Siege of Ioania

Discussions on the final era of the Ottoman Empire, from the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 until the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
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Mr Holmes
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Post by Mr Holmes » 14 May 2007 06:54

Well, I got bored somewhat, so I decided to attempt a translation of that article, anyway. Please forgive me for any shortcomings in this translation.
Νικολάκης Εφέντης
16. Ιουνίου 2004

ΠΡΟΛΟΓΟΣ - Η ΕΞΥΠΝΑΔΑ

Στο Ελληνικό προξενείο Ιωαννίνων προ του 1913 υπήρχε γραφείο της υπηρεσίας κατασκοπείας, χρήσιμες πληροφορίες προσέφεραν οι:
Χρ. Κωνσταντινίδης που υπηρετούσε στα πυροβολεία Καστρίτσας.
Δημόκριτος, φαρμακοποιός που υπηρετούσε στην φρουρά Μπιζανίου.
Κωστάκης, φαρμακοποιός που υπηρετούσε στην φρουρά Γαρδικίου.
Οικονομίδης κ.α.


Οι περισσότεροι πληροφοριοδότες ήταν Μικρασιάτες Έλληνες που υπηρετούσαν στον Οθωμανικό στρατό. Ο Οικονομίδης είναι πιθανότατα ο Νικόλαος Μιζαντζιόγλου ή Νικολάκης Εφέντης, υπολοχαγός του Βεήπ μπέη.

ΤΟ ΜΕΓΑΛΕΙΟ

Το πιο πάνω γραφείο χρησιμοποίησε τον μητροπολίτη Ιωαννίνων Γερβάσιο για να προσηλυτίσει τον Νικολάκη Εφέντη πράγμα που έγινε με επιτυχία. Ας παρακολουθήσουμε λοιπόν ένα μικρό μέρος της δράσης του.

Με την υπ. αριθμ. 192 πολεμική έκθεση του ΓΕΣ αναφέρεται ως "ο ομογενής αξιωματικός". Η μεταβίβαση κάθε πληροφορίας γινόταν αποκλειστικά στο Ελληνικό Κομιτάτο Ιωαννίνων και διαβιβαζόταν στο Ελληνικό στρατηγείο.

Η υπ. αριθμ. 877/31-12-1912 πληροφορία από τα Ιωάννινα αναφέρονται: Αριθμοί και είδη πυροβόλων ανά τοποθεσία, πληροφορεί ότι αν δεν υποχωρούσε ο στρατός το Μπιζάνι θα παρεδίδετο και μεταξύ άλλων συμβουλεύει η έφοδος δεν πρέπει να γίνει ημέρα αλλά "μετά δύο νυχθημερών βροχή οβίδων"...

Η υπ. αριθμ. 1100/12-1-1913 πληροφορία από το Ιωάννινα ενημερώνει ότι 100 στρατιώτες "νύκτωρ καταγίνονται δι' επισκευήν".

Με την υπ. αριθμ. 1314/4-2-1913 πληροφορία από τα Ιωάννινα παραθέτει τον αριθμό των τηλεβόλων του Μπιζανίου με λεπτομερή περιγραφή βεληνεκούς, ταχυβολίας, δ/νση βολής κ.λπ. στοιχεία.

Ο Νικολάκης Εφέντης σχεδιάζει χάρτη του Μπιζανίου με ακριβείς θέσεις των πυροβολείων και ιδιαίτερα του πυροβολείου "Σκύλλα" που δεν μπορουσε να εντοπιστεί. Ο Β. Λάππας αφηγείται: "Ο Ν. Μιζαντζιόγλου επεσήμανε την αστοχία του Ελληνικού πυροβολικού και παρεκλήθηκε να στείλει ακριβείς θέσεις των πυροβολείων και ιδιαίτερα του πυροβολείου "Σκύλλα". Τα ανωτέρω επιβεβαιώνονται από την Πολεμική Έκθεση Νο 879/3-1-1913.

Όσα υπέδειξε ο Νικολάκης Εφέντης ήταν και ακριβή και αν κανείς διαβάσει την εξέλιξη της μάχης του Μπιζανίου θα παρατηρήσει ότι μετά δύο νυχθημερών βροχή οβίδων κατελήφθη αυτή η οχυρά θέση και στην συνέχεια απελευθερώθηκαν τα Ιωάννινα συνελληφθηκαν δε αιχμάλωτοι 30.000 Τούρκοι, 1.000 Τούρκοι αξιωματικοί και πλήθος εφοδίων.


