Nazi occupation policies for the USSR

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Post by David Thompson » 14 Oct 2004 10:35

19430503 Document; *2280-PS; Description: Letter from Reichs Commissar for Ostland, 3 May 1943, concerning recruiting of manpower in Baltic Countries for Reich territories. (USA 183)

"Document 2280-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume IV: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 969-971.

The Reich Commissioner for the Ostland [ Baltic countries and White Russia]
Dept. III Labor policy and social Administration
Riga, 5/3/1943

Labor Group Labor Mobilization 2 F 1/4 b. 1 (O) Kue Ty

To the Commissioner General in Riga [stamp]
Commissioner General
Dept. Social Administration 8 May 1943 in Riga 2

Re: Recruiting of Manpower in the Baltic Countries for the Reich territories; here: New quotas agreed upon with GBA Gauleiter Sauckel on 21 April 1943.

In reference to the basic statements of the Plenipotentiary General for manpower, Gauleiter Sauckel, on the occasion of his visit to Riga on 21 April 1943, and in view of the critical situation and in disregard of all contrary considerations, it was decided that a total of 183000 workers have to be supplied from the Ostland for the Reich territory. This task must absolutely be accomplished within the next four months and at the latest must be completed by the end of August. The following sub-quotas have been established:

White Ruthenia: 30000 youthful workers and 100000 workers including families.

Of the families only members capable of productive work will be counted. All persons 10 years old and up are considered as productive manpower.

Lithuania:

15000 female workers.
15000 male workers.
10000 productive workers from about 2000-3000 families

Latvia:

10000 female workers, no male workers

Estonia:

3000 female workers, no male workers

For the benefit of volunteers [Hilfswilligen] no male manpower will be recruited in Latvia and Estonia. For Estonia also in favor of the Legion.

All permissible means shall be used to obtain the manpower from White Ruthenia. Do not hesitate to apply unusual measures.

In Lithuania the 15000 men shall be taken from the current recruitment of the year groups 19-24. The placement of the manpower for the Reich, excluding volunteers should be one half for the Baltic countries' own requirements and one half for Reich requirements. In case the number of 15000 workers cannot be thus obtained, the year groups 12-18 shall be recruited until this number has been reached.

The 15000 female workers shall be obtained from the year groups of 20-25. For this purpose the release of 10% of the women from factories suitable for this purpose, even outside of the age limits set, has been contemplated. The recruitment of females of the year groups 20-25 will follow the examination of males of the year groups 19-24.

Furthermore, the recruitment of about 2000-3000 families- from Lithuania is contemplated, which should contain a total of 10000 productive workers.

In consideration of local requirements and the already accomplished recruiting for the Legion and volunteers and of those volunteers still to be provided by means of re-examining the year groups 19-24, the recruitment of male manpower in Latvia has been dispensed with.

The 10000 female workers will be recruited from the year groups 20-25. Here also a release of 10 from factories is provided for, should the age limits fail to provide sufficient workers.

Estonia will provide 3000 women, also to be recruited from the year groups 20-25, or by release from factories. Otherwise the same applies as for Latvia.

To these workers I have promised the following special social advantages:

1. Limited engagement, generally 2 years' duration.

2. Granting of furloughs and return of families according to the general regulations for foreigners in the Reich.

3. Appointment of special trustees of the same nationality for the female workers.

4. Granting of special diplomas for services rendered in war work in the Reich.

In order to accomplish these measures I have sent a decree, of which a copy is enclosed, to the President of the employment offices. Furthermore, I have asked the Labor Mobilization Office of the German Labor Front, in a letter of which a copy is also enclosed, to arrange for the appointment of special trustees of the same nationality.

Please take notice of this, inform my special purpose staffs (Einsatzstaebe) accordingly, and take care of the immediate placing of the manpower.

On this occasion I shall like to point out that in the past year the enclosed leaflet was used in hiring Lithuanian manpower. Since this pamphlet contains inaccuracies, please see to it that it is no longer used for recruiting purposes. In view of the explanations in my enclosed decree to the Presidents of provincial labor offices, I do not believe it necessary to provide a special leaflet for Plant-Managers. I refer to your report of 25 March 1943 and to my letter of 14 Apr 1943 -- 5783. 28/148 --about which I should like to have your opinion soon. By reason of a suggestion of the German Labor Front, I should furthermore like to know whether you consider it necessary to conclude individual work contracts for the workers from the districts (Generalbezirke) of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.

Copy sent to take notice with reference to in Riga.

Signed: Sauckel
Certified: Mueller Clerk
[seal] Certified: (sig:) Reinkmann 6/18/1943

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Post by David Thompson » 14 Oct 2004 10:41

19430618 Document: *R-135; Description: Letter to Rosenberg enclosing secret reports from Kube on German atrocities in the East, 18 June 1943, found in Himmler's personal files. (USA 289)

"Document R-135 [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VIII: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 205-208.

Copy

The Reich Commissar for the Eastland [Der Reichs Kommissar fuer das Ostland]
Diary No. 3628/43 secret

stamp: Personal Staff-Reichsfuehrer SS
Documents-Administration File
No. Secret/227 Riga,
18 June 1943

To the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territory Berlin

The attached secret reports received from General Commissar Kube deserve special consideration.

The fact that Jews receive special treatment requires no further discussion. However it appears hardly believable that this is done in the way described in the report of the General Commissar of 6/1/1943! What is Katyn against that? Imagine only that these occurrences would become known to the other side and exploited by them. Most likely such propaganda would have no effect only because people who hear and read about it, simply would not be ready to believe it.

The fight against bands also is taking on forms which are highly questionable if pacification and exploitation of the several territories are the aims of our policy. Thus, the dead who were suspected of belonging to bands and whose number was indicated in the report of 6/5/1943 about the "Cottbus" project to have amounted to 5000, in my opinion, with few exceptions would have been suitable for forced labor in the Reich.

It should not be ignored in this connection that in view of the difficulties of making oneself understood as generally in such clean-up operations, it is very hard to distinguish friend from foe. Nevertheless, it should be possible to avoid atrocities and to bury those who have been liquidated. To lock men, women and children into barns and to set fire to these, does not appear to be a suitable method of combatting bands, even if it is desired to exterminate the population. This method is not worthy of the German cause and hurts our reputation severely.

I am asking that you take the necessary action.

(signed:) [signature illegible]


******************************************************************************

[stamp] Personal Staff Reichsfuehrer SS
Document Administration File
No. Secret/227

The General Commissar for White Ruthenia
Gauleiter /BA Diary No. 428/43
Secret

Minsk 6/5/1943
Secret

To the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Berlin
Through the Reich Commissioner for the Eastland Riga
Subject: Results of police operation "Cottbus" as reported so far for the period of 6/22-7/3/1943

SS Brigadefuehrer, Major General of Police von Gottberg reports that the operation "Cottbus" had the following result during the period mentioned:

Enemy dead: 4500
Dead suspected of belonging to bands: 5000
German dead: 59
German wounded: 267
Dead of foreign racial stock: 22
Wounded of foreign racial stock: 120
Captured members of bands: 250
Destroyed enemy camps: 57
Destroyed enemy positions: 261
Apprehended male labor: 2,062
Apprehended female labor: 450
Sunk larger boats: 4
Sunk floats: 22

Booty consisted of:

1 airplane,
12 tow-gilders,
10 15 cm guns,
2 anti-tank guns,
9 grenade throwers,
23 heavy machine guns,
28 light machine guns,
28 machine pistols,
492 rifles,
1028 grenades and bombs,
1 000 mines,
31 300 rounds rifle ammunition,
7 300 rounds pistol ammunition,
1 200 kg explosives,
2 complete radio installations with transmitter,
1 picture establishment,
30 parachutes,
67 wagons,
530 horses,
1 field kitchen,
430 sleighs,
great amounts of medical drugs and propaganda material.

