Anti-partisan warfare and reprisals in WWII Yugoslavia

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 01:12

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Translation of Document NOKW-905, Prosecution Exhibit 143: Report from 734th Infantry Regiment to 704th Infantry Division, 11/4/1941, Enclosing Report of the Shooting of Jews and Gypsies: Report of 11/4/1941", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 995-997.

[Stamp] Secret
734th Infantry Regiment
Diary No. 437/41 Secret Ia
704th Infantry Division
Received 11/10/1941
Branch Ia 598/41 Secret -1-
704th Infantry Division IVa
Received 11/8/1941 IVb
Diary No. IVd
C.O. IIa IIb Ia Ib Ic III

[Handwritten] Diary 135141 Secret 470a [Illegible initials]


To 704th Infantry Division

Subject: Reprisal measures

* * *

For information, the regiment encloses the report of Lieutenant Walther, 9th Company, 433d Infantry Regiment, concerning the shooting of Jews and gypsies on 10/27 and 10/30/1941.

[Illegible signature]

[Inclosure]

[Stamp] Secret

1st Lt. Walther
C. O. 9th Company, 433d Infantry Regiment
Local Headquarters, 11/1/1941

Report concerning the shooting to death of Jews and gypsies

By agreement with the SS office, I picked up the selected Jews and gypsies from the prisoner camp Belgrade. The trucks of 599th Administrative Area Headquarters available to me for this purpose were impracticable for two reasons:

1. They have civilian drivers. Hence, secrecy is not assured.

2. All of them were without cover or tarpaulins so that the population of the city saw whom we had put in the vehicles and where we went. Wives of the Jews had assembled in front of the camp; they cried and screamed when we drove off.

The location where the shooting to death was carried out is very favorable. It is situated north of Pancevo immediately on the road of Pancevo-Jabuka where there is a grade high enough to make it difficult to climb. Opposite this grade is swamp terrain; behind it a river. When the water is high, as on 10/29/1941, it almost comes up to the grade. Thus, an escape of the prisoners can be prevented with few troops. The sandy ground also is favorable which facilitates digging of the ditches and consequently shortens the time of labor.

After arrival, approximately 1&1/2 to 2 kilometers before the selected site, the prisoners got off, marched to the selected site, while the trucks with their civilian drivers were sent back immediately in order to afford them as little grounds for suspicion as possible. Then, I had the road blocked for all traffic for reasons of security and secrecy.

Place of execution was secured by three light machine guns and twelve riflemen - (1) against attempts to escape by the prisoners, and (2) to protect ourselves against possible attacks by Serbian bands.

The largest part of the time was consumed by the digging of the ditches, while the actual execution by shooting (100 men in 40 minutes) went very rapidly.

Luggage and valuables had been collected previously and taken along in my truck in order to turn them over later to the National Socialist Peoples' Welfare.

The shooting to death of Jews is simpler than that of gypsies. It must be admitted that the Jews accept death very calmly, they stand very quietly, while the gypsies cry, scream, and move continuously when they are already on the spot where they are to be shot to death. Some of them even jumped into the ditch before the firing and attempted to feign death.

In the beginning, my soldiers were not impressed. The second day, however, it had become noticeable that one or the other did not have the nerve to carry out shooting to death for a longer period of time. My personal impression is that one does not develop any psychological inhibitions during the shooting to death. However, these appear if one contemplates it quietly in the evening, after a few days.

[Signed] Walther, First Lieutenant

Map showing location of burial place of Jews and gypsies shot by 9th Company, 433d Infantry Regiment, between 10/27 and 10/30/1941, near Belgrade on the road between the towns of Pancevo and Jabuka. [Attached to original, not reproduced here]

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 01:14

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Partial Translation of Document NOKW-1052, Prosecution Exhibit 146: Activity Reports of 342d Infantry Division to Plenipotentiary Commanding General in Serbia, 10/30/1941 and 11/18/1941, Concerning Reprisal Measures: Activity Report of 10/30/1941", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 997-998.