Η ΒΛΑΚΕΙΑ

"Λόγω της υπό έξάλλον ενθουσιασμό για τον πατριωτισμό του ακριτομύθιας των Ελλήνων, ύστερα από τη άλωση του Μπιζανίου, η δράση του έγινε γνωστή στους Τούρκους, όταν δε με την ανταλλαγή των αιχμαλώτων έφτασε ο Νικ.Μιζαντζιόγλου στην Αθήνα και από εκεί αποβιβάσθηκε στην Σμύρνη κρατήθηκε από τους Τούρκους και εκτελέστηκε με φρικτά βασανιστήρια. Ίδια τύχη είχε και η πατρική του οικογένεια της οποίας θανατώθηκε αμέσως όλα τα μέλη, στην Σμύρνη".

Όλα τα πιό πάνω μεταφραζόμενα σημαίνουν ότι: Ένας φαφλατάς δημοσιογράφος της Θεσσαλονίκης δημοσίευσε τα κατορθώματα του Νικολάκη Εφέντη. Το πιθανότερο είναι ότι με την ανταλλαγή αιχμαλώτων η υπηρεσία κατασκοπίας έστελνε ένα δοκιμασμένο στέλεχος της στην Σμύρνη για να συνεχίσει την δράση του. [...]
My translation:
Nikolakis Efendis
16 June, 2004

Prologue – Wittiness

Within the Greek consulate at Ioannina, there existed before 1913 an intelligence office, with useful information being offered by:

- C. Konstantinides who served with the artillery in Karditsa.
- Democretus, pharmacist who served with the Bizano guards.
- Kostakis, pharmacist who served with the Gardiki guards.
- Economides et al

The majority of the informants were Asia Minor Greeks who were serving with the Ottoman army. Economides was more than likely Nicholas Mizantzioglou or Nikolakis Efendis, lieutenant of Veip Bey.*

The Splendour

The above mentioned office employed the Metropolitan of Ioannina, Gervasius, to turn Nikolakis Efentis which became a successful venture. Let us see then, a minor part of his actions.

With Prot. No. 192 combat reports of the Army General Staff refer to him as “the compatriot* officer”. The conveying of every piece of intelligence was done exclusively by the Greek Committee of Ioannina and was read by the Greek General staff.

With Protocol No. 877/31-12-1912 reports out of Ioannina:
Numbers and types of guns per emplacement, informs that had the army not retreated, Bizani would have surrendered and that the assault must not occur during daylight but “after two days and nights’ constant shelling”…

With Prot. No. 1100/12-1-1913, information from Ioannina states that 100 soldiers “are nightly recruited for repairs”.

With Prot. No. 1314/4-2-1913 information coming out of Ioannina sets out the numbers of cannons at Bizani with detailed description of range, rate of fire, direction of fire and other such details.

Nikoalis Efendis draws a map of Bizan with accurate positioning of gun emplacements especially of the cannon “Scylla” which could not be located. B. Lappas narrates: “N. Mizantzioglou pointed out the inaccuracies of Greek artillery fire and was asked to send accurate positions of the [Turkish] artillery, especially that of the canon “Skylla”. The above are certifiable from the War Report No. 879/3-1-1913.

Whatever Nikolakis Efendis pointed out was always accurate and if anyone reads of the progress of the battle of Bizan, he will observe that after two days and nights of constant shelling, that fortified place was indeed taken. Following this, Ioannina was also liberated along with 30,000 Turkish soldiers and 1,000 Turkish officers as well as a plethora of materiel.

The Idiocy

“As a result of wild patriotic enthusiasm he was subject to the indiscretions of the Greeks, and after Bizan fell, his actions became known to the Turks. With the exchange of prisoners he came to Athens and from there journeyed to Smyrna, was detained by the Turks and was executed under horrible torture. His father’s family shared the same fate with all members put to death, in Smyrna”.

All of the above translate to mean that: One windbag journalist of Thessaloniki publicised the feats of Nikolakis Efendis. The most probable course of events however, is that with the prisoner exchange, the intelligence service sent an experienced operative to Smyrna in order to continue his efforts there.

[… There is here a link made to modern day politics which I think has no bearing to the topic at hand about a Greek-American languishing in prison over a spy scandal]
*I hope I have spelt the name correctly.
*compatriot: I know of no same word for ομογενής in English, which means “of the same descent”

Source: http://www.e-grammes.gr/article.php?id=1517 (e-Newspaper "Hellenic Lines", no author is credited)

From the looks of the paper it seems a little on the nationalist side, but I am a sucker for intelligence stories and wanted to share it with you all (even with the translation's shortcomings). If anyone has more information on this intelligence gathering effort during the Balkan War, please do!