The operation affects the territory of the General District White Ruthenia in the area of Borissow. It concerns in particular the two counties Begomie and Pleschtschamizy. At present the police troops together with the army have advanced to Lake Palik and have reached the whole front of the Beresina. The continuance of the battles takes place in the rear zone of the Army.

The figures mentioned above indicate that again a heavy destruction of the population must be expected. If only 492 rifles are taken from 4 500 enemy dead, this discrepancy shows that among these enemy dead were numerous peasants from the country. The battalion Dirlewanger especially has a reputation for destroying many human lives. Among the 5 000 people suspected of belonging to bands, there were numerous women and children.

By order of the Chief of Band-Combatting, SS Obergruppenfuehrer von dem Bach, units of the armed forces have also participated in the operation. SS Standartenfuehrer Kunze was in command of the armed forces detachments, among whom there were also 90 members from my office and from the District-Commissariat Minsk-City. Our men returned from the operation yesterday without losses. I decline the use of officials and Reich employees of the General Commissariat in the rear zone of the army. The men who work for me were not deferred from army service in order to actively participate in combat against bands in the place of the armed forces and of the police.

Of the armed forces personnel, 1 railroader has been wounded (shot in lungs). The political effect of this large-scale operation upon the peaceful population is simply dreadful in view of the many shootings of women and children. In December, the town of Bagomie was evacuated by the armed forces and the police. At that time, the population of Begomie was preponderantly on our side. In the course of the fighting, Begomie, which was built up as a strong point by the partisans, has been destroyed by German air attacks.

The General Commissar in Minsk
(signed:) [signature illegible]


******************************************************************************

[stamp] Personal Staff Reichsfuehrer SS
Document Administration File
No. Secret/227
The General Commissar for White Ruthenia
Gauleiter/Wu. Diary No. 414/43 secret.

Minsk, 1 June 1943
Secret

To the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Berlin
Through the Reich Commissioner for the Eastland Riga

Subject: Actions against Jews in the Prison of Minsk.

The enclosed official report from the warden of the prison in Minsk is submitted to the Reich Minister and the Reich Commissar for information.

The General Commissar in Minsk (signed:) [signature illegible]


*********************************************************

Enclosure ad. I/1168/43 secret.

[stamp] Personal Staff Reichsfuehrer SS
Document Administration File
No. Secret/227

Court Prison

Minsk 31 May 1943

To the General Commissar for White Ruthenia Minsk

Subject: Actions against Jews.

Reference: Oral report on 31 May 1943.

On 13 April 1943 the former German dentist Ernst Israel Tichauer and his wife, Elisa Sara Tichauer, nee Rosenthal, were committed to the court prison by the Security Service (SD) (Hauptscharfuehrer Ruebe). Since that time all German and Russian Jews who were turned over to us, had their golden bridgework, crowns and fillings pulled or broken out. This happens always 1-2 hours before the respective action.

Since 13 April 1943, 516 German and Russian Jews have been finished off. On the basis of a definite investigation, gold was taken only in two actions, on 14 April 1943 from 172, and on 27 April 1943 from 164 Jews. About 50 of the Jews had gold teeth, bridgework or fillings. Hauptscharfuehrer Ruebe of the Security Service (SD) was always personally present and he took the gold along too.

Before 13 April 1943 this was not done.

(signed) Guenther
Prison Warden

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Post by David Thompson » 14 Oct 2004 10:53

19430628 Document: *3000-PS; Description: Report, from Chief of Main Office III with the High Command in Minsk to Reicke, 28 June 1943, on experiences in political and economic problems in the East, particularly White Ruthenia. (USA 192)

"Document 3000-PS: Report On Experiences In Political And Economic Problems In The East, Particularly White Ruthenia [partial translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume V: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1946. p. 726.

Freitag Chief of Main Office III with the High Command in Minsk
Minsk, 28 June 1943

* * * * *

[stamp] Main Group Food and Agriculture
Rec'd. 7/14/1943; no encl. III E 733/43 Secret

To: Ministerialdirektor Riecke in Berlin.

The task of the military offices, and later of the German administration, is:

"Exploitation of the region for the German war economy", and the motto:

"Everything you do for Germany is right, everything else is wrong!"

The recruitment of labor for the Reich, however necessary, had disastrous effects. The recruitment measures in the last months and weeks were absolute manhunts, which have an irreparable political and economic effect. From White Ruthenia, approx. 50000 people have been obtained for the Reich so far. Another 130000 are to be obtained. Considering the 2.4 million total population these figures are impossible.

* * * * *

Due to the sweeping drives [Grossaktionen] of the SS and police in 11/1942, about 115000 hectar farmland is not used, as the population is not there and the villages have been razed.

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Post by David Thompson » 14 Oct 2004 11:00

19430630 Document: *265-PS; Description: Memorandum of oral report by Lyser to Rosenberg, 30 June 1943, on situation in district Shitomir. (USA 191)

"Document 265-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: GPO, 1947. pp. 234-238.

SECRET
Shitomir, 30 June 1943
The Commissioner General

Oral report on the situation in the general district Shitomir, by Commissioner General Leyser, delivered at an official conference, with Reichs Minister Rosenberg, in Winniza on 6/17/1943.

Mr. Reichs Minister

The employees of the civil administration in the General District of Shitomir have, aside from their administrative work, been charged with the following special tasks:

Agricultural production and collection,

Recruiting of workers for Germany and management of forests and timber.

The above-mentioned tasks became virtually a problem due to the fact that the general district of Shitomir is particularly "blessed" with bands. Regarding the agriculture, it should be primarily interesting to note that, in the year of 1942, altogether 289 establishments were declared as agricultural cooperatives. In 1943 altogether 501 establishments were, respectively will be, proclaimed agricultural cooperatives. The allotment of farmland amounted in 1942 to 18%, in 1943, so far, to 10.4% and an additional 10% are expected in the fall.

As a consequence of the strong activity of bands, only about 40% of the acreage of the general district remain, at present, for the regular production and collection; approximately 60% are under the control of the bands. These actually supply the population, in part, with seed and have the fields cultivated by their order and naturally have the intention to take possession of the crop in the fall.

In consequence of the activity of the bands we have access to only 36% of the cattle, 41% of the pigs and 28% of the sheep out of the total stock. As we have to supply particularly the front with meat, we are therefore forced to a certain waste of our cattle stocks. Due to the strong drainage on the substance, there can be no more regular breeding. And too, only 42% of the milk total and 51% of the eggs could be salvaged. The spring cultivation has been performed thoroughly. It was amazing, nonetheless, that in spite of the strong drainage of labor forces into the Reich the tilling was executed with a rapidity which could not have been taken for granted. To judge by the present condition and the weather, an average crop can be expected. However, the securing and salvage of the crop gives much reason to worry. It must be avoided under all circumstances, that the bands get hold of considerable parts of the crop, respectively destroy the farm products which have been brought to collecting points. Sufficient protection for the various collecting points is not provided, the previous experiences do not promise favorable results.

The leaders of agriculture deserve particular praise for their self-sacrificing and dangerous work. In many cases they are only able to fulfill their duties by risking their lives daily. They made numerous sacrifices in blood, in particular lately. Nonetheless, they refuse to be prevented from fulfilling their duty. The present situation is best illuminated by the fact that at this time the agricultural leaders can only work at full, or approximately full, capacity in 5 out of 18 local areas. In all the other areas, we have been forced to withdraw the leaders of the strong points, and rally them at the local or district farmers. From there, they are in most cases only able to perform their work under strong protection of the police or army.

The symptoms created by the recruiting of workers are, no doubt, well known to the Reichs Minister through reports and his own observations. Therefore, I shall not report them. It is certain that a recruitment of labor, in the sense of the word, can hardly be spoken of. In most cases, it is nowadays a matter of actual conscription by force. The population has been stirred up to a large extent and views the transports to the Reich as a measure which does in no way differ from the former exile to Siberia, during the Czarist and Bolshevist systems.