* * *

342d Infantry Division
Ia Section (open)

Subject: Reprisal measures
Reference: Today's daily report

Division Command Post, 10/30/1941
[Handwritten] Addendum to 11/15/1941

To The Plenipotentiary Commanding General in Serbia

According to daily report of 10/15/1941 - 1900 shot to death

For 10/15-29/1941:

10 dead: 1000
39 wounded: 1950

[Total] 4850

Executions by shooting to date: 1600
Remaining: 3250

Division requests further instructions, as no prisoners are available at present.

FOR THE DIVISION HEADQUARTERS

The First General Staff Officer

Signature Major, GSC

* * *

Losses during the period from 10/31 to 11/15/1941:

1 dead: 100 to be shot.
5 wounded: 250

* * *

Enemy losses: 73 dead, 129 shot to death = 202 - [minus] 350 = 148
Balance carried forward: 3250

Losses, for which reprisals have not yet been taken: 3398

342d Infantry Division

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 01:15

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Partial Translation of Document NOKW-1052, Prosecution Exhibit 146: Activity Reports of 342d Infantry Division to Plenipotentiary Commanding General in Serbia, 10/30/1941 and 11/18/1941, Concerning Reprisal Measures: Activity Report of 11/18/1941", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 998-999.

Divisional Command Post, 11/18/1941

Report according to status on 11/15/1941 inclusive of shootings, arrests of hostages, and reprisal measures, during the period from 9/21/1941 to 11/15/1941.

1. Own losses:
a. During the period covered by the report: dead: 32; wounded: 127.
b. Losses before the period reported on, for which reprisals have not been taken: 0
[Total] dead: 32; wounded: 127

2. During the period covered by report there were shot to death:
a. Insurgents during combat actions: 905
b. Hostages as reprisal: 2685

Including paragraph 5b: 3590

3. Therefore, total for which reprisals not yet taken: 5960.

Remark: Further shootings not carried out, as hostages were sent to concentration camps.

4. Number of hostages:
a. At the beginning of report period: 0
b. Arrested during the report period: 22175
c. Of these, shot to death or sent to concentration camps: 21875
d. Therefore, still remaining: 300

5. During the period covered by report there were further shot to death:
a. As reprisal for losses of troop units not belonging to the Division: 0
b. By special orders (Corps Order of 11/7/1941): 29

Divisional Command Post, 11/18/1941

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 01:16

Table: "V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Partial Translation of Document NOKW-1052, Prosecution Exhibit 146: Activity Reports of 342d Infantry Division to Plenipotentiary Commanding General in Serbia, 10/30/1941 and 11/18/1941, Concerning Reprisal Measures: Activity Report of 11/18/1941: Enemy Losses from 9/24/1941 to 11/15/1941", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 998-999.

Report of 10/9/1941:

- Killed in combat: 88.
- Shot to death: 1127.
- Arrested: 17420.

10-day report of 10/20/1941:

- Killed in combat: 546.
- Shot to death: 1081.
- Arrested: 4295.

10-day report of 10/31/1941:

- Killed in combat: 200.
- Shot to death: 100.
- Arrested: 110.

10-day report of 11/10/1941:

- Killed in combat: 53.
- Shot to death: 248.
- Arrested: 45.

Daily report of 11/11/1941:

- Killed in combat: 0.
- Shot to death: 129.
- Arrested: 0.

Daily report of 11/13/1941:

- Killed in combat: 18.
- Shot to death: 0.
- Arrested: 5.

Total

- Killed in combat: 905.
- Shot to death: 2685.
- Arrested: 21875.

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 01:17

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Translation of Document NOKW-945, Prosecution Exhibit 174: Draft of Teletype from Armed Forces Commander Southeast to Commanding General Serbia, 2/6/1942, Requesting Reports on All Reprisal Measures", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: GPO, 1950. pp. 999-1000.

[Stamp] Secret
[Handwritten] War Diary SSD
[Stamp] Draft

To Plenipotentiary Commanding General in Serbia

1. All subordinate units, including the Bulgarians, are to be instructed that all forthcoming reprisal measures and/or countermeasures are to be included in reports regarding sabotage attacks, etc.