Cheers

Nick

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 14 May 2007 10:02

Thanks Nick.Very interesting.

The Turkish writer Ömer Seyfettin was also at Yenya:

http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/BelgeGoster ... 27DE0949CB

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Post by Peter H » 14 May 2007 10:30

My understanding of Greek forces involved at Yanya:

8th Epirus Division(Cretan Inf regt,15th Inf Regt,3 Evzone Battalions)
2nd Division
4th Division
6th Division
Metsovo Brigade,1st Division
Greek Cavalry Regt

Seven Greek Divisions existed in 1912,the 8th Division formed later.This out of a population of 2.7 million Greeks.The Yanya OOB suggests that more than half the Greek Army took part in the campaign.

At the same time the Greek 1st & 7th Divisions were around Salonika.The 3rd & 5th Divisions were in Macedonia.


This map from Purnell's History of the First World War,1969,shows how the Ottomans were "squeezed" out of the Balkans in the first war there 1912/13.

Yanya is shown on the map as Yanina.Note how some Serbian forces assisted the Bulgarians at Adrianople as well.
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Post by Peter H » 14 May 2007 10:39

Bulgaria is then defeated in the second round in 1913.The Turks retake Adrianople.
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Post by Peter H » 14 May 2007 10:48

Turkey's western European border was finalised with the Treaty of Lozan in 1923.


The Lozan Monument

Image

http://www.trakya.edu.tr/Eng/edirne/monument.htm
Lozan Monument, Square and Museum were built on the Karaagaç Campüs in accordance with the proposal of the Rector Osman Inci, to commemorate the Lozan Treaty which set boundaries of the Turkish Republic. In accordance with the Mondoros Treaty signed on 30th October, 1918 the border of Trakya was Meriç River; Karaagaç district and the right banks side of Meriç River remained in the Greek area.
That situation was discussed in details at the meetings held for the Lozan Treaty and the mentioned areas were given to the Turkish Republic with Lozan Treaty which was signed on 24th July, 1923. Hence, the University Senate decided during the 7th annual meeting on 27th November, 1996, to construct the monument on the Karaagaç Campus to commemorate this historical event. The Lozan Monument, which is one of the biggest monuments in Turkey was first inaugurated by the President of the Turkish Republic Süleyman Demirel on 19th July, 1998.

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Mr Holmes
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Post by Mr Holmes » 14 May 2007 14:26

Thanks for the article on Mr Seyfettin. I have been unable to locate any further famous people who participated in the conflict.

Those are good maps. The map I have has had its printer heads going off-focus so I lose out on some of the better details, such as the Bulgarian advance towards Constantinople/Istanbul and towards Gallipoli (!). That was a fairly long and probably arduous trek for the Serbs who assisted the Bulgarians in Adrianople.

re the Greek OoB at Ioannina:

http://orbat.com/site/history/index.html then click on 1900-38 and scroll down towards the bottom and you'll be presented with a further link to the Greek forces arrayed at all those places you mention.

IF anyone is interested, and does not know where the book can be purchased which is cited in that link, it can be purchased from here:

(Please look at end of post)

I will *hopefully* be buying it soon, as I had bought the WW2 volume a couple years back.

re the Second War: I never knew the Greek army went that far up into Bulgarian territory 8O. It would be great if our fellow Bulgarian members furnished us with further information.

Does anyone know if any of the other participants of the war set up their own monuments?

And to finish up for the night:

http://www.kozanh.gr/portal/images/gallery12/image9.jpg (Kozani in 1912)

Image


Nick


-edit-

IMPORTANT!

I have withdrawn the link from the Caratzas website, as they have not updated their security certificate. Once it has been rectified, I will replace the link.
Last edited by Mr Holmes on 18 May 2007 01:43, edited 1 time in total.

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Post by Peter H » 15 May 2007 02:39

The Serbian 2nd Army moved to Adrianople in November 1912.it consisted of the Timok and Danube Divisions,around 47,000 men and 72 artillery.Some of the later consisted of heavy Krupp 150mm howitzers.

From Corbis...Serbian hospital tent at Adrianople.
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Post by Mr Holmes » 15 May 2007 06:02

Thanks for the information and saddening picture.