In the foreground stands, at the moment, the mobilization of the young classes of 1923 and 1925. To accomplish this, the active propaganda on our part was used to an extent previously unknown. Therefore, it can be stated that the action had been particularly well prepared and consolidated. In spite of that it did not lead to the desired success. It has to be added that, in the course of the action, the desired contingents had been raised by the Chief Plenipotentiary for the mobilization of labor. I could not confine myself therefore to the classes of 1923 and 1925 alone, but also called up the class of 1922.

Beyond that, even other sections of the population which originally should have been spared had to be included. With this our propaganda became for the greater part illusory. But as the Chief Plenipotentiary for the mobilization of labor explained to us the gravity of the situation, we had no other device. I consequently have authorized the commissioners of the areas to apply the severest measures in order to achieve the imposed quota. The deterioration of morale in conjunction with this does not necessitate any further proof. It is nevertheless essential, to win the war on this front too! The problem of labor mobilization cannot be handled with gloves.

Up-to-date, almost 170000 male and female workers have been sent to the Reich from the general district Shitomir. It can be taken for granted that, during the month of June, this number is going to rise to approximately 200000.

Management of forests and timber is also one of the principal worries. The general district of Shitomir is very rich in woods. As an average, the wooded area amounts to 26 of the total acreage. In the north, large sections of the country are covered 100% with woods. But this great abundance in woods is also the cause of the many bands. About 1.4 million hectare of wood, that is 80% of the total, are controlled by bands. Like in the agricultural sector, only a relatively small part of the wood remains for use. Our yearly production potential in timber amounts to 1.3 million cubic meter. Presumably 1 million cubic meter can be cut. The yearly potential in firewood amounts to 900000 cubic meter. We hope to achieve this. I may point out that the supply of wood for mines, RR ties, construction and heating purposes is especially important. The activity of the bands permits us at present to cut, on a larger scale, only in the more southern scantily wooded regions. Consequently, the old stock of wood there is being consumed rapidly. The final result, if no change in the condition occurs, will be the careless cutting down of woods, which is going to result in extensive waste land. The fact that we are cutting down wood on a larger scale only in the south, brought strong impetus to the timber industry in the region of Winniza. The time can be foreseen when this period of prosperity will end, and the timber industry in the south will succumb. Whether then a removal of the timber industry into the northern part will be possible depends on the circumstances which at present cannot completely be foreseen.

Regarding the activity of the bands I would like to refer to the numerous reports laid before the Reichs Minister. There can be said hardly anything else on this subject except that the situation is becoming more unfavorable day by day. The situation can be judged best by the fact that at present only one of the larger roads in the general district, the one leading from Shitomir to Winniza, can be used without convoy. Because the activity of the bands is now also growing daily in the south, it is not sure that we shall not be obliged to introduce, sooner or later, the convoy system here too. All other roads of the country are at present passable in convoy only when rifles or machine pistols are held ready to shoot. The sacrifices brought to date in battle with bandits are very great. In about one year's time, the losses through fighting with them in the general district of Shitomir on the German and allied side, including the natives in German service, amount up to now to 2,568 persons. The number of missing could not be ascertained exactly, because among them are also people who have joined the bands voluntarily or have been recruited forcibly. Their number amounts to an estimated 2000 persons. Experience shows that these missing persons all die miserably, so the total number of deaths in battle with the bands in the course of the year can be given as about 4500. Opposing this is the following two demands:

(1) Constant transfer of army units into those areas threatened respectively occupied by the
bands;

(2) Unity of command.

The demand to transfer units of the armed forces into the areas controlled by the bands, is supported by special instructions of the OKW [High Command of the Armed Forces] in order to fight the bands. It is regrettable that too frequently the opinion from the respective branches of the armed forces is that this demand cannot be executed on account of technical reasons concerning training. That this objection is always and everywhere true, does not seem credible to me. Frequent violations against the unity of command have been committed. The need for prestige, the quest for power, vanity, etc. have not become extinct as yet. I have to say with regret that so far I found the least understanding for the necessity of our common struggle in the armed forces. At any rate, I have the impression that under the pressure of conditions they arrived at the conclusion, that one cannot take the responsibility anymore to lead an existence alone, but that the collection of all forces alone could only bring us victory.

The struggle which has to be carried on, is hard and full of sacrifices. But it will and must be carried through. Vast psychic forces have been awakened in the members of the civil administration anew daily. The successes, which they were able to achieve so far are impressive particularly with regard to the resistance. May I therefore be permitted at the conclusion of this report to thank all my co-workers for their excellent work. They know that they are practically on the front. I can promise your excellency, that we all shall do our duty now, and in the future, as our Fuehrer has ordered.

Signed: LEYSER

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Post by David Thompson » 14 Oct 2004 11:30

19430630 Document: *L-18; Description: Official report, Katzmann to General of Police Krueger, 6/30/1943, concerning "Solution of Jewish Question in Galicia". (USA 277)

"Document L-18: Solution of Jewish Question in Galicia [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VII: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: GPO, 1947. pp. 755-770.

State Secret
The SS and Police Leader in the District of Galicia
6/30/1943 2 Copies 1st copy
Ref. 42/4 g.R.-Ch/Fr

Concerning: Enclose Report
Enclosure: 1 Report (executed in triplicate)
1 bound Copy

To:
The Superior SS and Police Leader East SS Obergruppenfuehrer and General-of Police Krueger or deputy Cracow

Enclosed I am submitting the 1st copy of the Final Report on the Solution of the Jewish Question in the District of Galicia for your information.

[Signed] KATZMANN SS Gruppenfuehrer and Lt. Gen. of Police

********************************************

SOLUTION OF THE JEWISH PROBLEM IN THE DISTRICT OF GALICIA

Owing to the term "Galician Jew," Galicia probably was the spot on earth which was best known and most frequently mentioned in connection with Jewry. Here they lived in immense multitudes, forming a world of their own, out of which the rising generations of world-Jewry were supplied. In all parts of Galicia one found Jews in their hundreds of thousands.

According to obsolete statistics of 1931 the number of Jews then was about 502000. This number should not have decreased from 1931 up ,to the summer of 1941. Precise statements on the number of Jews present at the time when the German troops invaded Galicia are not available. By the Committees of Jews the number was stated to have been 350000 at the end of 1941. That this statement was incorrect will be seen from the statement at the end of this report with regard to the evacuation of Jews. The town of Lemberg alone had about 160000 Jewish inhabitants in
July-August 1941.

The influence of this Galician Jewry, being considerable already under Austrian and Polish rule, increased to an almost incredible extent when the Soviets occupied this district in 1939.

Every important appointment within the country was filled by them. This explains the fact that in July 1941, after the occupation by German troops, Jews were found everywhere. Hence it was considered to be also our most urgent task to find a solution for this problem as soon as possible.

Our first measure consisted of marking every Jew by a white armlet bearing the Star of David in blue. By virtue of a decree of the Governor General the Department of the Interior was responsible for the marking and registrating of Jews as well as for the formation of Committees of Jews. Our task, that of the Police, was first of all to counter effectively the immense black market carried on by Jews throughout the entire district and especially to take measures against loafing idlers and vagabonds.

The best remedy consisted of the formation, by the SS and Police Leader of Forced Labor Camps. The best opportunities for labor were offered by the necessity to complete the "Dg.4" road which was extremely important and necessary for the whole of the southern part of the front, and which was in a catastrophically bad condition. On 15 October 1941, the establishment of camps along the road was commenced, and despite considerable difficulties there existed, after a few weeks, only seven camps containing 4000 Jews.

Soon more camps followed these first ones, so that after a very short time the completion of 15 camps of this kind could be reported to the Superior Leader of SS and Police. In the course of time about 20000 Jewish labourers passed through these camps. Despite the hardly imaginable difficulties occurring at this work I can report today that about 160 km of the road are completed. [Photographs omitted].