2. The treatment of prisoners in the course of operations requires application of a more severe criterion. Prisoners taken in combat cannot be innocent. People who loiter in the combat terrain and are not in their residence will be mostly considered as having participated in combat and consequently must accordingly be shot to death [Words in italic represent handwritten corrections made on original document.]. The lenient attitude of the troops in view of the same attitude during the past summer and consequences resulting therefrom, is to be combatted most vigorously!

[Initial] K [Kuntze] 2/6/1942
Lieutenant General (Engineers)
Armed Forces Commander Southeast (12th Army)

Ia No. 43142, Secret 2/6/1942 1600 hours
After release:
War Diary

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 01:18

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Translation of Kuntze Document 64, Kuntze Defense Exhibit 7: Extracts of Report to Armed Forces Commander Southeast from War Diary of Plenipotentiary Commanding General Serbia, 3/1942, Concerning Court Martial Investigations and Care for Prisoners for War", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 1000-1002.

The Plenipotentiary Commanding General in Serbia
Section Ia No. 1367/42, Secret
[Handwritten] Appendix 2
Belgrade, 3/1/1942

[Stamp] Secret

Subject: Ten-day report
2 Enclosures (only to Armed Forces Commander Southeast)

To The Armed Forces Commander Southeast

I. Enemy situation

1. Serbian area

* * *

3. Acts of sabotage and surprise attacks have decreased in numbers as compared with the previous report period, however, they extended over the entire eastern area of Croatia and Serbia. The total number of the reported incidents amounts to 45.

4. General - The interior political tensions in Serbia have become more acute. The formation of new bands and increased activities by those which already have been reported, as well as increased Communist propaganda, make a new revolt early in the war increasingly likely.

* * *

ll. Own and subordinated troops

* * *

The 714th Infantry Division inflicted heavy casualties upon the enemy in numerous skirmishes and, during a search, arrested a number of suspected persons who were detained for court martial investigation.

* * *
Five hundred and ninety-four seriously injured and sick Serbian prisoners of war arrived in Belgrade from Germany. They were assigned to the military hospitals in Belgrade and Kragujevac for further medical care by Serbian medical personnel.

V. Losses (period from 2/16-25/1942)

* * *

Germans: 25 killed, 61 wounded, 13 missing.

Croatians: 42 killed, 2 wounded, 15 missing.

Bulgarians: 17 killed, 24 wounded.

Total: 84 killed, 177 wounded, 28 missing.

Enemy losses:

Losses inflicted by German troops: 858 killed, 73 arrested.

Losses inflicted by Croatian troops: 73 killed, 8 arrested.

Losses inflicted by Bulgarian troops: 764 killed.

Total losses of the enemy: 1696 killed, 81 arrested.

* * *

VI. Administration

* * *

The Serbian Government, with the approval of the administrative staff, arranges for meetings in which the population is informed about the situation by prominent persons, warned not to commit any rash acts, and an attempt is made to win their loyal cooperation.

FOR THE PLENIPOTENTIARY COMMANDING GENERAL IN SERBIA

The Chief of the General Staff
[Illegible initials]

[Signed] Kewisch, Colonel, GSC

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 03:26

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Translation of Kuntze Document 65, Kuntze Defense Exhibit 10: Extracts from Reports of Commanding General Serbia to Armed Forces Commander Southeast, 3/10, 3/20 and 3/31/1942, Concerning Plans for Revolt, Sabotage, and Recruiting Activities of Partisans: Extract of 3/10/1942", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 1002-1003.

Copy
Enclosure 26
[Handwritten] War Diary Commanding General and Commander in Serbia
Operations Section No. 1610/42 Secret
Belgrade, 3/10/1942
Subject: Ten-day report

2 Enclosures (only to Armed Forces Commander Southeast)
[Stamp] Secret

To Armed Forces Commander Southeast

I. Enemy situation

1. Serbian area - An operation plan of the Communist part was found in Belgrade with directions for the revolt early in the year, which presumably is to begin in the middle of 3/1942. The revolt is to be introduced by acts of sabotage on oil transports on the Danube and blowing up the Sava railroad bridge.

* * *

3. General - In comparison with the period of the previous report, the recruiting activity of the Communists and Nationalists increased throughout the entire country. Energetic propaganda is being made for the annexation of eastern Bosnia to Serbia * * *.

