Red Army in Dalian from 1945 onwards

Discussions on all aspects of China, from the beginning of the First Sino-Japanese War till the end of the Chinese Civil War. Hosted by YC Chen.
User avatar
Kim Sung
Member
Posts: 5039
Joined: 28 May 2005 13:36
Location: The Last Confucian State

Red Army in Dalian from 1945 onwards

Post by Kim Sung » 16 Jan 2007 04:56

This month I'm planning to visit Dalian. So I have some questions about Dalian.

The Red Army occupied Dalian (大连) on August 22, 1945 and were stationed until 1955.

My questions are

1. How many Soviet soldiers and which army and naval units were stationed in Dalian?

2. What form of military administrative organization did they have?

3. Who were commanders of occupying Soviet forces?

4. What kind of role did the Soviet forces in Dalian play during the Chinese Civil War from 1945 to 1949?

5. In what situations were the Chinese in Dalian? Wasn't there any clashes between Nationalists and communists in Dalian?


The Chinese passionately welcoming the 39th army of the Soviet Transbaikal Front in Dalian.

* Image Source: '赤軍興亡史' ('The Rise and Fall of the Red Army')

Image

User avatar
RJcccc
Member
Posts: 46
Joined: 06 Jan 2007 17:01
Location: BeiJing, China PR

Post by RJcccc » 17 Jan 2007 16:32

That’s a post in Chinese forum:
http://post.baidu.com/f?kz=73410435
If you have the ability to read these in Chinese, I think you will get some answers to your questions. I am not familiar with the weave of USSR army and not good at English. So translating them is a hard work for me. Sorry for that.

Question 1:
(IN 1950)
此时,驻守在旅大地区的苏军部队有:陆军——第39集团军,辖直属工兵团、通信团和加农炮兵旅;近卫步兵第5军及所属炮兵旅、高炮团、火箭炮团、近卫17师、19师、机械化师;第25机炮师。空军——第55歼击机军及所属3个歼击机师、1个侦察大队和1个对空勤务团。海军——太平洋舰队红海军旅顺口基地及所属1个水鱼雷机师、岸防司令部、潜艇基地、快艇总队、水警总队、高射炮兵团、水上飞机大队、抢险救生大队、海道测量区和海军修船厂。炮兵——加农炮兵33师、突破炮兵师、防坦克歼击炮兵旅和高射炮兵14师。总计约30万人,同以前一样仍分别驻扎在旅顺、金州、长海等地区。
(IN 1955)
自5月25日至27日,苏联驻军指挥机关及陆、海、空三军约12万人分批撤离。
from another article:
至此,以什维佐夫上将为司令员,图兰达也夫少将为参谋长.格列克夫少将为政治部主任的驻旅顺口第五十五区的苏联远东后贝加尔三十九集团军所属的警卫师、机炮师、预备炮兵师、独立炮兵团、空军五十五军.海军舰队、鱼雷机师和通信团、工兵团、直属队共计12 万人.分批撤离,1955 年5 月27 日.该集团军司令部随同最后一批部队一起全部撤出了旅顺,从而结束了苏军在旅顺驻军的历史。
The population of troops: 300,000 in 1950 and 120,000 in 1955.

Question 2:
Two guard area? The 55th?
??? 旅顺警备区 and 大连警备区

Question 3:
Some relevant informations in this article:
(IN 1945)
8月22日,苏联后贝加尔方面军副司令伊凡诺夫中将率250名空降兵在旅顺口土城子机场着陆,并就任旅顺警备区司令
同日,雅曼诺夫少将也率250名空降兵在大连周水子机场着陆,并就任大连警备区司令(后由高字洛夫中将接替)。
8月底,苏军进驻旅大地区的兵力约1万余人。9月1日,后贝加尔方面军第39集团军司令柳德尼科夫上将率司令部作战组飞抵旅顺。
9月28日,苏联太平洋舰队部分军舰开入旅顺口,齐帕诺维奇海军少将旅顺口海军基地司令官
(IN 1950)
苏方军事代表团主席是驻大连苏军司令官别洛博罗多夫上将
(IN 1955)
苏方代表签字的是第39集团军司令什维佐夫海军基地司令古德利切夫空军第55军军长切德利克
Question 4:
(From 1945 to 1949)
此后,旅顺、大连地区实际上成为苏联的军事管制区。旅顺口海军基地名为中苏共用,实为苏联独占。而大连市的主权虽属中国,但苏军占领当局既不允许国民党军队从海上登陆,也拒绝国民党政府设立航空站,空运部队接防,甚至以成立自治地方政府等方法阻挠国民党中央政府接收大连的地方行政权力。在这一过程中,中共始终配合苏军当局行动,以保证旅大地区成为一块受苏联保护的革命根据地。在整个解放战争期间,旅大地区的确为支援中国革命做出了极大贡献,但应该承认,其主权实际上是掌握在苏联手中,至于旅顺基地,更是中国人无法问津的“特区”。这个问题,直到1949年中国革命即将取得成功的时候,才开始提上中共中央的议事日程。
Question 5:
不过,旅大地区的情况则有很大不同。1945年8月苏联红军进驻旅大之初纪律很差,奸污妇女、强夺民财等事情几乎每天都有发生。虽然后来苏联军事当局采取极其严厉的惩治措施(包括就地枪决),改变了这种状况,但给当地居民留下的恶劣印象却难以很快消除。因此,苏联延长在旅顺驻军,引起了中国当地军民的不满。据旅大市甘井子区苏军飞机场负责人反映,“中苏关系不如以前密切,最近有些工人、学生对苏联同志不够尊敬。苏联妇女抱小孩上电车时也不让座。对上电车的苏联军官,过去不推不挤,现在又推又挤,个别的还有打人现象。”此外,1952年11月10日新华社在《内部参考》中还报道了某些旅大市职工对苏军不友好的大量事例,有人在买卖时欺骗、糊弄苏联人,有人看不起苏联的技术和经验,还有人甚至在争吵中解除了苏军战士的武器和摘掉军官的军帽。

User avatar
Kim Sung
Member
Posts: 5039
Joined: 28 May 2005 13:36
Location: The Last Confucian State

Post by Kim Sung » 17 Jan 2007 16:41

满分感谢! 这个信息顶有用!