At the same time all other Jews fit for work were registered and distributed for useful work by the labor agencies. When the Jews were marked by the Star of David as well as when they were registered by the labor agencies, the first symptoms appeared of their attempts to dodge the orders of the authorities. The measures which were introduced thereupon, led to thousands of arrests. It became more and more apparent that the Civil Administration was not in a position to solve the Jewish problem in an approximately satisfactory manner. When, for instance, the Municipal Administration in Lwow had no success in their attempts to house the Jews within a close district which would be inhabited only by Jews, this question too was solved quickly by the SS and Police Leader through his subordinate officials. This measure became the more urgent as in winter 1941 big centres of spotted fever were noted in many parts of the town whereby not only the native population was endangered but also, and to a greater extent, the troops themselves, those stationed there as well as those passing through. During this removal of the Jews into a certain quarter of the town several sluices were erected at which all the work-shy and a social Jewish rabble were caught, during the screening and treated in a special way.

The owing to the peculiar fact that almost 90 of artisans working in Galicia were Jews, the task to be solved could be fulfilled only step by step, since an immediate evacuation would not have served the interest of war economy. With regard to those Jews, however, who had a place in the labor process, no real effect could be found of their work. They used their job mostly only as a means to an end, namely in order first to dodge the intensified measures against Jewry and secondly to be able to carry on their black market activities without interference. Only by continuous police interference was it possible to prevent of these activities. After it had been found in more and more cases that Jews had succeeded in making themselves indispensable to their employers by providing them with goods in scarce supply etc., it was considered necessary to introduce really draconic measures. Unfortunately it had to be stated that the Germans employed in the district, especially so-called "Operational Firms" or the "ill-famed Trustees" carried on the most extravagant black market activities with Jews. Cases were discovered where Jews, in order to acquire any certificate of labor, not only renounced all wages, but even paid money themselves. Moreover, the "organizing" of Jews for the benefit of their "employers" grew to so catastrophical extents that it was deemed necessary to interfere in the most energetic manner for the benefit of the German name.

Since the Administration was not in a position and showed itself too weak to master this chaos, the SS and Police Leader simply took over the entire disposition of labor for Jews. The Jewish Labor Agencies which were manned by hundreds of Jews, were dissolved. All certificates of labor given by firms or administrative offices were declared invalid, and the cards given to the Jews by the Labor Agencies were revalidated by the Police Offices by stamping them.

In the course of this action again thousands of Jews were caught who were in possession of forged certificates or who had obtained surreptitiously certificates of labor by all kinds of pretexts. These Jews also were exposed to special treatment.

Army administration offices in particular had countenanced Jewish parasitism by giving special certificates to an uncontrollable extent.

Of the great number of certificates caught, only three will be enclosed; you will be able to conclude what methods were used with the intention to sabotage the measures of the SS.

******************************************

1. CERTIFICATE ALSTER

Benjamin (Recte Hasten) born 6/3/1900 at Takinow is employed by the Army Accommodation Administration, Lwow as a foreman for urgent work

Members of his family are ALSTER Hasten, Githa, Mother. Valid until 31 July 1942 Extended until 31 August 1942 Lowo, 6/22/1942 Army Billet Office Signature [Stamp]

The persons mentioned above are registered. They are to be exempted from evacuation.


***********************************************

2. The Jewess ATLAS Rosa Keeps house for the "A" Jew No. 20 008 employed by H.K.P. 547 whose identity card has been stamped by the SS and Police Leader. She is registered, and it is requested to leave her in Lwow.

Lwow, 10 August 1942 Army Car Park 547 Signature, [Stamp.]


*************************************************

3. Army Building Office Lwow.

CERTIFICATE For Family Members of Jew in Employment

The Jewess HIRSCHFELD Mina born 1894, resident in Lwow, 2 Sonnen street, is the wife of the Jew provided with an employment Certificate by virtue of decree of 12 March 1942 HIRSCHFELD Oscar (No. 4181) Valid until 31 July 1942 Signature [Stamp]

Lwow, 1 July 1942


***************************************************

There were cases when arrested Jews were in possession of 10-20 of such certificates.

Where Jews were arrested in the course of these check-ups most of their employers thought it necessary to intervene in favor of the Jews. This often happened in a manner which had to be called deeply shameful.

An especially exaggerated example is the action of a certain Schmalz, a wholesale butcher working for the Army in Lwow, who sent from Berlin the following telegram to the Office of the SS and Police Leader:

"Urgent SS Untersturmfuehrer Loehner c/o SS Police Leader Lwow District Office

The two certificate holders are craftsmen watchmakers; are resident in my future factory a night watchmen and watchmakers in day time. I should not wish to be guilty of their death; after my return you can have them both, they do not run away. I beg of you

Signature"


When steps were taken to investigate the actions of this butcher, it transpired that the fellow had carried on the most incredible black market business with the Jews. Schmalz was arrested and put at the disposal of the Public Prosecutor.

Despite all these measures concerning the employment of Jews their evacuation [Aussiedelung] from the district of Galicia was commenced in April 1942, and executed step by step.

When the Superior SS and Police Leader once again intervened in the solution of the Jewish problem by his Decree Concerning the Formation of Districts inhabited by Jews of 10 November 1942 already 254989 Jews had been evacuated [Ausgesiedelt], resp. resettled [umgesiedelt].

Since the Superior SS and Police Leader gave the further order to accelerate the complete evacuation [Aussiedelung] of the Jews, again considerable work was necessary to regulate the status of those Jews who, for the time being were permitted to be left in the armaments factories. The Jews in question were declared Labor Prisoners of the Superior SS and Police Leader and they were put into barracks, either within the factories or in camps established for this purpose. For the town of Lwow a Giant Camp was established at the borders of the town, in which at the time of writing 8000 Jewish Labor Prisoners are confined. The agreement with the Army concerning the disposition and treatment of these Labor Prisoners was executed in writing. The decree which contained the measures now in force is attached herewith.

**************************************************

Lwow, 10/23/1942

The SS and Police Leader in the District of Galicia XIII-688/42 (g)

Re: Disposition of Jewish Labor Your Ref: Letter of the Inspection of Armaments of 9/21/1942 and letter of Command of Armaments of 10/19/1942

To the Command of Armaments Lwow

SECRET

The Inspector of Armaments in the GG. and the Superior SS and Police Leader East, Secretary of State for Security in the GG. have issued special orders and rules for the uniform treatment of the Jewish laborers used in the armament factories. Following a conference between the Officer commanding the armaments enterprises Lwow, and the SS and Police Leader in the District of Galicia the ensuing agreement was reached on 17 October 1942:

I. Housing

On principle the Jewish laborers are to be put into barracks and when in camps are subjected to control by the SS and Police Leader Galicia and in this respect the police offices under his orders. Since the establishment of Police Camps has not yet been completed everywhere the work administrations for the time being have themselves to place the Jewish laborers into camps. In case it should be impossible for a factory to provide housing in a camp, the Jewish laborers employed there are to be housed in certain blocks of the Jewish Quarter still remaining. With regard to this housing the work administrations will communicate with the local offices of the Security Police. It has to be emphasized that under no circumstances the relatives of the Jewish laborers may be allowed to find accommodation within the same block. With regard to the Jewish laborers employed in factories situated in Lwow, a separate order will be issued. For the time being they will be housed together in the Jewish Housing District in the same manner. (This question will be regulated by the SS and Pol. L.).

II. Food.

Feeding of the Jewish laborers has to be provided by the factories. It will take place within the factory without exception. Besides a main meal, breakfast and supper will be provided. Full board will be provided also in case of illness. The factories will apply for provisions at, and receive them from, the GG., Principal Department, according to the rules issued by the Government. Feeding and agriculture department, Market Order IIIa Ia/100 18.8.42.

