Final Solution of the Jewish Question in Galicia

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Final Solution of the Jewish Question in Galicia

Postby David Thompson » 14 Oct 2004 11:35

From "Document L-18: Solution of Jewish Question in Galicia [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VII: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: GPO, 1947. pp. 755-770.

State Secret
The SS and Police Leader in the District of Galicia
6/30/1943 2 Copies 1st copy
Ref. 42/4 g.R.-Ch/Fr

Concerning: Enclose Report
Enclosure: 1 Report (executed in triplicate)
1 bound Copy


The Superior SS and Police Leader East SS Obergruppenfuehrer and General of Police Krueger or deputy Cracow

Enclosed I am submitting the 1st copy of the Final Report on the Solution of the Jewish Question in the District of Galicia for your information.

[Signed] KATZMANN SS Gruppenfuehrer and Lt. Gen. of Police

********************************************

SOLUTION OF THE JEWISH PROBLEM IN THE DISTRICT OF GALICIA

Owing to the term "Galician Jew," Galicia probably was the spot on earth which was best known and most frequently mentioned in connection with Jewry. Here they lived in immense multitudes, forming a world of their own, out of which the rising generations of world-Jewry were supplied. In all parts of Galicia one found Jews in their hundreds of thousands.

According to obsolete statistics of 1931 the number of Jews then was about 502000. This number should not have decreased from 1931 up to the summer of 1941. Precise statements on the number of Jews present at the time when the German troops invaded Galicia are not available. By the Committees of Jews the number was stated to have been 350000 at the end of 1941. That this statement was incorrect will be seen from the statement at the end of this report with regard to the evacuation of Jews. The town of Lemberg alone had about 160000 Jewish inhabitants in
July-August 1941.

The influence of this Galician Jewry, being considerable already under Austrian and Polish rule, increased to an almost incredible extent when the Soviets occupied this district in 1939.

Every important appointment within the country was filled by them. This explains the fact that in July 1941, after the occupation by German troops, Jews were found everywhere. Hence it was considered to be also our most urgent task to find a solution for this problem as soon as possible.

Our first measure consisted of marking every Jew by a white armlet bearing the Star of David in blue. By virtue of a decree of the Governor General the Department of the Interior was responsible for the marking and registrating of Jews as well as for the formation of Committees of Jews. Our task, that of the Police, was first of all to counter effectively the immense black market carried on by Jews throughout the entire district and especially to take measures against loafing idlers and vagabonds.

The best remedy consisted of the formation, by the SS and Police Leader of Forced Labor Camps. The best opportunities for labor were offered by the necessity to complete the "Dg.4" road which was extremely important and necessary for the whole of the southern part of the front, and which was in a catastrophically bad condition. On 15 October 1941, the establishment of camps along the road was commenced, and despite considerable difficulties there existed, after a few weeks, only seven camps containing 4000 Jews.

Soon more camps followed these first ones, so that after a very short time the completion of 15 camps of this kind could be reported to the Superior Leader of SS and Police. In the course of time about 20000 Jewish labourers passed through these camps. Despite the hardly imaginable difficulties occurring at this work I can report today that about 160 km of the road are completed. [Photographs omitted].

At the same time all other Jews fit for work were registered and distributed for useful work by the labor agencies. When the Jews were marked by the Star of David as well as when they were registered by the labor agencies, the first symptoms appeared of their attempts to dodge the orders of the authorities. The measures which were introduced thereupon, led to thousands of arrests. It became more and more apparent that the Civil Administration was not in a position to solve the Jewish problem in an approximately satisfactory manner. When, for instance, the Municipal Administration in Lwow had no success in their attempts to house the Jews within a close district which would be inhabited only by Jews, this question too was solved quickly by the SS and Police Leader through his subordinate officials. This measure became the more urgent as in winter 1941 big centres of spotted fever were noted in many parts of the town whereby not only the native population was endangered but also, and to a greater extent, the troops themselves, those stationed there as well as those passing through. During this removal of the Jews into a certain quarter of the town several sluices were erected at which all the work-shy and a social Jewish rabble were caught, during the screening and treated in a special way.

The owing to the peculiar fact that almost 90 of artisans working in Galicia were Jews, the task to be solved could be fulfilled only step by step, since an immediate evacuation would not have served the interest of war economy. With regard to those Jews, however, who had a place in the labor process, no real effect could be found of their work. They used their job mostly only as a means to an end, namely in order first to dodge the intensified measures against Jewry and secondly to be able to carry on their black market activities without interference. Only by continuous police interference was it possible to prevent of these activities. After it had been found in more and more cases that Jews had succeeded in making themselves indispensable to their employers by providing them with goods in scarce supply etc., it was considered necessary to introduce really draconic measures. Unfortunately it had to be stated that the Germans employed in the district, especially so-called "Operational Firms" or the "ill-famed Trustees" carried on the most extravagant black market activities with Jews. Cases were discovered where Jews, in order to acquire any certificate of labor, not only renounced all wages, but even paid money themselves. Moreover, the "organizing" of Jews for the benefit of their "employers" grew to so catastrophical extents that it was deemed necessary to interfere in the most energetic manner for the benefit of the German name.

Since the Administration was not in a position and showed itself too weak to master this chaos, the SS and Police Leader simply took over the entire disposition of labor for Jews. The Jewish Labor Agencies which were manned by hundreds of Jews, were dissolved. All certificates of labor given by firms or administrative offices were declared invalid, and the cards given to the Jews by the Labor Agencies were revalidated by the Police Offices by stamping them.

In the course of this action again thousands of Jews were caught who were in possession of forged certificates or who had obtained surreptitiously certificates of labor by all kinds of pretexts. These Jews also were exposed to special treatment.

Army administration offices in particular had countenanced Jewish parasitism by giving special certificates to an uncontrollable extent.

Of the great number of certificates caught, only three will be enclosed; you will be able to conclude what methods were used with the intention to sabotage the measures of the SS.


******************************************

1. CERTIFICATE ALSTER

Benjamin (Recte Hasten) born 6/3/1900 at Takinow is employed by the Army Accommodation Administration, Lwow as a foreman for urgent work

Members of his family are ALSTER Hasten, Githa, Mother. Valid until 31 July 1942 Extended until 31 August 1942 Lowo, 6/22/1942 Army Billet Office Signature [Stamp]

The persons mentioned above are registered. They are to be exempted from evacuation.


***********************************************

2. The Jewess ATLAS Rosa Keeps house for the "A" Jew No. 20 008 employed by H.K.P. 547 whose identity card has been stamped by the SS and Police Leader. She is registered, and it is requested to leave her in Lwow.