4. Acts of sabotage and attacks - The number of acts of sabotage and attacks has not changed substantially in comparison with the period of the preceding report. A total of 43 cases reported.


III. Serbian armed battalions [Abteilungen]

***

In the course of the reorganization of the Serbian police, approval has been granted to renaming it "Serbian State Guard," with the sub-formations "Serbian Military Guard," "Serbian Municipal Guard," and "Serbian Border Guard." Planned and present strengths of the Serbian State Guard are seen in the following survey:

Planned: 580 officers, 14420 men, Total 15000.
Present: 635 officers, 12470 men, Total 13105.

Besides that, the strength of the Belgrade Municipal Guard amounts to 48 officers, 1223 men, Total 1271.

V. Losses (2/26/1941-3/5/1942)

* * *

Germans: 13 dead, 16 wounded.
Croats: 14 dead, 92 wounded.
Bulgarians: 4 wounded.

Ethnic Germans and Serbian Auxiliary Police: 4 dead, 1 wounded.

Total: 31 dead, 113 wounded.

* * *

By German troops and Serbian Auxiliary Police: 884 dead, 231 arrested.

By Croatian troops: 97 dead.
By Bulgarian troops: 136 dead, 223 arrested.
Total: 1117 dead, 454 arrested.

[Illegible initials]

[Signed] Bader, Lieutenant General, Artillery

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 03:27

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Translation of Kuntze Document 65, Kuntze Defense Exhibit 10: Extracts from Reports of Commanding General Serbia to Armed Forces
Commander Southeast, 3/10, 3/20 and 3/31/1942, Concerning Plans for Revolt, Sabotage, and Recruiting Activities of Partisans: Extract of 3/20/1942", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of
America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case')
. US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. p. 1004.

Copy
Enclosure 55
[Handwritten] War Diary
Commanding General and Commander in Serbia
Operations Section No. 1872/42 Secret
Belgrade, 3/20/1941

Subject: Ten-day report

2 enclosures
[Stamp] Secret

To Armed Forces Commander Southeast

1. Enemy situation

* * *

3. General - Parts of proletarian brigades have pushed forward out of Montenegro across the demarkation line into the east Bosnian area; the advance of other Montenegrin bands across the demarkation line into the Serbian area can be counted on. In general a certain calm has descended on Serbia; in Croatia, on the other hand, further increasing activity of the insurgents is to be noted.

4. Sabotage and attacks - The number of 36 acts of sabotage and attacks keeps within the same limits as in the period of the preceding report.

V. Losses (3/6-15/1942)

* * *

Germans: 1 dead, 1 wounded.
Croats: 24 dead, 28 wounded, 10 missing.
Bulgarians: None
Total: 25 dead, 29 wounded, 10 missing

Enemy -
According to German reports, 377 dead, 131 arrested.
According to Serbian reports, 543 dead, 125 arrested.
According to Croatian reports, 218 dead, 61 arrested.

As a result of joint fighting these figures may in part overlap.

* * *

[Illegible initials]

[Signed] Bader, Lieutenant General, Artillery

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 03:28

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Translation of Kuntze Document 65, Kuntze Defense Exhibit 10: Extracts from Reports of Commanding General Serbia to Armed Forces Commander Southeast, 3/10, 3/20 and 3/31/1942, Concerning Plans for Revolt, Sabotage, and Recruiting Activities of Partisans: Extract of 3/31/1942", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 1002-1003.

Copy
[Handwritten] Enclosure 79 War Diary
Commanding General and Commander in Serbia
Operations Section No. 2279/42 Secret
Headquarters, 3/31/1942

[Stamp] Secret

Subject: Ten-day report

2 enclosures (only to Armed Forces Commander Southeast)

To Armed Forces Commander Southeast

I. Enemy Situation

1. General - Generally quiet in Serbian area. Communist tendencies seem to be constantly gaining more ground in the entire Croatian area.

The number of 49 acts of sabotage and attack constitutes an increase in comparison with the period of the preceding report.

* * *

V. Losses (3/16-25/1942)


Germans: 1 dead, 3 wounded, 1 missing.
Croats: 40 dead, 68 wounded, 98 missing.
Enemy: 504 dead, 84 wounded, 256 arrested.