III. Clearing of Payments.

Commencing on 11/1/1942 the Jewish laborers will not receive any payment in cash. The factory administrations will pay to the SS and Pol. L. Galicia for each Jewish Laborer pro calendar day and shift 6 Zloty a man, 4 Zloty a woman. Salary tax and insurance contributions do not arise. From the above sums of 5, and 4 Zl. respectively, the expenses for feeding and the overhead expenses will be deducted. This amount to be deducted may not surpass Zl. 1.60 a day. The office of the SS and Pol. L. is entitled to examine accounts. The sums to be paid will be paid into the Account concerning payments of factories, maintained by the SS and Pol. L. Galicia at the Emission Bank in Lwow. Payment has to be completed the third of every month for the preceding month. For the purpose of proving the correctness, copies of the wage-lists for each day will be sent to the administration of the SS and Pol. L. Galicia, Lwow, Siegfriestreet 3.

IV. Clothing.

The Jewish laborers when sent to the camps will be permitted to take with them ample clothing, especially winter clothes. The local Police Offices have been especially informed of this order. With a view for supplementing and renewing, the factories may request supplementary clothing through the SS and Pol. L. but only for special reasons.

V. General Ruling.

The SS and Pol. L. Galicia and the Armament Command agree on the necessity of keeping the Jewish laborers fit for work, and that therefore appropriate housing, clothing, and medical care have to be provided. In case of difficulties, if any, the factory administrations are requested to agree with the local offices of the Security Police. The SS and Pol. L. Galicia and the Armaments Command, Lwow are to be informed in such cases. If difficulties should not be solved by such local discussions, application for a decision will have to be addressed without delay to the SS and Pol. L. of the District of Galicia.

Signed Hofmann SS Brig. Leader and Gen. Maj. of Police

Distribution:
Schwarz and Co, Lwow,
Textilia Lwow,
Metrawat AG. branch Lwow,
Training factories AW Lwow,
Hobag-Holzbau AG branch Lwow,
Barril Store factory in Bolechau,
Furniture Factory in Bolechau, Carpathiaus
Oil AG

For information to:

Commander of the Security Police and SD in the Galicia District Lwow, with copies to the foreign agencies.

Commander of the Order Police [Ordungspolizei] in the Galicia District Lwow with copies to the Military Police District Leaders.

SS. Ustuf Fichtuer in the Staff. SS. Ustuf Loehnert in the Staff. SS. Ustuf Hildebrand in the Staff.


*************************************************************

In the meantime further evacuation [Aussiedelung] was executed with energy, so that with effect from 23 June 1943 all Jewish Residence Districts could be dissolved. Therewith I report that the District of Galicia, with the exception of those Jews living in the camps being under the control of the SS and Pol Leader, is Free from Jews

Jews still caught in small numbers are given special treatment by the competent detachments of Police and Gendarmerie.

Up to 6/27/1943 altogether 44329 Jews have been evacuated [ausgesiedelt].

Camps for Jews are still in existence in:

Lwow,
Weinbergen,
Ostrow,
Kurowice,
Jaktorow,
Lackie,
Pluhow,
Kosaki,
Zborow,
Jezierna,
Tarnapol,
Hluboczek,
Borki-Wielki,
Kamienki,
Drohobycz,
Boryslaw,
Stryj,
Belechow,
Broschniow,
Njebelow

containing altogether 2116 Jews. This number is being reduced currently.

Together with the evacuated action, we executed the confiscation of Jewish property. Very high amounts were confiscated and paid over to the Special Staff "Reinhard". Apart from furniture and many textile goods, the following amounts were confiscated and turned over to Special Staff "Reinhard":

As per 30 June 1943:

25580 kg Copper Coins
53190 kg Nickel Coins
97581 kg Gold Coins
82600 kg Necklaces-Silver
6640 kg Necklaces-Gold
432780 kg Broken Silver
167740 kg Silver Coins
18490 kg Iron Coins
20050 kg Brass Coins
20952 kg Wedding Rings-Gold
22740 kg Pearls
11730 kg Dental Gold-Dentures
28200 kg Powder Boxes-Silver or Metal
44655 kg Broken Gold
482900 kg Cutlery-Silver
343100 kg Cigarette Boxes-Silver or Metal
20880 kg Rings, Gold with stones
39917 kg Brooches, Ear Rings etc.
18020 kg Silver rings
6166 kg Watches, all kinds
3133 kg Watches, Silver
3425 kg Wrist Watches-Silver
1256 Wrist Watches-Gold kg
2892 kg Watches-Gold
68 kg Cameras
98 Binoculars
7 Stamp Collections-complete
5 Trunks filled with loose stamps
100550 kg 3 bags with rings, not genuine
3290; 1 box with corals kg
460 kg 1 chest with corals
280 kg 1 chest with corals
7495 kg 1 box with fountain pens and propelling pencils
1 basket with fountain pens and propelling pencils
1 suitcase with fire tongs
1 suitcase with pocket knives
1 suitcase with watch-parts

Banknotes:
Paper-Metal 261589.75 USA-Dollars
Paper Gold Dollars: 3 a 5, 18 a 10, 28 a 20, 2,515.75
Canadian Dollars 124
Argentine Pesos 18,766,64
Hungarian Pengoe 231,789
Roubles-Paper Gold Roubles: 1 a 7 1/2, 11 a 10, 29 a 5 4316
Rouble Paper 513
French Francs 2460
Swedish Francs 52
Austrian Ducats-Gold Austrian Crowns 36 a 10, 25 a 20 8 a 100 2229,18,60
English Pounds 23
African Pounds 13490
Roumanian Lei 25,671
Russian Cerwon 4600,70
Czechoslovakian Crowns-Paper 185
Dutch Florins 5277
Palestinian Pounds 9,300
Palastinian Mille 160
Lithuanian Oere 360
English Schillings 1
Irish Lst. Irish Pounds 1
Hungarian Pesos 2
Mexican Pesos 10
Norwegian Crowns 381770
Slovakian Crowns 435
Karbowanez 16.79 million Zloty

Following the "Fur-action" in December 1941 35 Wagons of Furs were handed over.

Earned Moneys from Forced Labor Camps and from. W. and R. Factories
25.5.1943

1. Forced Labor Camps

a. Takings

Wages: 11511606.98 Zl.
Hidden money found in clothes: 1232143.71 Zl.
Proceeds from useless tools: 807.93 Zl.
[total:] 12744558.62 Zl.

b. Outgoings (Board for Prisoners)

1. Food, Clothes, Medicine: 3108866.62 Zl.
2. Wages, Custody by Ukrainian Police: 47358.51 Zl.
3. Camp-sustenance Repairs, Rents: 118063.15 Zl.
4. Means of Conveyance:
Horses: 1,448,863.57 Zl.
Cars: 83324.14 Zl.
Tools: 3037.10 Zl.
5. Purchases of Furniture: 2410.15 Zl.
Postage and Telephone: 5678.44-Zl.
Office needs: 29005.59 Zl.

6. Buildings: 220000.00 Zl.
[total:] 5066607.27 Zl.

2. W. and R. Factories Takings: 7711428.92 Zl. [total:] 7711428.92 Zl.

3. Amount paid over to the SS Cashier:

a. Camp: 6876251.00 Zl.
b. W. and R. Factories 6: 556513.69 Zl.

[total:] 13423764.69 Zl.

Further payments to the SS-Cashier are effected every month.

Owing to the great number of Jews and the vast area to be combed out these actions were performed with the assistance of detachments from the Security Police, the Order Police, the Gendarmerie, the Special Service, and the Ukrainian Police, all acting together in numerous single sweeps. Page 19 of this report contains a map intended to show how Jews lived scattered throughout the whole of the District, until the special Jewish residence districts were established. The detachments continually were exposed to serious physical and mental strains. Again and again they had to overcome the nausea threatening them when they were compelled to enter the dirty and pestilential Jewish holes. During the searches there has been found, moreover, a number of leaflets in the Hebrew language, inciting the Jews to breed lice carrying spotted fever, in order to destroy the Police Force. In fact several phials filled with lice were confiscated. Nothing but catastrophical conditions were found in the Ghettoes of Rawa-Ruska and Rohatyn. The Jews of Rawa-Ruska, fearing the evacuation, had concealed those suffering from spotted fever in underground holes. When evacuation was to start the Police found that 3000 Jews suffering from spotted ever lay about in this Ghetto.

