Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Discussions on the final era of the Ottoman Empire, from the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 until the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 03 Oct 2012 11:05

Revised plate 21, start of war WW1 Staff, Artillery and soldier's insignia:

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 03 Oct 2012 12:46

This new plate 44 looks at the Ottoman Army medical service, 1909-1916.

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This Figure 44 group, has some illustrations extracted from a 1911 Italian Army manual showing the rank insignia for the Ottoman Turkish in the Italian Empire's conquest of Ottoman Libya (the 1911-1912 Italo-Turkish War). Included as well, is an original Doctors’ shoulder board for a Major (a ‘Bimbashi’), from the medical branch used in WW1, it too is distinguished from the generals’ pattern, appearing longer, triangular and narrow. This version is 4.2 cm x 10.4 cm. Figures illustrating, as well the higher grades: a Lieutenant-Colonel (‘Kaimakam’), and a ‘Liva’ (The Doctor General: Major-General). The key difference between the combat and non-combatant roles was the wearing of white shoulder insignia with red highlights. In 1909, officers such as ‘Tabur Katibi’ (Battalion Clerk), and the ‘Aley Katibi’ (Regimental Clerk), have this type of insignia as well . However, these would have clearly clashed with medical officers, if these were ranked Captain (‘Yuzbashi’), or an Adjutant-Major (a ‘Kolagasi’). The explanation can be found in a critical reviewed made at the onset of WW1 identifying the “Army Medical Services in Turkey is in an exceedingly bad state”, with few doctors appointed (British 1916 Turkish Army Handbook). The expansion of the medical service necessitated the major change in rank insignia used by lower grade officers, and led to the creation of the new undocumented insignia illustrated in the previous groups for the reorganized administrative officers. The board with three stars - from the 1911 Italian manual - is described as a “secretary to a doctor”, which appears to show the beginnings of these type of shoulder boards being migrated to the medical branch. The adoption of different colored branch of service collars in 1916, probably helped reduce any confusion in ranks, however it also appears that by the mid-war Doctors were taking to wearing the 'snake & vine' badge on the shoulder-board (it originally was worn on the black pre-war collars). As well, a 'new' group of shoulderboards appeared during the war with silver-tape/cord borders. Likely indicating junior-level doctors. It should be noted that the original 1876 rank system for medical officers only had three ranks in addition to the 'Doctor-General' these were: (i) Doctor; (ii) Surgeon; & (iii) Pharmacist.

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 03 Oct 2012 22:19

improved band group 43

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 04 Oct 2012 09:58

Based on information from Chris' German Colonial Uniforms http://www.germancolonialuniforms.co.uk/: The Germans in Turkish uniforms:

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 04 Oct 2012 22:03

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This plate 41 covers protective clothing/equipment used in WW1

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 05 Oct 2012 10:34

Revised Plate 17, with this study of the Fethi Bey uniform, with what appears to be a blue edged shoulder board (c1913)

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 05 Oct 2012 10:55

These are some of the studies that I have done over the past few years that base the illustrated plates I have been working-on. The research is an attempt to marry photographs, museum and private collections, period illustrations and put these back into color, as well as in context in terms of the overall development of Ottoman uniforms between 1800 and 1918.

Research that relies purely on regulations (which needs to be done), however misses-out actually how these uniforms/insignia were finally produced. For instance take this period illustration of the Ottoman General's 'five-cord' gold shoulder board, and compare to a known WW1 version, which has been made from gold cord, with red flecks (these two are very different from each other:

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Some more examples of studies:

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 05 Oct 2012 12:16

This study here shows a correction to mistakes in a recent Turkish article on the history of Ottoman-Turkish rank insignia, were the post -Crimean War transition in ranks has been missed-out and confused with the 1876-1908 period:

Here is the study, this research for 1861-76 is based on:

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 05 Oct 2012 12:25

These two period illustrations show how the rank system evolved over the 1861-76-1908 period for the same regiment - the Senior Officer of the Ertugrul Cav.:

BETWEEN 1861-1876:
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FROM 1876:
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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 05 Oct 2012 16:01

Update to plate 41:

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These are my articles on Ottoman Uniforms & insignia:
TO BE PUBLISHED:
1. Flaherty, C. (2013) Ottoman Turkish 1876 (Post 1909 Version) Aiguillette for Aides-De-Camp to the Sultan.
3. Flaherty, C. (2013) WW1 Ottoman Turkish Officers’ Epaulettes and Shoulder Boards.
4. Flaherty, C. (2013) WW1 Turkish Grenades and Pioneers.

FORTHCOMING:
4. Flaherty, C. (2012) WW1 Turkish Headgear. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 114 (November-December):