[Illegible initials]

[Signed] Bader, Lieutenant General, Artillery

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 03:29

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Translation of Document NOKW-946, Prosecution Exhibit 189: Order of Headquarters Armed Forces Commander Southeast, 3/27/1942, Concerning Designation of Partisans and Chetniks", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 1004-1006.

Headquarters, 3/27/1942
[Handwritten] 131
Armed Forces Commander Southeast (12th Army)
Ia No. 388/42

Subject: Designation "Chetniks"

The designation "Chetniks," often used in reports, has frequently caused misunderstandings; it should, therefore, be used no more.

Enemy groups are to be called "insurgents," "rebels," or "bands," or other unequivocal designations, for instance, the term used by the enemy "insurgents of the 2d Mounted Montenegrin Proletarian Brigade" and so forth. The fighters on the German and Croatian side are to be designated by the usual troop designation, for instance, "Serbian State Guards," "Auxiliary Police," [or] "Ustasha."

FOR THE ARMED FORCES COMMANDER SOUTHEAST (12th Army)

The Chief of Staff
[Initialed] J

[Signed] Macher

Distribution:
Commanding General and Commander in Serbia
German General in Zagreb
War Economics Staff Southeast
Armed Forces Commander Southeast:
Ia,
Ic,
Oberquartiermeister,
War Diary

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 03:30

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Partial Translation of Document NOKW-1028, Prosecution Exhibit 197: Enclosure to Operational Order No. 5 of 718th Infantry Division, Titled 'Combat Directive,' 4/14/1942, Concerning Identification and Treatment of Partisans", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 1007-1009.

[Extracts from the operational order to which this enclosure was attached are reproduced in section IV C.]

[Stamp] Secret

Enclosure 3 to No. 1323/42 Secret of 718th Infantry Division
Ia of of 4/14/1942

COMBAT DIRECTIVE (For the instruction of the troops)

1. Enemy - The following are to be considered and treated as enemies:

a. Partisans - Communist insurgents.

External marks of identification - uniforms - German, Italian, Serbian, or peasant clothing with rank insignia - Soviet Star on the cap, rank insignia on sleeve. Political commissars - Hammer and sickle superimposed on star.

b. Chetniks - Nationalists - Serbian insurgents (in as far as they offer resistance).

Marks of identification - mostly brown national dress. Officers in Serbian uniform, black fur cap with Serbian coat of arms and national colors.

c. Dangic - Chetniks (in as far as they offer resistance).

d. All nonresidents and residents who, according to statements, have returned just recently.

Refugees are to be pursued immediately, particularly since they will be mostly leaders.

2. Not to be treated as the enemy are soldiers of the Italian armed forces in uniform, soldiers of the Croatian armed forces in uniform (cap insignia large badge), soldiers of the Croatian Ustasha in uniform (cap insignia "U"), civilians, some of them with military overcoats, with a permit for carrying arms issued by the Croatian armed forces, or with blue-white brassards on their civilian clothing (voluntary militia).

3. Treatment of the insurgents:

a. Insurgents captured while carrying arms, as well as all their followers and supporters or whoever owns ammunition, are to be shot to death.

b. Chetniks who do not offer resistance are not to be treated as insurgents. They are at first to be sent in a group under guard as prisoners to the prisoner collecting point.

c. In searching the villages which were in the hands of the insurgents, the inhabitants, in particular the village elders, are to be asked to state the names of those families whose men have taken "to the woods" and who have cooperated with the insurgents.

4. Negotiations with the insurgents - Troops are to be prohibited from all negotiations, as a matter of principle. Should the insurgents offer to negotiate, the regimental commander is to be informed immediately and action is to be taken according to his orders.

5. Procedure during capture - During the preceding operations it has been found that all persons present during the search of houses or villages were driven together by the troops and taken away as prisoners. During interrogations difficulties arose in the effort to find out under just what circumstances the capture was made. That is why each sergeant has to give a slip to a prisoner describing briefly how the capture was made. For instance, "Taken in house while working in stable," signature and unit. The use of prisoners for carrying wounded is prohibited as a matter of principle.