Lwow, 10 August 1942 Army Car Park 547 Signature, [Stamp.]


*************************************************

3. Army Building Office Lwow.

CERTIFICATE For Family Members of Jew in Employment

The Jewess HIRSCHFELD Mina born 1894, resident in Lwow, 2 Sonnen street, is the wife of the Jew provided with an employment Certificate by virtue of decree of 12 March 1942 HIRSCHFELD Oscar (No. 4181) Valid until 31 July 1942 Signature [Stamp]

Lwow, 1 July 1942


***************************************************

There were cases when arrested Jews were in possession of 10-20 of such certificates.

Where Jews were arrested in the course of these check-ups most of their employers thought it necessary to intervene in favor of the Jews. This often happened in a manner which had to be called deeply shameful.

An especially exaggerated example is the action of a certain Schmalz, a wholesale butcher working for the Army in Lwow, who sent from Berlin the following telegram to the Office of the SS and Police Leader:

"Urgent SS Untersturmfuehrer Loehner c/o SS Police Leader Lwow District Office

The two certificate holders are craftsmen watchmakers; are resident in my future factory a night watchmen and watchmakers in day time. I should not wish to be guilty of their death; after my return you can have them both, they do not run away. I beg of you

Signature"


When steps were taken to investigate the actions of this butcher, it transpired that the fellow had carried on the most incredible black market business with the Jews. Schmalz was arrested and put at the disposal of the Public Prosecutor.

Despite all these measures concerning the employment of Jews their evacuation [Aussiedelung] from the district of Galicia was commenced in April 1942, and executed step by step.

When the Superior SS and Police Leader once again intervened in the solution of the Jewish problem by his Decree Concerning the Formation of Districts inhabited by Jews of 10 November 1942 already 254989 Jews had been evacuated [Ausgesiedelt], resp. resettled [umgesiedelt].

Since the Superior SS and Police Leader gave the further order to accelerate the complete evacuation [Aussiedelung] of the Jews, again considerable work was necessary to regulate the status of those Jews who, for the time being were permitted to be left in the armaments factories. The Jews in question were declared Labor Prisoners of the Superior SS and Police Leader and they were put into barracks, either within the factories or in camps established for this purpose. For the town of Lwow a Giant Camp was established at the borders of the town, in which at the time of writing 8000 Jewish Labor Prisoners are confined. The agreement with the Army concerning the disposition and treatment of these Labor Prisoners was executed in writing. The decree which contained the measures now in force is attached herewith.

**************************************************

Lwow, 10/23/1942

The SS and Police Leader in the District of Galicia XIII-688/42 (g)

Re: Disposition of Jewish Labor Your Ref: Letter of the Inspection of Armaments of 9/21/1942 and letter of Command of Armaments of 10/19/1942

To the Command of Armaments Lwow

SECRET

The Inspector of Armaments in the GG. and the Superior SS and Police Leader East, Secretary of State for Security in the GG. have issued special orders and rules for the uniform treatment of the Jewish laborers used in the armament factories. Following a conference between the Officer commanding the armaments enterprises Lwow, and the SS and Police Leader in the District of Galicia the ensuing agreement was reached on 17 October 1942:

I. Housing

On principle the Jewish laborers are to be put into barracks and when in camps are subjected to control by the SS and Police Leader Galicia and in this respect the police offices under his orders. Since the establishment of Police Camps has not yet been completed everywhere the work administrations for the time being have themselves to place the Jewish laborers into camps. In case it should be impossible for a factory to provide housing in a camp, the Jewish laborers employed there are to be housed in certain blocks of the Jewish Quarter still remaining. With regard to this housing the work administrations will communicate with the local offices of the Security Police. It has to be emphasized that under no circumstances the relatives of the Jewish laborers may be allowed to find accommodation within the same block. With regard to the Jewish laborers employed in factories situated in Lwow, a separate order will be issued. For the time being they will be housed together in the Jewish Housing District in the same manner. (This question will be regulated by the SS and Pol. L.).

II. Food

Feeding of the Jewish laborers has to be provided by the factories. It will take place within the factory without exception. Besides a main meal, breakfast and supper will be provided. Full board will be provided also in case of illness. The factories will apply for provisions at, and receive them from, the GG., Principal Department, according to the rules issued by the Government. Feeding and agriculture department, Market Order IIIa Ia/100 18.8.42.

III. Clearing of Payments.

Commencing on 11/1/1942 the Jewish laborers will not receive any payment in cash. The factory administrations will pay to the SS and Pol. L. Galicia for each Jewish Laborer pro calendar day and shift 6 Zloty a man, 4 Zloty a woman. Salary tax and insurance contributions do not arise. From the above sums of 5, and 4 Zl. respectively, the expenses for feeding and the overhead expenses will be deducted. This amount to be deducted may not surpass Zl. 1.60 a day. The office of the SS and Pol. L. is entitled to examine accounts. The sums to be paid will be paid into the Account concerning payments of factories, maintained by the SS and Pol. L. Galicia at the Emission Bank in Lwow. Payment has to be completed the third of every month for the preceding month. For the purpose of proving the correctness, copies of the wage-lists for each day will be sent to the administration of the SS and Pol. L. Galicia, Lwow, Siegfriestreet 3.

IV. Clothing.

The Jewish laborers when sent to the camps will be permitted to take with them ample clothing, especially winter clothes. The local Police Offices have been especially informed of this order. With a view for supplementing and renewing, the factories may request supplementary clothing through the SS and Pol. L. but only for special reasons.

V. General Ruling.

The SS and Pol. L. Galicia and the Armament Command agree on the necessity of keeping the Jewish laborers fit for work, and that therefore appropriate housing, clothing, and medical care have to be provided. In case of difficulties, if any, the factory administrations are requested to agree with the local offices of the Security Police. The SS and Pol. L. Galicia and the Armaments Command, Lwow are to be informed in such cases. If difficulties should not be solved by such local discussions, application for a decision will have to be addressed without delay to the SS and Pol. L. of the District of Galicia.

Signed Hofmann SS Brig. Leader and Gen. Maj. of Police

Distribution:
Schwarz and Co, Lwow,
Textilia Lwow,
Metrawat AG. branch Lwow,
Training factories AW Lwow,
Hobag-Holzbau AG branch Lwow,
Barril Store factory in Bolechau,
Furniture Factory in Bolechau, Carpathiaus
Oil AG

For information to:

Commander of the Security Police and SD in the Galicia District Lwow, with copies to the foreign agencies.

Commander of the Order Police [Ordungspolizei] in the Galicia District Lwow with copies to the Military Police District Leaders.