PUBLISHED:
5. Flaherty, C (2012) Turkish Contingent Uniforms of the Crimean Era. SOTQ. Issue 150 (August, 2012):
6. Flaherty, C. (2012) WW1 Wartime Ottoman Turkish Soldiers’ Buckles. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 113 (September-October): 33-35.
7. Flaherty, C. (2012) Abdülmecid I Period Ottoman Uniforms of the Crimean Era: A Review Commentary on C.A. Norman’s ‘Turkish Uniforms Of The Crimean Era’. The War Correspondent Vol. 30, No. 2 (July 2012): 6-29.
8. Flaherty, C. (2012) The WW1 Enveriye Dolch. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 112 (July-August): 58-61.
9. Flaherty, C. (2012) Were the Ottoman Turkish Imperial Guard at Gallipoli? The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 111 (May-June): 19-22.
10. Flaherty, C. (2011) Ottoman Uniforms of the Crimean War. SOTQ. Issue 147 (December): 16-27.
11. Flaherty, C. (2011) WW1 Wartime Ersatz Ottoman Turkish Officers’ Buckles. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 108 (November-December): 27-29.
12. Flaherty, C. (2011) An Ottoman Turkish Generals’ Jacket. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 106 (July-August): 25-28.
13. Flaherty, C. (2011) WW1 Ottoman Turkish Steel Helmets. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 104 (March-April): 36-38.
14. Flaherty, C. (2011) WW1 Turkish Collar Numerals. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 103 (January-February): 25-26.
15. Flaherty, C. (2010) WW1 Ottoman Turkish Ammunition Waist Bandolier. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 102 (November-December): 61-62.
16. Flaherty, C. (2010) WW1 Ottoman Turkish Personnel Equipment. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 101 (September-October): 61-62.
17. Flaherty, C (2010) Ottoman Turkish Army M1909 Officer’s Portepee. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 100 (July-August): 99.
18. Flaherty, C. (2010) Ottoman Turkish Army Specialist Insignia. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 99 (May-June): 90-91.
19. Flaherty, C. (2010) WW1 Ottoman Turkish Officer’s Insignia. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 98 (March-April): 30-31.
20. Flaherty, C. (2010) 1909 Ottoman Turkish Officer’s Brocade Belts. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 97 (January-February): 69.
21. Flaherty, C. (2009) Ottoman Turkish Imperial Army Buttons and Buckles. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 96 (November-December): 69.

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 07 Oct 2012 00:54

This new plate 45 looks at Army medical officers (1876-1905), and Navy 1876-1918:

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 07 Oct 2012 12:22

New chart on Navy ranks, showing the mix and transition of officer's rank insignia over the 1876-1908-1909-1916 period:

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 08 Oct 2012 09:47

Revised Plate 25: with more info on the Secondary School student, photographed in picture B02833, taken in "Syria: Damascus 1918" URL http://cas.awm.gov.au/item/B02833 that makes these clearly students of the Damascus Secondary School. Just because they are wearing the Keffiyeh, that does not immediately ID them as Arabs, as this item of head gear was worn extensively throughout the Ottoman Imperial Army, as the basic hot weather headgear. Prior to 1914, it was frequently worn, with the Fez, or Kalpak and left covering/protecting the back of the head/shoulders or could be wrapped around these. Looking at period photos and illustrations from 1908-13, soldiers, and officers wear this in all manner of ways, and likely led to the introduction of the Enver -hat, to introduce a more soldierly uniform appearance.

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 08 Oct 2012 10:00

ukturkcollector wrote:Revised Plate 25: with more info on the Secondary School student, photographed in picture B02833, taken in "Syria: Damascus 1918" URL http://cas.awm.gov.au/item/B02833 that makes these clearly students of the Damascus Secondary School. Just because they are wearing the Keffiyeh, that does not immediately ID them as Arabs, as this item of head gear was worn extensively throughout the Ottoman Imperial Army, as the basic hot weather headgear. Prior to 1914, it was frequently worn, with the Fez, or Kalpak and left covering/protecting the back of the head/shoulders or could be wrapped around these. Looking at period photos and illustrations from 1908-13, soldiers, and officers wear this in all manner of ways, and likely led to the introduction of the Enver -hat, to introduce a more soldierly uniform appearance.

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FLAG illustration 'B: PLATE 25', is interesting. There are two known versions of this, an original in the Imperial war Museum collection, and identified as the flag of the Turkish soldiers, attempting to force the Suez. Originally, I though this was 'field-made' item, note in particular the crude 4-point star & crescent; however, compared with this period German cartoon celebrating the Turkish victory at Kut, an identical designed flag can be seen (4-point star & crescent).

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Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 08 Oct 2012 15:57

This new plate 47, looks specifically at the service "Aiguillette for an Aides-De-Camp to the Sultan", which was first adopted in the 1876-1908 period (though there may be earlier versions), which in WW1 grew to enormous proportions, being three times the size of its pre-WW1 version. Attached is an extracted page from the French Commercial Annual / Annuaire oriental du commerce, (Constantinople 1891), included in this list all the Lieutenants, Captains etc who were also entitled ‘Aides-de-Camp Honraires’. As well as, all the current serving ones, thus indicating there was a high level of importance associated with the role. It appears as well, that the title raised the status of these officers. Ottoman Turkish military ranks carried a corresponding aristocratic title. In the case of a Lieutenant’s rank this was normally “EFFENDI”. However, in the Annuaire, the named Lieutenants, who are entitled ‘Aides-de-Camp Honraires’, end their names with the aristocratic title of “BEY”, which was normally intended for the MAJOR rank and above.

There appears to be a certain amount of confusion over these, as people are not realizing that the "Aiguillette for an Aides-De-Camp to the Sultan", is both worn as a symbol of staff roles, as well as was granted to individuals of various ranks, as an actual award (an Honorary), so as can be seen in the page below, a distinction is being made between Aides-De-Camp to the Sultan" (Honorary); where as lower down the page we see the start of the list, for the actual staff-holding ranks who are Aides-De-Camp.

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