* * * * *
[MAP]

From this map one is able to see how the Jews lived scattered throughout the whole of the district, until the special Jewish Residence Districts were established. The large dots refer to localities of more than 1000 Jews, the smaller ones where less than 100 Jews lived.

At once every Police Officer inoculated against spotted fever was called into action. Thus we succeeded to destroy this plague boil, losing thereby only one officer. Almost the same conditions were found in Rohatyn. Moreover our detachments again and again discovered smaller or larger centres of pestilence in many towns and villages. Despite all our precautionary measures 120 officers fell ill of spotted fever, of whom only 18 died, owing to the protective measures introduced by us.

Some photos of these dirt caves may give an idea of the degree of effort which every officer had to apply to force himself to merely enter these centres of dirt. [Photographs omitted.]

On the occasion of these actions, many more difficulties occurred owing to the fact that the Jews tried every means in order to dodge evacuation [Aussiedelung]. Not only did they try to flee, but they concealed themselves in every imaginable corner, in pipes, chimneys, even in sewers, etc. They built barricades in passages of catacombs, in cellars enlarged to dugouts, in underground holes, in cunningly contrived hiding-places in attics and sheds, within furniture, etc.

The smaller the number of Jews remaining in the district, the harder their resistance. Arms of all kinds, among them those of Italian make, were used for defense. The Jews purchased these Italian arms from Italian soldiers stationed in the District for high sums in Zloty currency. The ensuing photos give a small selection from the arms confiscated. Especially dangerous were the sawed-of carbines of all kinds. [Photographs omitted.]

Underground bunkers were found with entrances concealed in a masterly manner opening some times into flats, some times into the open. In most cases the entrances had only so much width that just one person could crawl through it. The access was concealed in such a manner that it could not be found by persons not acquainted with the locality. Here nothing succeeded but the assistance of some Jews to whom anything whatever was promised in exchange. What these dug-outs looked like will be shown by the ensuing photographs together with their comments:
[Photographs omitted.]

In the course of the evacuation action we furthermore discovered that the Jews attempted more than ever to escape to foreign countries. These attempts were made by Jews in possession of considerable amounts of money, jewels, and of forged papers. They tried every means to effect their purpose and often approached members of the German and allied Forces with the request to transport them to or beyond the frontier by way of military cars. They offered in exchange disproportionally high amounts, in many cases up to 5000 Zl. and more a person. Although in a few cases members of foreign forces, especially Hungarians, came to an agreement with them and fulfilled their part, in by far the most cases the Security- Police was informed in time by V-men so that the necessary countermeasures were applied, the Jews caught, and the valuables confiscated. By way of illustration some cases are described:

In 9/1942 the office of the SS and Police Leader was informed by an Italian soldier (of German blood resident in Switzerland) that some Jews were concealed within the Italian barracks in Lwow, who were to be smuggled across the frontier by members of the Italian Forces within the next days. Shortly before they intended to start, two leaders in mufti entered the barracks and succeeded in arresting a group of seven persons and confiscating 3,200 gold dollars and a large amount of diamonds and jewels. They made the interesting discovery that already 970 gold dollars had been paid for bribing 4 members of the Italian Forces. This money was confiscated also. The Italian soldiers thereupon were sent home.

On 5/13/1943 two German Drivers of the Luftwaffe Headquarters in Cracow reported that a Jew had approached them with the request to transport about 20 to 30 Jews from the Jewish camp Lwow to Brody; some of them were in possession of arms; they would provide forged transport orders; directed to these military drivers. In exchange they offered 20000 Zl. The drivers were ordered to accept the offers, to load the Jews on the Luftwaffe car the 15 May at 5 p.m., to start in the direction of Brody, but to turn the car as soon as it passed the office of NSKK Lwow which was situated at this street, and to drive into the court yard of this office. In fact the car, manned with 20 Jews and one Pole, arrived in this court yard at 5:30 p.m. The Jews, some of whom were armed with charged pistols and sawed-off carbines with the safety devices released, were overwhelmed by a waiting detachment and disarmed. The following arms were confiscated:

1. 1P. Beretta-pistol, Kal. pp

* * * * *

9. further specifications.

The pistols, mentioned sub. 1. and 2. had been purchased by the Jews from members of the Italian Forces for 2000 Zl. each. The names of the sellers could not be ascertained. After a diligent search, considerable valuables were found and confiscated. A diligent interrogation of the arrested Jews led to the discovery that a certain Jew by the name of Horowitz who was staying in the woods near Brody together with a larger group of Jews, used to organize such transports. As a result of this interrogation it was possible moreover to arrest those Jews who forged identity papers for fugitives. The Pole who was arrested at the same time, confessed to be a member of the Polish Resistance Movement "PPR". Furthermore he named the Jew Horowitz as the Chief Executive of the "PPR" in Lwow. The place of communication in the woods near Brody having been discovered by these interrogations, the whole of this wood area was surrounded and combed out by detachments of the Gendarmerie and of the Ukrainian Police, and two companies of the German Army on the same day. These forces met smaller forces of armed bandits who had established themselves in several furnished dug-outs and trenches dating from the Russian occupation. The bandits in all cases used their arms, but they all were overwhelmed and rendered harmless.

33 Jewish bandits were shot. Some sawed-off carbines and some quick-firing rifles and pistols of Russian make were confiscated. Polish game-keeper taking part in the combing-out action was shot dead by the bandits. During the arrests in Lwow, one SS-man was wounded by a shot into the left shank. The 2 German drivers were paid as recompense for their exemplary conduct 2000 Zl. each. The forged marching-orders and transport orders found in possession of the Jews are reproduced below. [Transport order omitted.]

In the same way we succeeded on 5/21/1943 in destroying a Jewish gang who again were armed with 0.8 cal. pistols of Italian origin. (In the meantime all Italian soldiers left the district of Galicia.)

Only some days later, the 31 May, we succeeded again, during a new comb-out, in destroying 6 dug-outs of major size containing 139 Jewish bandits.

On 6/2/1943, again some Jews who attempted to escape to Hungary by means of a military car owned by the Hungarian Army, were arrested and, since they resisted, shot. Here again considerable values were confiscated. The Hungarian soldiers participating in the action were adequately rewarded.

The evacuation having been completed, nevertheless, still minor actions are necessary in order to track Jews in hiding and concealment. This is proved by the fact that every day some persons are caught in possession of forged identity cards and passes. Some forged identity cards, passes, marching orders, and leave passes are enclosed herewith. [Cards and photographs omitted.]

Since we received more and more alarming reports on the Jews becoming armed in an ever increasing manner, we started during the last fortnight in 6/1943 an action throughout the whole of the district of Galicia with the intent to use strongest measures to destroy the Jewish
gangsterdom. Special measures were found necessary during the action to dissolve the Ghetto in Lwow where the dug-outs mentioned above had been established. Here we had to act brutally from the beginning, in order to avoid losses on our side; we had to blow up or to burn down several houses. On this occasion the surprising fact arose that we were able to catch about 20000 Jews instead of 12000 Jews who had registered. We had to pull at least 3000 Jewish corpses out of every kind of hiding places; they had committed suicide by taking poison.

Our own losses suffered in these actions:

Spotted Fever: dead 1
man fallen ill: 120 men
Shot by Jews: dead 7 men
wounded: 12 men
Stabbed by Jews: dead 1 man
Lost by accident in evacuation action: dead: 2 men,
wounded: 5 men.

Despite the extraordinary burden heaped upon every single SS-Police Officer during these actions, mood and spirit of the men were extraordinarily good and praiseworthy from the first to the last day.

Only thanks to the sense of duty of every single leader and man have we succeeded to get rid of this PLAGUE in so short a time.

David Thompson
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Post by David Thompson » 15 Oct 2004 01:07

19431112 Document: *290-PS; Description: Letter from Rosenberg Ministry, 12 November 1943, concerning burning of houses in Mueller's district. (USA 189)

"Document 290-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 240-241.

TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT 290-PS

II Pers. cJournal No. 322
To Leadership Staff Politics
Unter den Linden 63
Berlin 11/12/1943
Secret [pencilled note illegible]

SECRET

Chief of Leadership staff politics
Journal No. P1755/43 g Rel.
15 II.1943
Inclosure

Subject: Encroachment by District Commissioner Government Councillor Fritz Mueller in connection with the national campaign for the utilization of labor.

Reference: Your letter of 7/22/1943I 1006/43 g.

In connection with my letter of 9/27/1943II Pers, Journal No. 322I am sending you enclosed a copy of the teletype of RKU of 10/29/1943I 7252 Journal No. 637/43 geh, for your information.

According to the explanations of RKU, the conduct of government Councillor Mueller is no cause for disciplinary action against him, I therefore consider the case as closed.

Your files are herewith returned.

By order

1. RKU wants to transfer district Commissioner Mueller for reasons which he will bring later. Await report.

Signed: Jonnes [Rubber stamp]
Ministry for occupied eastern territories

2. Suspend until 10 Jan.

Official Kreis Employees

*******************************************

Copy

SECRET

RKU Rowno 13-929 29 October 1943 -- 1700
Ministry of Eastern affairs
Berlin

Subject: Alleged encroachment of district commissioner government councillor Mueller in Kremiancz in connection with the national campaign for the utilization of labor.

Reference: Decree of 27 September 1943 -- II Pers. c Journal No. 322

For various reasons which I will report later, it is contemplated to replace government councillor Mueller as district commissioner in Kromianez in the near future.

The case on hand is by no means fit to be used for official actions against District Commissioner Mueller. First of all, in my opinion Mueller is not to be considered guilty in this case. It cannot be established, either by the letter from the village Biloserka, which letter caused this investigation, nor by the conduct of district commissioner Mueller, himself, that he was present at the happenings in Biloserka. He therefore cannot be held personally responsible. But even if Mueller had been present at the burning of houses in connection with the national conscription in Biloserka, this should by no means lend to the relief of Mueller from office. It is mentioned specifically in a directive of the Commissioner General in Lusk of 1 September1942, referring to the extreme urgency of the national conscription.

"Estates of those who refuse to work are to be burned, their relatives are to be arrested as hostages and to be brought to forced labor camps." It is obvious that this decree was merely directive in nature and was not a binding order of the individual commissioner to decide according to his own discretion, when the interest of the conscription, such severe measures were to be applied.

I request therefore to consider the case closed.

Reich Commissioner
Rowno I 7252 Journal
No. 637/43 geh.

My order to P i 755/439

signed: Paltzo [in pencil]

David Thompson
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Post by David Thompson » 15 Oct 2004 01:17

19440607 Document: *254-PS; Description: Letter from Raab to Reichsminister for Occupied Eastern Territories, 6/7/1944, concerning burning of houses in Wassilkow district. (USA 188)

"Document 254-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 231-234.

Reichsminister for the occupied Eastern territories.
II Pers c1Raab
Berlin, 29 June 19441944.

SECRET

To the Fuehrungsgruppe Pl,
Special Unit-"Gotenland"

Concerning: Burning of houses in the Wassilkow district.

Reference: Your letter from 24 May 1944P 26 a/44 geh. Enclosed I am sending you a copy of the point of view of Nachwuchsfuehrer Paul Raab.

I don't see any reasons for taking measures of any kind against Raab.

By Order
Signed: Jennes
Certified
Schrader
Adm employee.

*****************************************

Grambusch 7 June1944

Paul Raab, Nachwuchsfuehrer
Copy

To the Reichsminister for the occupied Eastern territories.
Berlin W 35, Kurfuerstendamm 134

Concerning: Letter from 2 June 1944 Pers c IRaab Diary # 81/44 g

According to a charge by the supreme command of the armed forces I burned down a few houses in the territory of Wassilkow/Ukr. belonging to insubordinate people ordered for work duty [Arbeitseinsatzpflichtigen]. This accusation is true.

I was committed as district commissioner in the information service in the territory of Wassilkow from 5 May 1942 up to 28 December 1944. Besides many work districts, I was made fully responsible by district commissioner Doehrer to completely fill the district quota of workers to be delivered to Germany. Although the task wasn't agreeable to me, I carried it out conscientiously, with skill, and where it was necessary with sternness. Up until the penetration of the Soviet Armies, this territory delivered more than 31000 workers to Germany.

During the year of 1942 the conscription of workers was accomplished by way of propaganda. Only very rarely was force necessary. Only in August 1942, measures had to be taken against 2 families in the villages Glewenka and Salisny-Chutter, each of which were to supply one person for labor. Both were requested in June for the first time, but didn't obey although requested repeatedly. They had to be brought up by force, but succeeded twice to escape from the collecting camp, or when being on transport. Before the second arrest, the fathers of both of the men were taken into custody, to be kept as hostages and to be released only when their sons would show up. When, after the second escape, rearrest of both the fathers and boys was ordered, the police patrols ordered to do so, found the houses to be empty.

That time I decided to take measures to show the increasingly rebellious Ukrainian youth that our orders have to be followed. I ordered the burning down of the houses of the fugitives. The result was, that in the future people obeyed willingly, orders concerning labor obligations. However, the measure of burning houses has not become known, for the first time by my actions, but was suggested in a secret letter from the commissioner for the commitment of labor as a forced measure, in case other measures should fail. This hard punishment was accepted by the population with satisfaction, previous to the measures, because both families ridiculed all the other duty anxious families, which sent their children partly voluntarily to the labor commitment.

The year 1943 brought about a new regulation concerning the commitment of labor, by way of regular yearly conscription. Previous to the coming of the conscription, I trained the staff for this task. I had the collecting camp in the territory of Wassilkow fixed to the best of possibilities with clean, light bedrooms, clean sanitary installations, good food, and entertainment. First of all, everything was done away with, which could have caused the Ukrainian to feel that he is being departed by force. A well meaning propaganda was put to work on all workers, right after their arrival into the camp and didn't allow a low feeling to arise. I had reserved for myself the right of exemption on the basis of labor, political, and social reasons; it was handled as big heartedly as the task permitted. Mostly after the start of the first conscription period, the districts of Wassilkow received a local commander in the person of Count Griese. This officer, who caused already great quarrels in the district of Lodwiza and Gadjatsch on account of his arrogant behaviour, also created difficulties in Wassilkow between the armed forces and the civil administration, up to then unknown. First of all he took care of the labor commitment and not only criticized measures taken by me, but received also at any time every complaining Ukrainian, and promised them help against the office of the district commissioner. Up to then I didn't have to take serious measures, because the population was fairly willing. Only a few fugitives had to pay families, and until the money came in, I had secured more or less of their property according to the security of the case. The punished paid their penalties without exception and had their property returned to them. But before they got around to do so, one part complained to the local commander, who didn't by any chance reproach these people, but on the contrary, took care of all the interests of those people, in front of me, and sometimes ordered me with a commanding voice, to nullify my measures. I didn't let it scare me, but carried out the task, for which I was responsible, according to my judgment. But the job was unbearably hard now, since it became known to the population, that the local commander accepts complaints against the district commissioner. After the initial successes, a passive resistance of the population started, which finally forced me to start again on making arrests, confiscations, and transfers to labor camps. After a while a transport of people, obliged to work, overran the police in the railroad station in Wassilkow and escaped. I saw again the necessity for strict measures. A few ring leaders, which of course escaped before they were found in Plissezkoje and in Mitnitza. After repeated attempts to get a hold of them, their houses were burned down. Thereupon, military police were sent to the villages by the local commander and extensive interrogations concerning this affair were made by him. Besides that he hired young Ukrainians as voluntary helpers, which were fugitives from the transient camp. Therefore, every work was made impossible for me, in this sector.

It is not possible for me to give the exact dates of the mentioned happenings above, because after I was last committed in the district of Gaissin, I got into a Soviet ambush in March 1944 near Stanislau. I could only hide my weapons and had to burn my whole baggage including my diary.