SS. Ustuf Fichtuer in the Staff. SS. Ustuf Loehnert in the Staff. SS. Ustuf Hildebrand in the Staff.


*************************************************************

In the meantime further evacuation [Aussiedelung] was executed with energy, so that with effect from 23 June 1943 all Jewish Residence Districts could be dissolved. Therewith I report that the District of Galicia, with the exception of those Jews living in the camps being under the control of the SS and Pol Leader, is Free from Jews

Jews still caught in small numbers are given special treatment by the competent detachments of Police and Gendarmerie.

Up to 6/27/1943 altogether 434329 Jews have been evacuated [ausgesiedelt].

Camps for Jews are still in existence in:

Lwow,
Weinbergen,
Ostrow,
Kurowice,
Jaktorow,
Lackie,
Pluhow,
Kosaki,
Zborow,
Jezierna,
Tarnapol,
Hluboczek,
Borki-Wielki,
Kamienki,
Drohobycz,
Boryslaw,
Stryj,
Belechow,
Broschniow,
Njebelow

containing altogether 2116 Jews. This number is being reduced currently.

Together with the evacuated action, we executed the confiscation of Jewish property. Very high amounts were confiscated and paid over to the Special Staff "Reinhard". Apart from furniture and many textile goods, the following amounts were confiscated and turned over to Special Staff "Reinhard":

As per 30 June 1943:

25580 kg Copper Coins
53190 kg Nickel Coins
97581 kg Gold Coins
82600 kg Necklaces-Silver
6640 kg Necklaces-Gold
432780 kg Broken Silver
167740 kg Silver Coins
18490 kg Iron Coins
20050 kg Brass Coins
20952 kg Wedding Rings-Gold
22740 kg Pearls
11730 kg Dental Gold-Dentures
28200 kg Powder Boxes-Silver or Metal
44655 kg Broken Gold
482900 kg Cutlery-Silver
343100 kg Cigarette Boxes-Silver or Metal
20880 kg Rings, Gold with stones
39917 kg Brooches, Ear Rings etc.
18020 kg Silver rings
6166 kg Watches, all kinds
3133 kg Watches, Silver
3425 kg Wrist Watches-Silver
1256 Wrist Watches-Gold kg
2892 kg Watches-Gold
68 kg Cameras
98 Binoculars
7 Stamp Collections-complete
5 Trunks filled with loose stamps
100550 kg 3 bags with rings, not genuine
3290; 1 box with corals kg
460 kg 1 chest with corals
280 kg 1 chest with corals
7495 kg 1 box with fountain pens and propelling pencils
1 basket with fountain pens and propelling pencils
1 suitcase with fire tongs
1 suitcase with pocket knives
1 suitcase with watch-parts

Banknotes:
Paper-Metal 261589.75 USA-Dollars
Paper Gold Dollars: 3 a 5, 18 a 10, 28 a 20, 2,515.75
Canadian Dollars 124
Argentine Pesos 18,766,64
Hungarian Pengoe 231,789
Roubles-Paper Gold Roubles: 1 a 7 1/2, 11 a 10, 29 a 5 4316
Rouble Paper 513
French Francs 2460
Swedish Francs 52
Austrian Ducats-Gold Austrian Crowns 36 a 10, 25 a 20 8 a 100 2229,18,60
English Pounds 23
African Pounds 13490
Roumanian Lei 25,671
Russian Cerwon 4600,70
Czechoslovakian Crowns-Paper 185
Dutch Florins 5277
Palestinian Pounds 9,300
Palastinian Mille 160
Lithuanian Oere 360
English Schillings 1
Irish Lst. Irish Pounds 1
Hungarian Pesos 2
Mexican Pesos 10
Norwegian Crowns 381770
Slovakian Crowns 435
Karbowanez 16.79 million Zloty

Following the "Fur-action" in December 1941 35 Wagons of Furs were handed over.

Earned Moneys from Forced Labor Camps and from. W. and R. Factories
25.5.1943

1. Forced Labor Camps

a. Takings

Wages: 11511606.98 Zl.
Hidden money found in clothes: 1232143.71 Zl.
Proceeds from useless tools: 807.93 Zl.
[total:] 12744558.62 Zl.

b. Outgoings (Board for Prisoners)

1. Food, Clothes, Medicine: 3108866.62 Zl.
2. Wages, Custody by Ukrainian Police: 47358.51 Zl.
3. Camp-sustenance Repairs, Rents: 118063.15 Zl.
4. Means of Conveyance:
Horses: 1,448,863.57 Zl.
Cars: 83324.14 Zl.
Tools: 3037.10 Zl.
5. Purchases of Furniture: 2410.15 Zl.
Postage and Telephone: 5678.44-Zl.
Office needs: 29005.59 Zl.

6. Buildings: 220000.00 Zl.
[total:] 5066607.27 Zl.

2. W. and R. Factories Takings: 7711428.92 Zl. [total:] 7711428.92 Zl.

3. Amount paid over to the SS Cashier:

a. Camp: 6876251.00 Zl.
b. W. and R. Factories 6: 556513.69 Zl.

[total:] 13423764.69 Zl.

Further payments to the SS-Cashier are effected every month.

Owing to the great number of Jews and the vast area to be combed out these actions were performed with the assistance of detachments from the Security Police, the Order Police, the Gendarmerie, the Special Service, and the Ukrainian Police, all acting together in numerous single sweeps. Page 19 of this report contains a map intended to show how Jews lived scattered throughout the whole of the District, until the special Jewish residence districts were established. The detachments continually were exposed to serious physical and mental strains. Again and again they had to overcome the nausea threatening them when they were compelled to enter the dirty and pestilential Jewish holes. During the searches there has been found, moreover, a number of leaflets in the Hebrew language, inciting the Jews to breed lice carrying spotted fever, in order to destroy the Police Force. In fact several phials filled with lice were confiscated. Nothing but catastrophical conditions were found in the Ghettoes of Rawa-Ruska and Rohatyn. The Jews of Rawa-Ruska, fearing the evacuation, had concealed those suffering from spotted fever in underground holes. When evacuation was to start the Police found that 3000 Jews suffering from spotted ever lay about in this Ghetto.

* * * * *
[MAP]

From this map one is able to see how the Jews lived scattered throughout the whole of the district, until the special Jewish Residence Districts were established. The large dots refer to localities of more than 1000 Jews, the smaller ones where less than 100 Jews lived.

At once every Police Officer inoculated against spotted fever was called into action. Thus we succeeded to destroy this plague boil, losing thereby only one officer. Almost the same conditions were found in Rohatyn. Moreover our detachments again and again discovered smaller or larger centres of pestilence in many towns and villages. Despite all our precautionary measures 120 officers fell ill of spotted fever, of whom only 18 died, owing to the protective measures introduced by us.