-Another sad picture, this time of deceased Turkish soldiers:

http://www.www.furniture.www.sports.www ... tcard.html

Caption to ad states: 'Balkan war Bulgaria military propaganda postcard anti Turkey # 30. Represents " Turksih died soldiers "[sic.] '

-The following link from the Bulgarian government's history page:
http://www.mfa.government.bg/history_of ... ia/10.html

Has two interesting pictures, but I don't understand what is written. Hopefully, one of our fellow Bulgarian members could help us.

-A very fine study of a Bulgarian officer, 1913

Image

Source: http://www.www.www.postcards.www.real-p ... 33c_24.jpg

-Bulgarian Military Operation, pontoon bridge across Arda River:

Image

Source: http://www.www.www.www.www.propaganda-p ... 4_T_26.jpg

-Serbian Picture, again. This time of a fine study of a certain Col. Alexander Glishich:

Image

Source: http://www.www.www.www.cabinet-photos.w ... rw/item=75

Caption to postcard: "Postcard of Serbian / Yugoslavian colonel Alexander Glishich in uniform wearin orders, comamnder of VII regiment. Hero from Kumanovo ( Macedonia ) battle."

I think there a hundreds of these types of postcards on that auction site.

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Post by Peter H » 15 May 2007 06:54

Greek Memorial,Balkan Wars:

http://www.krokeai.com/pictures/townpic ... /eroon.htm

Battleship Averoff Museum

http://www.lastminute.com/site/find/Wor ... 38122.html



Casualties in the Balkan Wars,Erickson

Bulgaria
First War-14,000 Killed,19,000 died of disease,50,000 wounded
Second War-18,000 Killed,15,000 died of disease,60,000 wounded

Greece
First War-5,169 killed or dead,23,502 wounded
Second War-2,563 killed or dead,19,307 wounded

Serbia
First & Second Wars-36,550 killed or dead,50,000 wounded

Montenegro
First War-2,836 killed or dead,6,602 wounded
Second War-240 killed or dead,961 wounded

Ottoman Empire
First & Second Wars-50,000 killed.75,000 died of disease,100,000 wounded,115,000 POWs

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Post by Tosun Saral » 15 May 2007 09:27

Mr. Holmes
I thank you for your picture about Kozana/Kozani
http://www.kozanh.gr/portal/images/gallery12/image9.jpg (Kozani in 1912)
I havent seen it before. My Father imigrated from village of Sofular/Kapnohori of Kozani. Kozana/Kozani is my fatherland.

http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/7d696/

The family of my wife imigrated from Peleoponnes in 1850's. They are real ancient Greeks tall handsome men and very beautiful women with black hair and blue eyes. As they come to Turkey they never spoke a word Turkish, they spoke ancient greek. but they were moslems. They were settlet in Kusadasi on Aegean Sea. Kusadasi to now a very important saaport and a very touristic place. It is only 25 kms to famous roman ruins of the city of Ephesus and Home of Virgin Mary.

http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/7d696/1beeea/

There is no other society in this wide word mixed together like greeks and Turks. We call the greek-orthodox Christian people of Anatolia "Rum" which means "Romans". There were people who called themself "Karamanlis" (from Karaman)(The late Greek president Mr. Karamanlis was one of them) spoke a single word greek but were Greek orthodox Christians. They were Turkish origin who accepted Christianity.

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Post by Mr Holmes » 15 May 2007 13:54

Sir, those figures are scandalous! And, then we have the Great War and after that, the Asia Minor conflict. I wonder if there is a cumulative total figure listed for all of the conflicts which raged during this 1908-1923 era?

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Post by Peter H » 15 May 2007 14:32

Nick,

Estimated Ottoman/Turkish losses here:

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=116575


Greek losses WW1:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I_casualties
Greece
Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing[13,339], The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease[6,160].
Other estimates of Greek casualties are as follows:
By UK War Office in 1922: Killed/died wounds 5,000; prisoners and missing 1,000[11,353]-
By US War Dept in 1919: Battle deaths 7,000
Civilian deaths exceeded the prewar level by 150,000, caused by food shortages and the Spanish Flu

Greek losses 1919-1922:

http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat3.htm
Urlanis:
Greek KIA: 26,000, citing Bujac:
Killed and (?) died of wounds: 19,362
Died of wounds (?) and disease: 4,878
Missing: 17,995
TOTAL: 19T killed - 3T mortally wounded (i.e. 6% of k.) + 10T (i.e. ½ of missing) = 26T
Turks: about the same
TOTAL: 52,000 battle deaths
Singer (KIA)
Turkey: 20,000
Greece: 30,000
Around 20,000 Greeks became POWs as well.