6. Interrogation of prisoners - In order to make possible the evaluation of prisoner statements, the following factors to be evaluated by the troops should be stressed already at the first interrogation:

a. What are the names of the leaders, and where are the leaders, including those of smaller insurgent units?

b. Where are the depots for arms, ammunition, and food?

c. Where are family members of the insurgent leaders?

d. An investigation is to be carried out to determine whether the prisoners include such as might be used as guides to hideouts and depots.

7. Treatment of the civilian population:

a. The evacuation of the civilian population from entire areas in the villages is to be carried out only by special order of the Combat Command [Kampfgruppe], General Bader.

b. Villages and houses in which areas ammunition has been found, from which shots have been fired, or the residents of which have aided and abetted insurgents are to be burned down. Other than that, the burning down of villages is to cease in consideration of the necessity for troop billets.

c. Village residents whose relatives are with the insurgents or who have supported the latter's activities are to be taken away as prisoners.

d. The approach to villages which are to be searched is, as a matter of principle, to be made under the protection of heavy weapons.

3. Just and understanding treatment of the population by the troops must show that they are only fighting the insurgents and that the peaceful population has nothing to fear.

* * *

8. Executive power - The executive power in the operational area is in the hands of the commander of combat command, General Bader, and will be carried out according to his directives by the divisional commanders. The Croatian gendarmerie units, the Croatian police units, and the Croatian administrative officials who remained in the area will be available along with the troop units until the employment of the civilian Croatian authorities.

9. Croatia is a friendly country - Troops must be conscious of fact and are to avoid transgressing the prescribed limits of their duties. Regarding food taken from the country, attention is called to the directive issued via Section Ib of the Division.

FOR THE DIVISION HEADQUARTERS (Ic)

* * *

[Illegible Signature] Lieutenant

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 03:31

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Translation of Kuntze Document 66, Kuntze Defense Exhibit 14: Extracts from Ten-Day Reports of Commanding General in Serbia to Armed Forces Commander Southeast, 4/30/1942", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 1009-1010.

Copy
[Handwritten] Enclosure 80 War Diary
Commanding General and Commander in Serbia

Operations Section 3320/42 Secret

Subject: Ten-day Report

2 enclosures (only to Armed Forces Commander Southeast)

To Armed Forces Commander Southeast

I. Enemy situation

1. General - Generally quiet in Serbian area. Isolated attacks on communities are further to be noted, the majority in the area occupied by the Bulgarians. In the area of eastern Bosnia after the retreat of the proletarian brigades following the abandonment of the siege of Rogatica, the masses [of the troops] have, in general, withdrawn in time towards the south under the pressure of the mopping up operation.

* * *

VII. Losses and booty for the period from 4/15-24/1942

Enemy losses: 11 dead, 2 wounded, 158 captured.
Germans in Serbia (in fatal accidents): 2 dead, 1 wounded.
Serbian Auxiliary Police: 4 dead, 2 wounded, 24 missing.

* * *

FOR THE COMMANDING GENERAL AND COMMANDER IN SERBIA

The Chief of the General Staff as Deputy:

[Signed Kogard, Lieutenant Colonel, GSC

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 03:32

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Translation of Kuntze Document 67, Kuntze Defense Exhibit 19: Extracts of Reports from Commanding General Serbia to Armed Forces Commander Southeast, 7/1 and 7/20/1942, Concerning Revolt in Croatia and Situation in Other Areas: Extract of Report of 7/1/1942", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 1010-1012.

Copy
[Handwritten] Enclosure 7
[Stamp] Secret Commanding General and Commander in Serbia
Operations Section No. 3959/42 Secret
Headquarters, 7/1/1942

[Handwritten] War Diary

Subject: Situation report for the period 6/21-30/1942

2 Enclosures (only to Armed Forces Commander Southeast)

To Armed Forces Commander Southeast

I. Enemy Situation

1. General - The situation in Serbia has not changed in comparison with the period of the last report. At present it cannot be seen to what extent the revolt in Croatia will affect Serbia and especially the Draja Mihailovic movement, since the insurgent organization of Draja Mihailovic is no longer limited solely to the area of old Serbia. Activity of the Draja Mihailovic organization extends to the territory of southern Serbia and Albania as far as Skoplje-Prilep, eastern Hercegovina, as well as eastern Bosnia.