Some photos of these dirt caves may give an idea of the degree of effort which every officer had to apply to force himself to merely enter these centres of dirt. [Photographs omitted.]

On the occasion of these actions, many more difficulties occurred owing to the fact that the Jews tried every means in order to dodge evacuation [Aussiedelung]. Not only did they try to flee, but they concealed themselves in every imaginable corner, in pipes, chimneys, even in sewers, etc. They built barricades in passages of catacombs, in cellars enlarged to dugouts, in underground holes, in cunningly contrived hiding-places in attics and sheds, within furniture, etc.

The smaller the number of Jews remaining in the district, the harder their resistance. Arms of all kinds, among them those of Italian make, were used for defense. The Jews purchased these Italian arms from Italian soldiers stationed in the District for high sums in Zloty currency. The ensuing photos give a small selection from the arms confiscated. Especially dangerous were the sawed-of carbines of all kinds. [Photographs omitted.]

Underground bunkers were found with entrances concealed in a masterly manner opening some times into flats, some times into the open. In most cases the entrances had only so much width that just one person could crawl through it. The access was concealed in such a manner that it could not be found by persons not acquainted with the locality. Here nothing succeeded but the assistance of some Jews to whom anything whatever was promised in exchange. What these dug-outs looked like will be shown by the ensuing photographs together with their comments:
[Photographs omitted.]

In the course of the evacuation action we furthermore discovered that the Jews attempted more than ever to escape to foreign countries. These attempts were made by Jews in possession of considerable amounts of money, jewels, and of forged papers. They tried every means to effect their purpose and often approached members of the German and allied Forces with the request to transport them to or beyond the frontier by way of military cars. They offered in exchange disproportionally high amounts, in many cases up to 5000 Zl. and more a person. Although in a few cases members of foreign forces, especially Hungarians, came to an agreement with them and fulfilled their part, in by far the most cases the Security- Police was informed in time by V-men so that the necessary countermeasures were applied, the Jews caught, and the valuables confiscated. By way of illustration some cases are described:

In 9/1942 the office of the SS and Police Leader was informed by an Italian soldier (of German blood resident in Switzerland) that some Jews were concealed within the Italian barracks in Lwow, who were to be smuggled across the frontier by members of the Italian Forces within the next days. Shortly before they intended to start, two leaders in mufti entered the barracks and succeeded in arresting a group of seven persons and confiscating 3,200 gold dollars and a large amount of diamonds and jewels. They made the interesting discovery that already 970 gold dollars had been paid for bribing 4 members of the Italian Forces. This money was confiscated also. The Italian soldiers thereupon were sent home.

On 5/13/1943 two German Drivers of the Luftwaffe Headquarters in Cracow reported that a Jew had approached them with the request to transport about 20 to 30 Jews from the Jewish camp Lwow to Brody; some of them were in possession of arms; they would provide forged transport orders; directed to these military drivers. In exchange they offered 20000 Zl. The drivers were ordered to accept the offers, to load the Jews on the Luftwaffe car the 15 May at 5 p.m., to start in the direction of Brody, but to turn the car as soon as it passed the office of NSKK Lwow which was situated at this street, and to drive into the court yard of this office. In fact the car, manned with 20 Jews and one Pole, arrived in this court yard at 5:30 p.m. The Jews, some of whom were armed with charged pistols and sawed-off carbines with the safety devices released, were overwhelmed by a waiting detachment and disarmed. The following arms were confiscated:

1. 1P. Beretta-pistol, Kal. pp * * * * *

9. further specifications.

The pistols, mentioned sub. 1. and 2. had been purchased by the Jews from members of the Italian Forces for 2000 Zl. each. The names of the sellers could not be ascertained. After a diligent search, considerable valuables were found and confiscated. A diligent interrogation of the arrested Jews led to the discovery that a certain Jew by the name of Horowitz who was staying in the woods near Brody together with a larger group of Jews, used to organize such transports. As a result of this interrogation it was possible moreover to arrest those Jews who forged identity papers for fugitives. The Pole who was arrested at the same time, confessed to be a member of the Polish Resistance Movement "PPR". Furthermore he named the Jew Horowitz as the Chief Executive of the "PPR" in Lwow. The place of communication in the woods near Brody having been discovered by these interrogations, the whole of this wood area was surrounded and combed out by detachments of the Gendarmerie and of the Ukrainian Police, and two companies of the German Army on the same day. These forces met smaller forces of armed bandits who had established themselves in several furnished dug-outs and trenches dating from the Russian occupation. The bandits in all cases used their arms, but they all were overwhelmed and rendered harmless.

33 Jewish bandits were shot. Some sawed-off carbines and some quick-firing rifles and pistols of Russian make were confiscated. Polish game-keeper taking part in the combing-out action was shot dead by the bandits. During the arrests in Lwow, one SS-man was wounded by a shot into the left shank. The 2 German drivers were paid as recompense for their exemplary conduct 2000 Zl. each. The forged marching-orders and transport orders found in possession of the Jews are reproduced below. [Transport order omitted.]

In the same way we succeeded on 5/21/1943 in destroying a Jewish gang who again were armed with 0.8 cal. pistols of Italian origin. (In the meantime all Italian soldiers left the district of Galicia.)

Only some days later, the 31 May, we succeeded again, during a new comb-out, in destroying 6 dug-outs of major size containing 139 Jewish bandits.

On 6/2/1943, again some Jews who attempted to escape to Hungary by means of a military car owned by the Hungarian Army, were arrested and, since they resisted, shot. Here again considerable values were confiscated. The Hungarian soldiers participating in the action were adequately rewarded.

The evacuation having been completed, nevertheless, still minor actions are necessary in order to track Jews in hiding and concealment. This is proved by the fact that every day some persons are caught in possession of forged identity cards and passes. Some forged identity cards, passes, marching orders, and leave passes are enclosed herewith. [Cards and photographs omitted.]

Since we received more and more alarming reports on the Jews becoming armed in an ever increasing manner, we started during the last fortnight in 6/1943 an action throughout the whole of the district of Galicia with the intent to use strongest measures to destroy the Jewish
gangsterdom. Special measures were found necessary during the action to dissolve the Ghetto in Lwow where the dug-outs mentioned above had been established. Here we had to act brutally from the beginning, in order to avoid losses on our side; we had to blow up or to burn down several houses. On this occasion the surprising fact arose that we were able to catch about 20000 Jews instead of 12000 Jews who had registered. We had to pull at least 3000 Jewish corpses out of every kind of hiding places; they had committed suicide by taking poison.

