Question about IJA units formation/disbandment

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Eugen Pinak
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Question about IJA units formation/disbandment

Post by Eugen Pinak » 07 Nov 2023 13:06

A couple of questions to knowledgeable members about IJA units formation/disbandment.

Question 1:
22 January 1945 17th Area Army was formed from Korean Army. BUT Korean Army was disbanded only 6 February 1945. As they can't exist together, what formation/disbandment date us correct?

Another question is on 17th AA leaders. They were the same as for the Korean Army: GEN Itagaki as commander and LTG Ihara as Chief of Staff. But according to Japanese Wikipedia GEN Itagaki was appointed only 1 February 1945 and LTG Ihara - on 7 April 1945. Why they weren't appointed on the 22 January when this Area army was created? Was it a norm?

Question 2:
After disbandment Korean Army was turned into Korean Military District. However, the district was formed on 1 February 1945, but army was disbanded on 6 February 1945. Is it an error in dates or for a week 17th Area Army, Korean Army and Korean Military District existed together?

Question 3:
On 1 February 1945 IJA formed 5 area armies to defend Japanese mainland and surrounding islands: 11, 12, 13, 15, 16. But 17th Area Army, formed a week before, received later number. Was it because formation of all 6 area armies was decided earlier?

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fontessa
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Re: Question about IJA units formation/disbandment

Post by fontessa » 07 Nov 2023 21:05

Eugen Pinak wrote:
07 Nov 2023 13:06
A couple of questions to knowledgeable members about IJA units formation/disbandment.

Question 1:
22 January 1945 17th Area Army was formed from Korean Army. BUT Korean Army was disbanded only 6 February 1945. As they can't exist together, what formation/disbandment date us correct?

Another question is on 17th AA leaders. They were the same as for the Korean Army: GEN Itagaki as commander and LTG Ihara as Chief of Staff. But according to Japanese Wikipedia GEN Itagaki was appointed only 1 February 1945 and LTG Ihara - on 7 April 1945. Why they weren't appointed on the 22 January when this Area army was created? Was it a norm?

Question 2:
After disbandment Korean Army was turned into Korean Military District. However, the district was formed on 1 February 1945, but army was disbanded on 6 February 1945. Is it an error in dates or for a week 17th Area Army, Korean Army and Korean Military District existed together?

Question 3:
On 1 February 1945 IJA formed 5 area armies to defend Japanese mainland and surrounding islands: 11, 12, 13, 15, 16. But 17th Area Army, formed a week before, received later number. Was it because formation of all 6 area armies was decided earlier?
They were ordered to create on the same day. With 昭和20年軍令陸甲第13号 Army Regulation "A" dated 22 January 1945, the below 6 Area Armies and 8 Army Districts were ordered to create.
  11th, 12th 13rd, 15th, 16th, and 17th 方面軍 Area Armies
  東北 Tohoku, 東部 Tobu, 東海 Tokai, 中部 Chubu, 西部 Seibu, 北部 Hokubu, 台湾 Taiwan, and 朝鮮 Korea 軍管区 Military Districts
Note that 22 January 1945 was the day ordered to create. Generally, the actual creation was completed on the after day. Commanders and Chiefs of Staff of the above area armies and military districts were appointed with 陸軍異動通報 Rikugun Ido Tusho dated 1 February 1945. So above 6 area armies were actually created and old Tobu, Chubu, Seibu, Hokubu, Taiwan, and Korea Armies were disbanded on this day.


本土決戦.jpg

Districts were closely related to administrative areas.
朝鮮防衛体制 2.jpg

Korea administrative areas have not changed even today.
朝鮮行政区画.jpg

朝鮮 辞令.jpg

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Eugen Pinak
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Re: Question about IJA units formation/disbandment

Post by Eugen Pinak » 08 Nov 2023 15:46

Fontessa - once again I'd like to thank you for the detailed reply.
Your knowledge is surpassed only by your generosity in sharing your knowledge with us.

Am I understand you correctly, that standard process of building IJA unit was at follows:
1) Order to create unit is issued > preparatory work begins,
2) Unit commander appointed > unit begins its existence,
3) Unit becomes operational > unit is ready for duty,
right?

And on Taiwan, where 10th Area Army was formed 22 September 1944, did Taiwan Army existed without special HQ (HQ was for 10th AA) until 1 February 1945, when it officially become Taiwan District?