The situation in Croatia is unchanged. The entire Croatian area is in a state of fermentation, insofar as it has not already come to open rebellion. The prevailing insecurity of law and the hopeless failure of the public administration are to be regarded as the chief reasons for this.

Further difficulties result for the Croatian state from the evacuation of large stretches of territory south of the demarkation line by the Italians. These territories must now be given additional protection by the Croatian armed forces. Since for the time being there is a lack of adequate troop protection in these territories, the retreating insurgents will look for a new refuge here and form new centers of unrest.

At present there are the following chief centers of unrest:

(1) Kozara and Prozara.

(2) Grmec Mountains.

(3) Northern part of Hercegovina.

(4) Papuk and Psunje Mountains.

(5) Fruska Gora.

* * *

4. Eastern Bosnia - The area was pacified. Relatively slight disturbances of the calm by attacks on villages could be eliminated. As a result of the retreat of the Italians south of Sarajevo, the enemy forces who were pinned down up to now have been freed. Quite recently enemy pressure has become noticeable near Trnovo and Igman-Planina. Minor engagements took place. Arbitrary procedure of Ustasha units (shootings, destruction, looting) created unrest among the population. The incidents were stopped by the intervention of German troops.

5. Western Bosnia - The enemy in Kozara and Prozara-Planina is surrounded. Attempts to break out failed. The surrounded enemy group is apparently under the superior command of insurgents whose headquarters are apparently in the Grmec Mountains. It can be clearly seen that the enemy is trying to relieve the surrounded troops, as relatively strong enemy groups are moving toward the Grmec Mountains from a southwestern and southeastern direction.

An intensification of the insurgent situation is to be noted in the area north of the Sava. Enemy troops are becoming more active in the Papuk-Psunje Mountains, which constitutes a serious threat to the Agram [Zagreb]-Belgrade main line. Several acts of sabotage are to be noted on the railroad between Novska and Nova Gradiska.

* * *

[Signed] Bader, Lieutenant General, Artillery

[Illegible initials]

David Thompson
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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 03:32

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Translation of Kuntze Document 67, Kuntze Defense Exhibit 19: Extracts of Reports from Commanding General Serbia to Armed Forces Commander Southeast, 7/1 and 7/20/1942, Concerning Revolt in Croatia and Situation in Other Areas: Extract of Report of 7/20/1942", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 1012-1013.

Copy
Commanding General and Commander in Serbia
Operations Section No. 4151/42 Secret
[Handwritten] Enclosure 58
Headquarters, 7/20/1942

Subject: Situation report for the period of 7/11-20/1942

2 enclosures (only to Armed Forces Commander Southeast)

To Armed Forces Commander Southeast
[Stamp] Secret

1. Enemy Situation

1. General - In Serbia the activity of the Communist movement has generally undergone a further weakening. The comparatively small bands appearing in the most widely different places in the country, as well as the attacks and acts of sabotage committed, have no very great significance.

On the other hand, Croatia, as before, still represents a Communist area of revolt. After the defeat of the enemy in the Kozara-Prozara Pl. [Planina] the following areas still appear as chief centers of unrest:

* * *

(2) Papuk and Psunje Pl. and mountainous terrain northwest of there.

(3) Samarica.

(4) Grmec Mountains (headquarters and assembly point here).

(5) Northern part of Hercegovina.

2. Serbian area - Just as before, the Draja Mihailovic organization is at work. In recruitment of followers a certain completion of the organization appears to have been reached. Equipment and armament might be described, as before, as inadequate. Recruitment extends to all classes of the population, even to the loyalist Chetnik and Ljotic units. The over-all impression remains that a general national insurrection in Serbia is not imminent in the immediate future.