Our own losses suffered in these actions:

Spotted Fever: dead 1
man fallen ill: 120 men
Shot by Jews: dead 7 men
wounded: 12 men
Stabbed by Jews: dead 1 man
Lost by accident in evacuation action: dead: 2 men,
wounded: 5 men.

Despite the extraordinary burden heaped upon every single SS-Police Officer during these actions, mood and spirit of the men were extraordinarily good and praiseworthy from the first to the last day.

Only thanks to the sense of duty of every single leader and man have we succeeded to get rid of this PLAGUE in so short a time.
Last edited by David Thompson on 15 Oct 2004 06:20, edited 1 time in total.

michael mills
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Location: Sydney, Australia

Postby michael mills » 15 Oct 2004 06:15

In fact, the number of Jews estimated by the Jewish Councils to be remaining in Galicia as at the end of 1941 (350,000) is very likely to be correct.

The number of Jews resident in Galicia by the 1930 Polish census (302,000) almost certainly did not increase between that date and 1941, due to the large-scale Jewish emigration from Poland during the 1930s.

Accordingly, as at the date of the Soviet occupation of Galicia, the Jewish population was probably still about 500,000.

It is known for a fact that shortly before the German invasion in 1941, the Soviet authorities evacuated huge numbers of Jews from East Poland to the interior of the Soviet Union.

According to figures quoted by Polish-Jewish leaders in the Soviet Union and the Polish General Anders, the number of Polish-Jewish refugees in the Soviet Union was at least 600,000.

Of that number, some 300,000 were Jews from the German-occupied part of Poland, who had crossed to the Soviet-occupied zone in the last months of 1939 (the transit camp at Belzec had been established to house them while they were waiting to cross the demarcation line).

Accordingly, the other 300,000 Polish-Jewish refugees were natives of the Polish provinces occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.

The estimate made by the Jewish Councils in Galicia suggest that 150,000 native Jews from Galicia had been evacuated into the interior of the Soviet Union, ie about half the 300,000 Jewish refugees from East Poland.

The total number of Jews in the Polish provinces annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939 was a bit over one million, of which number half was in Galicia, the other half being in the other annexed provinces (Volhynia, Polesie, Bialystok and the Vilna region).

Accordingly, if at least 300,000 of those million Jews of east Poland were evacuated by the Soviet authorities to the interior of the Soviet Union, it would make sense for half of them (150,000) to come from Galicia.

Thus, the figures are all consistent with each other. The estimate by the Jewish Councils of 350,000 Jews remaining in Galicia as at end 1941 is perfectly consistent with 150,000 Galician Jews having been evacuated by the Soviet authorities, which is in turn perfectly consistent with a total of 300,000 native Jews of East Poland having been evacuated into the Soviet Union, given that the Galician Jews comprisied approximately half of the Jews of East Poland.

However, Katzmann's seemingly precise figure of the total number of Jews deported from Galicia as at 27 June 1943, 443,290 (the figure 44329 appearing in the document is surely a misprint, given that Katzmann claimed 254,989 "resettled" as of 10 November 1942) is almost 100,000 higher than the 350,000 Jews remaining in Galicia as at end 1941.

We must conclude that Katzmann's figure is a boastful exaggeration, designed to impress his superiors. It may include Jews from elsewhere who had been brought into Galicia and subsequently deported, but their number is unlikely to account for the difference.

The numerical exaggeration inherent in Katzmann's report should alert us to the possibility of similar exaggeration in reports by other German authorities.

It is noteworthy that Katzmann clearly distinguishes between "Aussiedlung" and "Umsiedlung" of the Jews. The two different terms may be used to differentiate between Jews unfit for labour, who were sent to Belzec and other camps for "Sonderbehandlung" and Jews fit for labour who were sent to various places of labour deployment.

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Postby David Thompson » 15 Oct 2004 06:16

Michael -- You said:
the figure 44329 appearing in the document is surely a misprint, given that Katzmann claimed 254,989 "resettled" as of 10 November 1942

You're correct. My aged eyes did not catch the error when I proofed the scan. The correct figure is 434,329, and I made that correction to the document after you kindly pointed it out.

As for the population statistics you've given, would you source those for our readers?

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Postby michael mills » 18 Oct 2004 02:28

David,

You asked me for sources for the population statistics quoted by me.

So far as I know, there is no demographic work dealing specifically with the Jews of Galicia in the period 1930-45 which gives reliable population data based on unassailable sources.

The figures given by me are drawn from a number of historical works that I have read over the years, and are in the nature of ball-park figures since there is no absolutely reliable data.

I can direct readers to some of the sources that I have consulted in the past.

1. The development of the Polish-Jewish population from 1930 to 1941.

The last official census carried out by the Polish Government was in 1931; it found between 2.8 million and 3 million Jews in the country, depending on the definition used (ethnicity versus religious adherence).

However, after the war the Government official, Edward Szturm de Sztreng, admitted that the census data had been falsified to maximise the proportion of ethnic Poles and minimise the proportion of the ethnic minorities, particularly those with separatist ambitions (Belorussians, Ukrainians). How that falsification affected the count of Jews is unknown; I assume a figure of 3 million Jews in 1931.

For the background to the falsification of the 1921 census, readers could consult the book by Joseph Marcus, "Social and Political History of the Jews in Poland, 1919-1939" (Published Berlin ; New York : Mouton Publishers, c1983).

Marcus contends that the falsification of the 1931 census resulted in a undercount of the Polish -Jewish population. ie it was really higher than three million in 1931, but the reasoning he uses to arrive at that conclusion is unconvincing, and furthermore the Polish Government did not have the same incentive to minimise the number of Jews as it did to minimise the number of Belorussians and Ukrainians.

My contention is that the size of the Polish-Jewish population, and hence of the Jewish population of Galicia, did not increase between 1931 and 1941, due to large-scale Jewish emigration from the whole of East Europe, and in particular from Poland.

Readers interested in data on Jewish emigration from Eastern Europe in the 1930s might consult two contemporary sources:

(a) The article "Migration" in the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 1943.

(b) The book "Poland: Key to Europe", by Raymond Leslie Buell ( published London, Jonathan Cape, 1939).

The article in the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia reveals that about 100,000 Jews migrated every year from Eastern Europe in the decade to 1939. The great majority of these came from Poland; other major sources of Jewish emigration were Romania and the Baltic States, with lesser numbers coming from Hungary, Yugoslavia and Greece.