(Thank you very much! This information is very useful!)

User avatar
Kim Sung
Member
Posts: 5039
Joined: 28 May 2005 13:36
Location: The Last Confucian State

Post by Kim Sung » 17 Jan 2007 16:48

RJcccc wrote:总计约30万人,同以前一样仍分别驻扎在旅顺、金州、长海等地区。
(IN 1955)
自5月25日至27日,苏联驻军指挥机关及陆、海、空三军约12万人分批撤离。
Wow! I didn't know that such large forces were stationed in Dalian.

It seems that the naval base in Dalian at that time was larger than that of Vladivostok or Sevastopol'.

User avatar
RJcccc
Member
Posts: 46
Joined: 06 Jan 2007 17:01
Location: BeiJing, China PR

Post by RJcccc » 07 Feb 2007 15:09

Kim,
if you would change the name in the title from Dalian to the conventional western names, Dalny and Port Arthur, this post, I think, would attract more attention. I also want to know more information about the Red Army in Dalian from western friends.
Could you?
Regards
R.J.

User avatar
Kim Sung
Member
Posts: 5039
Joined: 28 May 2005 13:36
Location: The Last Confucian State

Re: Red Army in Dalian from 1945 onwards

Post by Kim Sung » 20 May 2008 05:07

Nikita Khrushchev visiting the Dalian naval base in 1955 just before its comeback to PRC.

Image
Image

This photo was obtained by a former US navy crew from the wife of a former KGB agent in 1997.

South
Financial supporter
Posts: 3590
Joined: 06 Sep 2007 09:01
Location: USA

Re: Red Army in Dalian from 1945 onwards

Post by South » 20 May 2008 07:07

Good morning Kim Sung,

A technical, but important, point re "The Red Army occupied Dalien";

The Soviet Red Army was indeed physically present at Dalien but it wasn't an "occupation". The distinction is important.

On 14 Aug 1945, representatives of the Chinese and Soviet governments signed the Sino-Soviet Friendship and Alliance plus agreements on Lushun (Port Arthur) - Dalian Railroad. Lushun port was leased to the Soviet Union for 30 years.

A tangent reply to Question 1;

Dalien is the big city. Lushun (Port Arthur) is the "small" city with the famous naval base. Thus, there were land forces in both places. In 1945 Lushun (Port Arthur) was HQ of the 19th Div of the Fifth Soviet Red Army (location is the current No. 10 Wanle Street).


Warm regards,

Bob

South
Financial supporter
Posts: 3590
Joined: 06 Sep 2007 09:01
Location: USA

Re: Red Army in Dalian from 1945 onwards

Post by South » 20 May 2008 07:28

Good morning Kim sung,

I'm not sure but that looks like the monument at "Height 203", the commanding geographic fortified site controlling the bay. It was called "Height 203" because the battery location was 203 meters above sea level. It's northwest of Lushun proper (original name: "Lord Hill").



Warm regards,

Bob

User avatar
Kim Sung
Member
Posts: 5039
Joined: 28 May 2005 13:36
Location: The Last Confucian State

Re: Red Army in Dalian from 1945 onwards

Post by Kim Sung » 20 May 2008 09:29

South wrote:Good morning Kim sung,

I'm not sure but that looks like the monument at "Height 203", the commanding geographic fortified site controlling the bay. It was called "Height 203" because the battery location was 203 meters above sea level. It's northwest of Lushun proper (original name: "Lord Hill").
Height 203 was fought over fiercely during the Battle of Lushun as you see in the drawing below.

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic. ... 0#p1148420

The pillar in the photo above doesn't seem to be that of Height 203. Look at this Japanese link.

http://web.kyoto-inet.or.jp/people/kamb ... ian203.htm

The pillar in the photo above looks like one of many other fortified facilities built in the port of Dalian during or after the Russo-Japanese War as you see below.

Japanese blockade operation during the Seige of Lushun

Image
Image

* Image Source: 露日戰爭 ('The Russo-Japanese War')

South
Financial supporter
Posts: 3590
Joined: 06 Sep 2007 09:01
Location: USA

Re: Red Army in Dalian from 1945 onwards

Post by South » 21 May 2008 06:29

Good morning Kim Sung,

That's a real good oblique map posted above.

At our AHF web site section, I'll link the website of the Russo-Japanese War Research Society. This will assist those seeking advanced research.


Warm regards,

Bob

User avatar
Kim Sung
Member
Posts: 5039
Joined: 28 May 2005 13:36
Location: The Last Confucian State

Re: Red Army in Dalian from 1945 onwards

Post by Kim Sung » 21 May 2008 06:34

South wrote:It was called "Height 203" because the battery location was 203 meters above sea level. It's northwest of Lushun proper (original name: "Lord Hill").
South wrote:At our AHF web site section, I'll link the website of the Russo-Japanese War Research Society. This will assist those seeking advanced research.
I'm a frequent visitor to the website of the Russo-Japanese War Research Society because I'm a researcher of the Russo-Japanese War which decided the fate of my country. I have more maps of Lushun and Dalian.

Return to “China at War 1895-1949”