FOR THE COMMANDING GENERAL AND COMMANDER IN SERBIA

The Chief of Staff [Illegible initials]

[Signed] Geitner, Colonel, GSC

David Thompson
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Post by David Thompson » 08 Oct 2004 03:33

"V: Hostages, Reprisals and Collective Measures in the Balkans. Measures Against Partisans and Partisan Areas: (B) Contemporaneous Documents: Partial Translation of Document NOKW-1156, Prosecution Exhibit 229: Extracts from Report of Commanding General Serbia, 10/30/1942, Concerning Tito Movement", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 11: United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Case 7: 'Hostage Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1950. pp. 1013-1015.

Commanding General and Commander in Serbia
Ic-No. 4177/42 Secret
[Handwritten] Enclosure 22

Local Headquarters, 10/30/1942

The Communist Insurrection Movement in the Area of Former Yugoslavia

* * *

3. Leadership - The supreme leader of the Communists of Yugoslavia is "Tito." He is probably a Croat or a Slovene by origin. He is alleged to have participated in the Spanish Civil War. Up to now, no details could be ascertained regarding his person [personal data]. Headquarters are situated in Mliniste in the Klekovac Mountains (23 km. southwest of Kljuc). "Tito" considers economic cooperation of the partisans - as equal partners with Germany - as absolutely possible also in the Yugoslav area.

* * *

5. Strength - Reports available estimate the total number of Communist insurgents to be 28000 to 30000 men, 60% of which are armed. Only a minor part can be considered convinced Communists. The masses are composed of farmers and workers who were misled by propaganda and/or fled into the woods for fear of reprisal and extermination measures.

Active participation of women and girls as nurses and as couriers is common practice in all units.

* * *

7. Organization - The basic unit of the armed Communist groups is the peoples' liberation partisan unit [Abteilung] which corresponds approximately to a battalion (frequently also to a regiment) and which is organized in companies, platoons, and squads.

When the movement grew, it became necessary to organize brigades which were assembled according to ancestral origin such as Serbian, Bosnian, and Hercegovinian brigades. A further step was the organization of the proletarian brigades which were to accentuate symbolically the part played by the workers in combat. The assault brigades represented a specialization which was due to the acceptance of selected fighters and choice equipment.

In the 1st unit [Abteilung] of the staff for the Bosnia Krajina even a youth battalion has been found to exist.

A political commissar is assigned to the leader in all of the units, down to company level.

Rank insignia - All are worn on the upper part of the left sleeve. Commandant of the zone of operation - like his staff officers, an open chevron with the point on top and the red star below; unit commander [Abteilungs Kommandeur] - 1 red star, two vertical stripes below; battalion commander1 red star, 1 vertical stripe below; company commander - 3 red stars; platoon leader - 2 red stars; squad leader - 1 red star; unit [Abteilung] political commissar - 1 red star, hammer and sickle in gold superimposed, 2 vertical stripes below; battalion political commissar - 1 red star, hammer and sickle in gold superimposed, 1 vertical stripe below; company political commissar - 1 red star, hammer and sickle in gold superimposed.

All wear the Soviet star on their hats.

* * *

8. Method of combat - In combat, the insurgents apply the principles of guerrilla warfare as made available to the troops as early as fall 1941. (Commander, command staff section Ia/F 9/13/1941.)

However, as can logically be expected, the development of the movement has brought along a change in combat method. On can differentiate three variations.

a. The ambush of small bands with the purpose of acquiring weapons, ammunition, and equipment to equip new members.

b. The open attack of medium size bands with the purpose of annihilating the legal armed forces, having for a secondary aim the acquisition of loot.

c. The conquest of strategically important localities in such numbers as to make possible a total occupation of the territory desired.

If a large size band is scattered, the subleaders [Unterfuehrer] return to the methods of guerrilla warfare. The attack on morally or materially inferior enemies is considered customary. The bands evade superior forces because intelligence service supply them in time with the information necessary for an estimate of the situation. If a band is surrounded, it scatters according to orders and attempts individually under the protection of the night to leave the encircled area. During the day, all means of camouflage are used like digging in, covering with foliage, climbing up trees, etc. The treatment of prisoners differs. Frequently it is based on propaganda reasons and is carried out in such a manner that the prisoners are not shot to death but are released after having been robbed of everything. If the leadership considers it practical, exchange is also suggested. Officers were shot to death in almost every case.

* * *

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