Emigration of that magnitude would have completely offset natural increase and would have prevented any growth in the Jewish population between 1931 and 1939; indeed the Jewish population may well have declined, although there are no firm population data to confirm that supposition.

Buell also gives some interesting data on Jewish emigration from Poland during the 1930s. Although he does not estimate its impact on the total size of the Jewish population, reasonable decutions may be made from the scale of that emigration revealed by his figures.

2. The number of Polish-Jewish refugees in the interior of the Soviet Union in 1941.

Again, there are no absolutely hard data. The figure of 600,000 quoted by me comes from a document composed by two leaders of the Polish-Jewish refugees in 1941, shortly after the German invasion of 1941, at a time when Stalin was considering the formation of figthing forces from Polish citizens held in the Soveit Union (some free, some prisoners).

The document is a letter to Stalin proposing the setting up of Red Army units comprised of Polish-Jewish refugees, and gives a total of 600,000 such refugees.

The document is printed in the book "The Holocaust in the Soviet Union : Studies and Sources on the Destruction of the Jews in the Nazi-occupied Territories of the USSR, 1941-1945", edited by Lucjan Dobroszycki and Jeffrey S. Gurock ; with a foreword by Richard Pipes (Published Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, c1993).

The same book contains another document, a report by General Anders, leader of the Polish armed forces created in the Soviet Union. That document quotes a total of 900,000 Polish-Jewish refugees in the Soviet Union, but that is likely to be a gross exaggeration.

More to follow.

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Postby David Thompson » 18 Oct 2004 02:53

Michael -- Thanks for a very interesting post and I'm looking forward to the "more to follow."

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Postby michael mills » 19 Oct 2004 08:05

David,

Today I made the long and arduous trek to the ANU library, fighting off attacks by swooping pterodactyls (well, nesting magpies actually) in order to consult once again the works to which I previously referred.

Unfortunately, one of my major supports, the book by Gurock and Dobroszycki, is on loan until March next year (a long-term loan by an academic staff-member, the bane of my life).

http://library.anu.edu.au/search/aguroc ... +1949&2,,2

I have able to consult some of the other works, however.

On the number of Polish Jews who fled into the part of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939, I was able to find the following item in the book "Bitter Legacy: Confronting the Holocaust in the Soviet Union", edited by Zvi Gitelman (Indiana University Press, 1997).

In Chapter 9, "Jewish Refugees from Poland in the USSR 1939-1946", by Yosef Litvak, p. 147:

Half a million Polish Jews sought refuge in the USSR between September 17, 1939, and June 22, 1941.


(Allow me an excursus.

Chapter 7 in the same book is "Nazi Policy toward the Jews in the Reichkommissariat Ostland, June-December 1941: From White Terror to Holocaust in Lithuania", by Michael McQueen.

It contains the following in its conclusion (p. 101):

One might further speculate that Jäger engaged in a competition with the other Einsatzkommando leaders, in the expectation that demonstrated zeal in the pursuit of the racial goals of Nazi policy, above and beyond the guidelines established by Heydrich in his orders [my emphasis], would be rewarded. It is clear that he and the other EK leaders expressly violated the orders on the treatment of the Jews [my emphasis] issued by the civilian administration of the Reichskommissariat Ostland and military-economic apparatus of the Wehrmacht.


Sounds rather like what I have been saying all along.

When Jäger and the other zealots of EG A violated the orders on the treatment of the Soviet Jews, they were not reprimanded. But as soon as they went further and massacred German Jews arriving at Kaunas on 25 and 29 November and at Riga on 30 November, they received a stinging reprimand from Himmler.)

As regards the emigration of Jews from East Europe during the 1930s, here are relevant quotes from the article "Migrations of the Jews" in Volume 7 of the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 1943.

Part IV, "Modern Times", sub-section 3, "Migration Movements under Nazi Pressure", p. 552, right-hand column, 10th line from top of page (hope that is as precise a citation as you require):

Emigration of Jews continued in those years from other lands, particularly from Eastern Europe. The figures for this emigration can also be given only approximately. Poland provided most of the emigrants. From 1933-1937, 94,444 Jews left Poland, according to official emigration data. In 1938-1941 at least 50,000 must have left (deportations to Soviet Russia not included). 50,000 probably emigrated in 1933-1941 from Lithuania, Latvia and Roumania. This gives a figure of 200,000 Jewish emigrants from Eastern Europe in that period, which is a rather conservative estimate. Altogether 660,000 or possibly 700,000 Jews left their European native lands in 1933-1941. Official statistics for those years show much lower figures of overseas immigrants. Many of the immigration countries have not published statistical data of entrance, while those countries which keep regular records of immigration have not as yet revealed the figures from 1939 on. The fact of illegal infiltration should also be borne in mind. Finally, there are still many potential overseas migrants waiting in Europe for opportunities, both legal and technical, to move away from Europe.


Part V,"The care of Migrants through Jewish Organisations", subsection 2, "The Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)', page 556, left-hand column, 10th line from top of page:

In the period between 1925 and 1939, an average of 100,000 Jewish men, women and children emigrated from the area of jewish misery in Europe each year. In consequence of this effort, hundreds of thousands of Jews had been helped to settle not only in the United States, but in the dominions of the British Empire, in the Far East, in South and Central America, and in Palestine.


The scale of the emigration revealed above means that there could not have been any growth in the Jewish population of Galicia between 1931 and 1941.

In the book by Joseph Marcus, "Social and Political History of the Jews in Poland, 1919-1939", it is stated on page 407 that Jewish natural population growth in Eastern Europe in the 1930s was about 100,000 per year, excluding the Soviet Union. Since emigration was at the same level (an average of 100,000 per year), the overall size of Jewish population of Eastern Europe could not have increased during the 1930s.

More to follow.

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Postby Dan » 19 Oct 2004 14:29

The value of just the physical gold itself in the above compilation list is 1.3 billion dollars in today's value.

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Postby David Thompson » 19 Oct 2004 16:05

Dan -- Is that gold value calculation reckoned on the basis of the weight being pure gold bullion, or does it allow for the presence of the usual adulterants used in the manufacture of gold jewelry?

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Postby David Thompson » 19 Oct 2004 16:24

Michael -- Thank you very much for the library research, which I appreciate. I have similar problems here, with ridiculous parking problems and long-term book check-outs by University staff and faculty, so I sympathize with the problems you described.

You said:
Chapter 7 in the same book is "Nazi Policy toward the Jews in the Reichkommissariat Ostland, June-December 1941: From White Terror to Holocaust in Lithuania", by Michael McQueen.