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fontessa
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Re: Question about IJA units formation/disbandment

Post by fontessa » 10 Nov 2023 05:29

Eugen Pinak wrote:
08 Nov 2023 15:46
Am I understand you correctly, that standard process of building IJA unit was at follows:
1) Order to create unit is issued > preparatory work begins,
2) Unit commander appointed > unit begins its existence,
3) Unit becomes operational > unit is ready for duty,
right?
Yes. I would like to explain in more detail.
Below is a sample of 軍令 Army Regulation. It was 昭和18年軍令陸甲第7号 Army Regulation (Order ) ”
A” No.7 dated 28 January 1943.
https://www.jacar.archives.go.jp/aj/met ... 4010684100
It ordered the organization of 2 HQs, 2 Air Sector Commands, 、8 Airfield Companies, and an Air Route Department. The 1st picture shows its attached table No.1 which shows the 編制表 Organization Table, 編成管理官 Organization’s Supervising Officer, and Organization Schedule for each unit. The 2nd picture shows the Organization Table of the 1st Air Route Department. It shows the breakdown of the unit at the company level. On the other hand, the equipment of each unit was stipulated in the 兵器常数表 Equipment Table of 陸亜機密第29号 Army Top Secret Asia General Order No. 29, “7th Air Division HQ and other organization guidelines” which corresponded to the previous 軍令陸甲第7号.
https://www.jacar.archives.go.jp/aj/met ... L_TYPE=pdf
The pair of 編制表 and 兵器常数表 was equivalent to the U.S. military's TOE.

軍令 1.jpg

軍令 3.jpg


編成管理官 Organization’s Supervising Officer
The army commander or division commander to where the unit scheduled to be assigned supervised all the organization work. I think the actual bits and pieces of work were done by members of his HQ. The most difficult part was probably acquiring and transporting the equipment.
編成完結 Organization Completed
It meant that all personnel and equipment were available. In other words, the unit became "operational". The organization’s Supervising Officer had to report the date to the Minister of War. The 3rd picture shows the dates of the organization completed.
通称番号 Unit Code Numbers
The organization's Supervising Officer decided on unit code numbers. As shown in the 4th picture, the numbers that air army commander stocked were used.

軍令 編成完結.jpg

軍令 通称番号.jpg

Eugen Pinak wrote:
08 Nov 2023 15:46
And on Taiwan, where 10th Area Army was formed 22 September 1944, did Taiwan Army existed without special HQ (HQ was for 10th AA) until 1 February 1945, when it officially become Taiwan District?
Taiwan Army had its HQ. The posts of Taiwan Army HQ members were additional posts of the 10th Area Army HQ members. The two were virtually the same. For example, the Taiwan Army's chief of staff was an Additional Post of the 10th Army's chief of staff. This relationship remained the same after the Taiwan Army was reorganized into the Taiwanese Military District. Furthermore, the relationship with other military districts between area armies was the same. See the bottom picture. Basically, the Military District (Administration) and the Area Army (Operation) were separate things. However, the Area Army Commander could command the Military District's units for area defense. Since this was the most important aspect of Homeland Defense, the two were integrated.


After 22 September 1944, L.G. Ando's "Regular post" was "10th Arear Army Commander", and the post of "Taiwan Army Commander" became his "Additional Post".
Taiwan Army Commander
Gen Akashi Genjiro: 20 April 1919 - 26 October 1919
Vacant: 26 October 1919 - 1 November 1919
Gen. Shiba Goro: 1 November 1919 - 4 May 1921
・・・
L.G. Ando Rilichi: 6 November 1941 - 22 September 1944
(ADD) L.G. Ando Rilichi: 22 September 1944- 1 February 1945
Taiwan Military District
(ADD) L.G. Ando Rilichi: 1 February 1945 - end of the war
10th Area Army Commander
L.G. Ando Rilichi: 22 September 1944 - end of the war

朝鮮防衛体制.jpg

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Eugen Pinak
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Re: Question about IJA units formation/disbandment

Post by Eugen Pinak » 12 Nov 2023 15:37

fontessa wrote:
10 Nov 2023 05:29
Eugen Pinak wrote:
08 Nov 2023 15:46
Am I understand you correctly, that standard process of building IJA unit was at follows:
1) Order to create unit is issued > preparatory work begins,
2) Unit commander appointed > unit begins its existence,
3) Unit becomes operational > unit is ready for duty,
right?
Yes. I would like to explain in more detail.
...
Fontessa - thank you for even more detailed explanations! I really miss those nuances due to my lack of Japanese language knowledge.

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tom!
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Re: Question about IJA units formation/disbandment

Post by tom! » 17 Mar 2024 07:56

Hi.

I was asked the following questions but my knowledge is not good enough on this special topic. Maybe you can help me out...

Were there any units using tanks or armored vehicles disarmed in Korea at surrender?

If there were, what happened to their vehicles?

Yours

tom! ;)

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Akira Takizawa
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Re: Question about IJA units formation/disbandment

Post by Akira Takizawa » 17 Mar 2024 08:38

> Were there any units using tanks or armored vehicles disarmed in Korea at surrender?

12th Tank Regiment was stationed at Seoul at the end of the war. 14th Independent Tank Company was stationed on Jeju Island.

> If there were, what happened to their vehicles?

Tanks on Jeju Island were burned by the Americans after the war as shown below.
https://japan.hani.co.kr/arti/politics/18041.html

The tanks of 12th Tank Regiment were taken over by the Americans after the war. It is unknown what happened on them after that. But, they would be also burned as well as Jeju, because the Americans or Koreans did not use Japanese tanks.

Taki

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tom!
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Re: Question about IJA units formation/disbandment

Post by tom! » 17 Mar 2024 14:09

Hi.

Thanks, that really helps.

Yours

tom! ;)

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