lt. Col. Arif,
69th Reg.: Lt. Col. Necati, later Maj. seyfettin
23th Artillary Reg.: ?

Redif Div.of Yanya: Col. Celal, later Lt. Col. Bahattin was made commander on Jan. 20th 1913
Redif Reg. of Yanya: ?
Redif Reg. of Ergiri: Lt. Col. Cevdet
Redif Reg. of Avlonya: Lt. Col. Ali Vefa ) KIA on Oct. 8th 1912
Yanya Brigade: Col.Hamdi (later Pasha)

Fortification of Yanya: Lt. Col. Vehip (Vehip Kaçi Pasha, brother of East Pasha)
c.o.s.: Maj. M. Emin (Lt.Gen. Koral), later Capt.Yusuf Ziya (Çakal)
Officer at HQ:Lt. Ismail Hakkı ( Okday)
Artillary Reg.:Lt. Col. Şükrü, later Maj.Sarı Emin
Engeneers: Maj. Raşit
19th Div.: Lt. Col.Faik ( Colak Faik Pasha 4th Grand master of Turkish Masons. look at axis) The division was attached to the AC on Dec. 9th 1912. Demolished on Dec. 24th 1912)
21st Div.: Cavit Pasha (He was killed in action while attacking the enemy in front of his soldiers on Dec. 12th 1912.) Later : Col. Sami ( The Div. was demolished on dec. 24th 1912.)
c.o.s. Capt. Avni
61st Reg.: Col. Sami
62th Reg: Maj. namık
63th Reg.: Maj. Şevki

redif reg.s from Köprülü and İstip: Mehmet Pasha
Grebene Detachment: Capt. Bekir Fikri from Grebene ( later Lt. Col.)

13rd Div.: Galip Pasha (Lt.Gen. Pasiner) look at axis Hicaz ( The div.demolished on Dec. 24th 1912)
c.o.s. capt. Osman Zati (Maj. Gen. Koral)
38th Reg.: Lt. Col. Saaddettin
39th Reg.:Lt. Col. Hasan Vasfi
13th Reg. from Niş: maj. necdettin
Gendarm battalion: Maj. Abdülkerim
c.o.s.

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Mr Holmes
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Post by Mr Holmes » 10 May 2007 03:07

I hope these haven't been linked here before:

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Caption: Η Λίμνη των Ιωαννίνων.
Φωτογραφία.
Στο βάθος διακρίνονται το κάστρο του Αλή Πασά και το βουνό Μιτσικέλι.

Translated: The Lake of Ioannina.
Photograph.
In the background one can discern Ali Pasha's Castle and Mount Mitsikeli.

Source: http://www.parliament.gr/1912/html/ex5/photo2.html

The next one of Turkish POW's:

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Caption: Κατασκήνωση - στρατόπεδο Τούρκων αιχμαλώτων στη Θεσσαλονίκη.
Φωτογραφία.

Translation: Pitched tent POW camp in Thessaloniki

Source: http://www.parliament.gr/1912/html/ex3/photo31.html

There are various lithographs supplied on that website but have more to do with the Greek perspective such as the entry into Thessaloniki and Ioannina and of depictions of the conflict with Bulgaria. I'll look to see if there are more pictures, though.

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Post by Mr Holmes » 10 May 2007 03:28

King George I's Assassination and Funeral. Contemporary (???) colour lithographs.

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Caption: Η δολοφονία της Α.Μ.του βασιλέως των Ελλήνων, Γεωργίου του Α' εν Θεσσαλονίκη, εγεννήθη την 12ην Δεκεμβρίου 1845.
Εδολοφονήθη την 5ην Μαρτίου 1913.
Έγχρωμη λιθογραφία, 45Χ46 εκ., σε αναπαραγωγή.
Η λιθογραφία βασίζεται σε ιστορικές περιγραφές και αποδίδει πιστά τη φάση του δεύτερου πυροβολισμού που δεν μπόρεσε να εκτελέσει ο δολοφόνος, που είχε κρυφτεί στη διασταύρωση των δρόμων Εξοχής και Αγίας Τριάδας. Με τον πρώτο πυροβολισμό ο βασιλιάς χτυπημένος, λιποθύμησε. Στη συνέχεια μεταφέρθηκε στο Θεαγένειο Νοσοκομείο, όπου πέθανε χωρίς να πει τίποτα.