It contains the following in its conclusion (p. 101):

One might further speculate that Jäger engaged in a competition with the other Einsatzkommando leaders, in the expectation that demonstrated zeal in the pursuit of the racial goals of Nazi policy, above and beyond the guidelines established by Heydrich in his orders [my emphasis], would be rewarded. It is clear that he and the other EK leaders expressly violated the orders on the treatment of the Jews [my emphasis] issued by the civilian administration of the Reichskommissariat Ostland and military-economic apparatus of the Wehrmacht.


Sounds rather like what I have been saying all along.


That does sound rather like what you have been saying all along. However, in the passage you quoted, Mr. McQueen admits that he is speculating. Contemporaneous documents such as Operational Situation Report USSR No. 94, 25 September 1941, at:

viewtopic.php?p=557555#557555

provide a less speculative and more likely explanation -- that the death toll of the individual Einsatzkommandos varied because of the density of Jewish settlement and local imperatives, not lack of zeal or over-zeal on the part of the Sipo and SD (see also the Draft Report on Einsatzgruppe A operations through Dec 1941 on problems finding victims in Belorussia, quoted below):

Einsatzgruppe C.

Location Smolensk.

* * *

II. Measures taken and observations made by the Security police: During the preparation period for the military offensive now under way, the operations of the Einsatzkommandos could be continued intensively and on a broad basis.

In the southern region of the operational area, because of the sparseness of the Jewish population, the main effort had to be directed toward individual investigations and search actions, while particularly in the region of Zhitomir and Berdichev there was an opportunity for actions on a larger scale.

This explains also the difference in the number of executions reported by the individual Kommandos.

Sonderkommando 4a has now surpassed the number of 15000 executions.

Einsatzkommando 5, for the period between 31 August 1941 and 6 September 1941, reports the liquidation of 90 political officials, 72 saboteurs and looters, and 161 Jews.

Sonderkommando 4b, in the period between 6-12 September 1941, shot 13 political officials and 290 Jews, primarily of the intelligentsia, whereas Einsatzkommando 6, in the period between 1-13 September 1941, executed 60 persons. Group staff was able to liquidate during the last days four political officials and informers of the NKVD, six asocial elements (gypsies) and 55 Jews. The units of the Higher SS and Police Leader during the month of August 1941 shot a total of 44125 persons, mostly Jews.

As already mentioned, the procedure against the Jews is necessarily different in the individual sectors, according to the density of their settlement. Especially in the northern sector of Einsatzgruppe C, a great many Jewish refugees have returned to the villages and, present now a heavy burden in regard to the food situation. The population neither houses nor feeds them. They live partly in caverns, partly in overcrowded old huts. The danger of epidemics has thus increased considerably, so that for that reason alone a thorough cleanup of the respective places became necessary. (emphasis added)


In my opinion, Stahlecker's Einsatzgruppe A comprehensive report 22 Jun-15 Oct 1941 at:

viewtopic.php?p=540402#540402

gives a better indication of the restrictions imposed on the murder operations of the Einsatzgruppen, when he says:
Following out orders, the Security Police was determined to solve the Jewish question with all possible means and most decisively. But it was desirable that the Security Police should not put in an immediate appearance, at least in the beginning, since the extraordinarily harsh measures were apt to stir even German circles. (p. 979, emphasis added; see also p. 984).


at p. 985:
Action against Jewry. From the beginning it was to be expected that the Jewish problem in the East could not be solved by pogroms alone. In accordance with the basic orders received, however, the cleansing activities of the Security Police had to aim at a complete annihilation of the Jews. Special detachments reinforced by selected units in Lithouania partisan detachments, in Latvia units of the Latvian auxiliary police therefore performed extensive executions both in the towns and in rural areas. (emphasis added).


at p. 986:
After the carrying out of the first larger executions in Lithouania and Latvia it became soon apparent that an annihilation of the Jews without leaving any traces could not be carried out, at least not at the present moment. (emphasis added).


It is true that the Einsatzkommando massacres "expressly violated the orders on the treatment of the Jews issued by the civilian administration of the Reichskommissariat Ostland and military-economic apparatus of the Wehrmacht." However, it is also true that when the civilian administration of Reichskommissariat Ostland protested, they were overruled and told to mind their own business.

On this subject, Stahlecker reports (on page 987):
In this connection it may be mentioned that some authorities of the Civil Administration offered resistance, at times even a strong one, against the carrying out of larger executions. This resistance was answered by calling attention to the fact that it was a matter of carrying out basic orders. (emphasis added)


As for the unauthorized execution of the German Jews at Riga, the "stinging reprimand from Himmler" does not appear to have effected the basic mission concept. Similar comments to those quoted above appear in the Draft Report on Einsatzgruppe A operations through Dec 1941 (after the Riga murders), at:

viewtopic.php?p=548236#548236

There, the author (probably Stahlecker) remarks (my emphases):

III. Jews

The systematic mopping up of the Eastern Territories embraced, in accordance with the basic orders, the complete removal if possible, of Jewry. This goal has been substantially attained -- with the exception of White Russia -- as a result of the execution up to the present time of 229,052 Jews (see Appendix). The remainder still left in the Baltic Provinces is urgently required as labour and housed in Ghettos.


In regard to Lithuania, he says:
As the complete liquidation of the Jews was not feasible as they were needed for labour, Ghettos were formed which at the moment are occupied as follows:

Kauen approximately 15000 Jews.
Wilna approximately 15000 Jews.
Schaulen approximately 4500 Jews.


As for White Ruthenia (Belorussia, more or less):
The final and fundamental elimination of the Jews remaining in the White Russian sector after the entry of the Germans is fraught with certain difficulties. Just in this place the Jews form an extremely high percentage of the specialized workers, who are indispensable because of the shortage in other reserves in this area.

Furthermore Einsatzgruppe A did not take over this area until after the heavy frost had set in, which made mass executions much more difficult. A further difficulty is that the Jews live widely scattered over the whole country. In view of the enormous distances, the bad conditions of the roads, the shortage of vehicles and petrol and the small forces of Security Police and SD, it needs the utmost effort in order to be able to carry out shootings in the country. Nevertheless 41000 Jews have been shot up to now. This number does not include those shot in operations by the former Einsatzkommandos. From estimated figures about 19000 partisans and criminals, that is in the majority Jews, were shot by the Armed Forces [Wehrmacht] up to 12/1941. At the moment approximately 128000 Jews must still be reckoned with in the area of the Commissariat-General. In Minsk itself exclusive of Reich Germans -- there are about 1,800 Jews living, whose shooting must be postponed in consideration of their being used as labour.

The Commander in White Russia is instructed to liquidate the Jewish question as soon as possible, despite the difficult situation. However a period of about 2 months is still required -- according to the weather.