Regards
Peter

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Mr Holmes
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Post by Mr Holmes » 15 May 2007 15:38

I thought you might have been interested in that one Mr Saral, since I knew that your father was from there. Unfortunately, there are not many more pictures of the war from Greek sites that I could find. (About your wife's ancestors; yes, as time went on, there were an increasing number of Greeks who became Moslem. It started becoming a problem of sorts for the Orthodox Church and so it sent St Kosmas the Aetolian "Equal to the Apostles" to preach the Church's message to those who had no faith or were on the verge of becoming Moslem. Does Mrs Saral speak any Greek? In other words was the Greek language passed on from generation to generation? I'd be interested to know. Later, you wrote: "There is no other society in this wide word mixed together like greeks and Turks." Indeed. I used to help out at a fair few Greco-Turkish weddings in the Orthodox Church here, but I was never invited to the parties :-(... :-) . Some Greeks today still call themselves Ρωμιοί which means the same thing. I never knew what the Karaman were, so thank you for the information!)

Anyway, back to the topic (I tend to go off on tangents). The following is a badly scanned picture of the Greek army entering the town of Xanthe:

Image

Caption translation: "Entry of the Greek Army in Xanthi (13/7/1913) under its first liberation (Xanthe was liberated a second time after seven years, in 14/5/1920"

Source: Αποστόλου Π. Ευθυμιάδη, Η Συμβολή της Θράκης εις τους Απελευθερωτικούς Αγώνας του Έθνους (Από του 1361 Μέχρι του 1920, "Αιγαίο", Αλεξανδρούπολις, 2002, σελ. 653.

Apostolos P. Efthimiades, The Symbol of Thrace in the National Liberation Struggles (From 1361 Until 1920), "Aegaeo", Alexandroupolis, 2002, p. 653.

It has been scanned from a great book I have in my possession which I received for free. I have not read it yet (a massive book written in high-Greek).



Mr H,

Thanks once more, for the extensive figures. I can't believe that half a million Turks perished due to disease alone in this period. With regards to the Greek figures; the WW1 Russian estimates surprise me somewhat, since Greece had withdrawn from battle due to internal political bickering. But then, I'm no expert.

The lack of proper health care in the whole region (disease it seems caused much more suffering than actual combat casualties, by mammoth proportions) shows the very pitiable plight suffered by the populations everywhere.

I always knew the Balkan Wars to be a very vicious fight. But, I must confess, to being taken aback at the casualty figures kindly provided by you.

Nick

-edit-

Also, thank you very much for the link to the Greek monument. I'll scan another picture (from memory, it is a drawing), tomorrow, of the commander of the Averoff.

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Post by Tosun Saral » 16 May 2007 09:08

Colak Ahmet Faik Pasha (look at axis) The 4th Grand Master of Turkish Masons

Lt. Col Ahmet Faik Bey was made c.o.s. of the 7th AC after mobilization on Sept.29th 1912. After a short time he was made commander of 19th Infantry Division. His division was in Mecidiye. The division got the orders to move to Yanya on Dec. 7th 1912 with a men and material power of: 57th and Composed 7th Nisachanci (sharp shooters) Regiments. Each regiment had 3 battalions with each 600 men and 2 MGs. A detachment of cavalry with 19 men and an artillary team with horse artillary and comman fire mountain artillary. The div. moved from Misyoferi to Yanya with 4421 men. They reached to Yanya on Dec. 9th 1912. The division arrived at a very critical time. They gathered at the village of Kocolos. Although the men were very exausted and hungry they immediately attacked to the Greeks. The fights continued all day long and night on Dec. 12th 1912. Those fights is called as Konduvraki and Drisko battles. The div. of Faik Bey took Drisko and Kanlıtepe (The bloody Hill) from the Greeks back.
The div. was demolished on Dec. 24th 1912. Faik Bey was made commander of the 3rd Inf. Div. which was reorganized by the remains of 13th and 19th divs. On Oct.24th 1913 he was made commander of 1st Iskodra (Scutary) Div. Nov. 11th he was promoted to Colonel. "

source. Ismail Tosun Saral " Büyük Üstad Faik Paşa"( Grand Master Faik Pasha)

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Post by Mr Holmes » 16 May 2007 15:38

Thank you Mr Saral. (You really should have (was it your father's?) that book translated into English.)

I beg you all for your patience, just one more picture.

This one from Salonika in 1912:

Image

Caption: Santouri and violinists playing for a company of evzones and cretan counterparts. (Thessaloniki, 1912)
Source: http://www.rebetiko.gr/photosgal_item.asp?id=296

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