Translation: The murder of His Majesty of the King of the Greeks, George I in Thessaloniki, who was born on 12 December 1845.
Murdered on 5 March 1913.
Coloured lithograph, 45x46 cm, in reproduction.
The lithograph is based on historical descriptions and faithfully depicts the second shooting which could not be completed by the murderer, who had hid in the intersection of Exarhis and Hagias Triadas Roads. With the first shot, the king wounded, fainted. He was then taken to the Theageneio Hospital, where he died without uttering a word.

Source: http://www.parliament.gr/1912/html/ex5/photo1.html

The Funeral where we can see a multitude of clergymen of all rank, the military escorting the procession on either side and hundreds of people lining the streets, as well as the heir apparent (??) on horse back and the Royal Guard... maybe my greatgrandfather was there too as one of the guardsmen?:

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Caption: Η πανελλήνιος κηδεία του αειμνήστου βασιλέως των Ελλήνων Γεωργίου του Α' την 20ην Μαρτίου 1913.
Έγχρωμη λιθογραφία, 46Χ56 εκ.

Translation: The Panhellenic funeral of the late king of Greeks George I on 20th March 1913.

Source: http://www.parliament.gr/1912/html/ex2/photo1.html

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Post by Mr Holmes » 10 May 2007 06:37

The following link *may* have two pictures of captured Turkish soldiers (I'll leave it up to the experts to say nay or yay):

http://www.istoria.gr/dec03/content04.htm

I haven't read the article so I don't know what sort of website it is.



More captured Turks (Greece's archives are in a shocking state, it seems that all the pictures on the internet are of captured Turkish soldiers):

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Source: http://www.e-grammes.gr/article.php?id=1517

The article seems to be discussing the Greek consulate in Ioannina and its staging post as an intelligence point. Given some time, I'll translate the article if anyone wants me to.


The following link is from the Macedonian Press Agency, I have no luck in bringing up the desired Greek fonts with Unicode, but the picture is of interest to us which shows King Constantine entering Ioannina (not sure exactly when) surrounded by military aides and a local Bishop leading the company of men:

http://www.hri.org/MPA/gr/other/26_10/a_balkanikos.html


The following picture is one of the famous author Nikos Kazantzakis as a volunteer in 1912. I have no details on where he served and on which front:

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Source: http://www.radiorainbow.gr/forum/viewto ... 258&sid=44

Cheers

Nick

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 10 May 2007 09:17

Thanks Nick.

The famous Ottoman 57th regiment was at Yanya as well.

Esat Pasha also won later fame at Gallipoli.His birthplace was Yanya by the way.

Photo supplied by Tosun.

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Although defeated,Esat Pasa's able defense of the city and fortress of Yanya was an inspiration to the people of the Ottoman Empire.After the war,Esat would return to a hero's welcome.
Erickson,page 304.

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Post by Peter H » 13 May 2007 07:34

From: http://www.geh.org/ar/chus/greece/chuss ... 00001.html

Greek Infantry
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Greek cavalry
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Greek artillery
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Mr Holmes
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Post by Mr Holmes » 13 May 2007 14:13

Most impressive, Sir! These are amongst the most detailed photos of Greek soldiers I have seen of the first 50 years of the 20th century of Greek soldiery. Thank you!

In return, all I can offer is a link to an interesting tidbit of information concerning Dr George Nicholas Papanicolaou who as some of us may know was the inventor of the Pap Smear test.
During the Balkan War, 1912-1913, he served as second lieutenant in the medical corps of the Greek army, fighting the Turks. With his wife and future research companion, he then went to the United States of America. They landed at Ellis Island on October 19, 1913 with just enough money for their visas and speaking no English.

After serving for two years as second lieutenant in the medical corps of the Greek army during the Balkan War, fighting the Turks, he visited the United States, and when World War I broke out in 1914, he decided to stay there.
http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2402.html

There is a picture of him in uniform but I have been unable to locate it on the internet. I saw the picture on the nation Greek television service, ERT, today.



(Acutally, that link you provide has photos of the Evzones. I might get my father to look through them and see if his grandfather is in any one of the pictures. I know he served on the Guard pre-WW1, I had the pleasure of meeting him in 1983, but I was only seven years old and don't remember much of his facial features.)

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