For more documentation of this see:

Protests from Ostland officials

Cable of 15 November 1941 and correspondence of Reich Commissioner for Ostland
viewtopic.php?p=555975#555975
Protest of measures against the Jews in Minsk 21 November 1941
viewtopic.php?p=552838#552838
Letter from Kube 31 July 1942
viewtopic.php?p=553371#553371
Letter from Rosenberg 18 June 1943
viewtopic.php?p=554253#554253

Army policy directives

Directive on the conduct of troops in Russia 13 March 1941
viewtopic.php?p=552151#552151
Woehler letter of 22 July 1941
viewtopic.php?p=557422#557422
von Salmuth directive 2 August 1941
viewtopic.php?p=557549#557549
Keitel order of 12 September 1941
viewtopic.php?p=557426#557426
Reichenau order of 10 October 1941
viewtopic.php?p=557430#557430
viewtopic.php?p=557535#557535

Fuehrer discussions

Memorandum on Fuehrer conference of 16 July 1941
viewtopic.php?p=556814#556814
Memorandum of discussion with the Fuehrer 14 Dec 1941
viewtopic.php?p=552853#552853

For similar Army orders in the context of the occupation of Poland see
Directives concerning ethnic struggle in the East 22-23 July 1940
viewtopic.php?p=557409#557409
viewtopic.php?p=557558#557558

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Postby Dan » 19 Oct 2004 18:39

David Thompson wrote:Dan -- Is that gold value calculation reckoned on the basis of the weight being pure gold bullion, or does it allow for the presence of the usual adulterants used in the manufacture of gold jewelry?


Just the coins, fillings etc., and including the rings with genuine stones, which I figure off set the base material in the rings. The coins are typically 95% plus pure gold, with some countries like South Africa putting in a very small amount of copper or something for hardness.

I see now where the spats between Globocnik (sp?) and Reinhard came from. Sure would be tempting to put a few things in your pocket.

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Postby David Thompson » 19 Oct 2004 18:57

Dan -- Thanks for the explanation of value.

You said:
I see now where the spats between Globocnik (sp?) and Reinhard came from. Sure would be tempting to put a few things in your pocket.

Truly -- and "Globus" seems to have had a history of "sticky fingers." I'll have to check and see if that's why the SS sent Dr. jur. Konrad Morgen to chat with Christian Wirth too. When the British caught up with "Globus" in 1945, he had a lot of booty of that sort. This scan is from Charles Hamilton's Leaders and Personalities of the Third Reich, R. James Bender Publishing, San Jose [CA]: 1996, vol. 2, p. 144:
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

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Postby michael mills » 19 Oct 2004 23:51

David,

Would you be able to post some more of the material about Globocnik in the book by Hamilton? Even a summary of what he says about Globocnik's fate would do.

The page scanned by you contains snippets of information that are at variance with what I have known about Globocnik thus far.

For example, I had always thought that he had committed suicide when on the point of being captured by British troops in Austria, and therefore had never been interrogated, carrying all his secrets to the grave.

However, the first paragraph of the scanned page suggests that he was captured alive by British troops, and subsequently handed over to US authorities, to whom he surrendered certain documents. That raises the exciting possibility that Globocnik may have been interrogated, and may have revealed some information vital to historical interpretation.

I would be particularly interested in knowing whether Hamilton says anything about information given to US authorities by Globocnik.

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Postby Michael Miller » 20 Oct 2004 01:32

There was no time to interrogate Globocnik. After his capture on 31. May 1945, he claimed to be a "poor merchant from Klagenfurt" and maintained this story until the SS man who turned him in, an SS-Oberscharführer Siegfried Kummerer- convinced British officers to formulate a trick to get him to reveal his true identity. While one officer shouted "Globocnik!", another carefully watched the "poor merchant's" reaction. Globocnik turned his head slightly at the sound of his name, thus tipping the British off to his true identity. He was immediately arrested and as he was being escorted to lock up he bit the cyanide capsule concealed beneath his tongue. He died within minutes and was buried in an unmarked grave at Schloss Paternion. This is the story given by officers of the Fourth Queen's Own Hussars in Joseph Poprzeczny's 439-page Globus biography Odilo Globocnik- Hitler's Man in the East (ISBN 0-7864-1625-4). I can provide more information from the same source if anyone's interested.

The document contained in the Hamilton book is not to be trusted, in my opinion. The "Globocnik" to whom the report refers was certainly not THE Globocnik. Numerous witnesses, including the medical officer who attempted to revive him after he ingested cyanide, state that Odilo Globocnik died at approximately 1130 hours on the morning of 31 May 1945.

Much as I hate to say it (as Roger Bender is my own publisher), Hamilton's books are about as error-fraught as any I've ever seen.

Best wishes,
~ Mike

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Postby David Thompson » 20 Oct 2004 02:02

Mike -- I agree with you about the unsteady quality of Hamilton's information, though the photocopy looks genuine enough.

Michael -- Here's what Hamilton says in full (Leaders and Personalities of the Third Reich, R. James Bender Publishing, San Jose [CA]: 1996, vol. 2, p. 145) about Globocnik's fate:
In May, 1945, he was captured by the British and alleged to have committed suicide, but it later turned out that he had swapped some of his gold and jewels in exchange for his life. His "suicide" was "confirmed" by poorly faked photographs of his body. Records indicate that Globocnik ended up in Syria with other escaped Nazi leaders. His treasure, said to be worth manny millions, was apparently unearthed in the 1990's, but it quickly vanished again.


There are no footnotes.

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Postby xcalibur » 20 Oct 2004 02:20

David Thompson wrote:Mike -- I agree with you about the unsteady quality of Hamilton's information, though the photocopy looks genuine enough.


Michael -- Here's what Hamilton says in full (Leaders and Personalities of the Third Reich, R. James Bender Publishing, San Jose [CA]: 1996, vol. 2, p. 145) about Globocnik's fate:
In May, 1945, he was captured by the British and alleged to have committed suicide, but it later turned out that he had swapped some of his gold and jewels in exchange for his life. His "suicide" was "confirmed" by poorly faked photographs of his body. Records indicate that Globocnik ended up in Syria with other escaped Nazi leaders. His treasure, said to be worth manny millions, was apparently unearthed in the 1990's, but it quickly vanished again.


There are no footnotes.


The escape to Syria and the fortune turning up in the Nineties sound rather fanciful.

The death photo (one) I've seen is of such poor quality as to have no evidentiary value whatsoever, and, indeed, looks fake. If there are others, perhaps they lend weight to evidence of suicide.


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