In conclusion, I want to point out the following:

1. I had the responsibility within the territory of Wassilkow for the conscripting of the local workers for the Reich. The choice of means, which were used to execute my task, was to be left to me.

2. I worked with the utmost patience and only reverted to stricter punishments, when the success accomplished was in no comparison to the time used.

3. Strict measures, like the burning down of houses, were only used in a few cases. By this means, it was accomplished -- at least in 1942 -- that the recruiting of workers didn't tie down too many police forces, who because of other functions, couldn't be used for that purpose all the time.

4. I was entitled to use such measures by the secret labor directive for labor commitment staff in the district of Kiew. They, therefor, don't display by any means, any individual actions.

5. The delivery of 31000 workers to the Reich is definitely important to the war effort. Stern measures are definitely justified in order to prevent a failure of this action.

6. My measures were thought to be just by the biggest part of the population. They only caused displeasure with the Germans, who had only small tasks to perform in the Ukraine, and therefore had too much time for philosophy.

7. My actions against fugitive people obliged to work [Arbeitseinsatzpflichtige], were always reported to district commissioner Doehrer, in office in Wassilkow, and to the general-commissioner [Generalkommissar] in Kiew. Both of them know the circumstances and agreed with my measures, because of their success.

Heil Hitler !
Signed: Paul Raab.

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Post by David Thompson » 15 Oct 2004 01:33

19440612 Document: *031-PS; Description: Memorandum, 12 June 1944, concerning evaluation of youths from the territory of Army Group "Center", and interoffice memorandum, Ministry for Occupied Eastern Territories. (USA 171)

"Document 031-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 71-75.

Chief of the Political Directing Staff, personal referee
Berlin,
12 June 1944

TOP SECRET Copy No. 1 of 2 copies

Re: Evacuation of youths from the territory of Army Group "Center" ( Heu-Aktion).

1. Memorandum:

The Army Group "Center" has the intention to apprehend 40000-50000 youths at the ages of 10-14 who are in the Army Territories and to transport them to the Reich. This measure was originally proposed by the 9th Army. These youths cause considerable inconvenience in the Theatre of Operations. To the greater part these youths are without supervision of their parents since men and women in the theatres of operations have been and will be conscripted into labor battalions to be used in the construction of fortifications. Therefore Children's Villages are to be established behind the front, for the younger age groups, and under native supervision. To collect adequate experiences the 9th Army has already established such a Children's Village and has achieved good results also from the political viewpoint. Army Group further emphasizes that these youths must not be allowed to fall into the hands of the Bolsheviks in case of a withdrawal since that would amount to reinforcing the enemy's potential war strength. This measure is to be strongly fortified by propaganda under the slogan: Care of the Reich for White-Ruthenian Children, Protection against Brigandry. The action has already started in the 5 kilometer zone. The Youth Bureau has already had preliminary talks with the Organization Todt and with the Junkers works. It is intended to allot these juveniles primarily to the German trades as apprentices to be used as skilled workers after 2 years' training. This is to be arranged through the Organization Todt which is especially equipped for such a task through its technical and other set-ups. This action is being greatly welcomed by the German trade since it represents a decisive measure for the alleviation of the shortage of apprentices.

The Chief of the Political Directing Staff, SS-Obergruppenfuehrer Berger, submitted the action to the Minister on the 10th of the month. The Minister feared that the action would have most unfavorable political consequences, that it would be regarded as abduction of children, and that the juveniles did not represent a real asset to the enemy's military strength anyhow. The Minister would like to see the action confined to the 15-17 year olds.

Following are the arguments against this decision of the Minister:

1. This action is not only aimed at preventing a direct reinforcement of the enemy's military strength but also at a reduction of his biological potentialities as viewed from the perspective of the future. These ideas have been voiced not only by the Reichsfuehrer of the SS but also by the Fuehrer. Corresponding orders were given during last year's withdrawals in the southern sector.

2. A similar action is being conducted at the present time in the territory of the Army Group Ukraine-North (General Field Marshal Model). Even in this politically especially preferred Galizian territory recruiting measures were being taken with the aim to collect 135000 laborers to be organized in battalions for the construction of fortifications. The youths over 17 were to be detailed to the SS Division and those under 17 to the SS Auxiliary. This action which has been going on for several weeks has not led to any political disturbances. While it is true that the population has to be recruited by force, they do show a certain understanding, later on, for this measure of purely military necessity. Provided, of course, that they receive correct treatment, good food and lodgings, etc

The unified organization of parents in labor battalions makes it possible to extract this group as a whole in the case of withdrawals which are quite conceivable in the case of Army Groups "Center" and South. The children already transported into the Reich would serve as a suitable incentive.

3. As to Army Group "Center" this measure is to be initiated in Army Territories, that is to say in those territories not under a civil administration. During a conference with the Chief of Staff of the 9th Army I gained the impression that the action will be executed, if necessary, even without the consent of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Territories of the East.

4. If the Ministry for the East should not support or execute this action, it is expected that the procurement will be undertaken by the GBA [Generalbevollmachtiger fuer den Arbeitseinsatz General Deputy for the Mobilization of Labor]. Army Group "Center" and especially 9th Army thought it of greatest importance not to let the children be put to work in the Reich through [ the General Deputy for the Mobilization of Labor. They preferred the offices of the Reichs-minister for the Occupied Territories of the East [RMfdbO]. Only through these offices did they believe to have a guarantee for correct and proper treatment. This desire of the Army Group is a particular expression of confidence towards the Ministry for the East. Army Group desires that the action be accomplished under the most loyal conditions, as had been done previously in the case of recruiting for the SS Auxiliary. They further desired special arrangements regarding care mail exchange with parents etc. As far as possible the children t are to remain in groups according to their village communities then be collected in small camps in the Reich where they would be at the disposal of trade establishments. These technical matters have already been discussed. They can be accomplished with the help of the offices of the Hitler Youth through the Youth Bureau of the Ministry. Thus the Ministry is also able to exercise political guidance over the juveniles and has them at its disposal at all times. If I should re-occupy the territory the Ministry of the East could return the juveniles in the proper manner. Together with their parents they would then most likely represent a positive political element during the reconstruction of the territory.

The Chief of the Political Directing Staw, personal referee, p 612
a/44g

Berlin, 14 June 1944

Fulltext: SECRET

Re: "Heu-Aktion"

1. Annotation

The Obergruppenfuehrer has given his consent to again submit the matter "Heu-Aktion" to the Minister, with the aim to bring about a reversal of his decision. This was done on this day. The Minister has approved the execution of the "Heu-Aktion" ill the Army Territories, under the conditions and provisions arrived at in talks with Army Group Center [Heeresgruppe Mitte].


2. Write via radio to:
Army Group "Center"
Att: Councillor in the Ministry Tesmer
[Marginal note] Radio station 2 complied. 14 June 44 [signed]

Re: "Heu-Aktion"

"Heu-Aktion approved under conditions and provision arrived at in conference.

By order of The Reichsminister for the Occupied Eastern Territories
Signed: BRANDENBERG

3. Copies to:

[Marginal note] complied 15 June 44 signed: Sg
a. SS-Obergruppenfuehrer Berger, Chief of the Political Directing Staff, respectfully submitted for information
b. Chief Labor Bureau, for information

4. Matter p5 for information. Please return.

5. File [Marginal notes]
returned from P5 without acknowledgement
August 25, 44

signed: Bz 24 Aug

June 14, 44 [Initials]
P OK by Dr. Streube (?)

To the Chief of the Political Directing Staff, SS-Obergruppenfuehrer Berger, respectfully submitted with the request to submit the contents of this memorandum to the minister with view to reconsideration of the Minister's decision.

Signed: BRANDENBERG

[Note in ink] regarding the above-Obergruppenfuehrer Berger received the memorandum on June 14. Consequently the Reichsminister has approved the Action.

Signed: Str. June 16.

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Post by David Thompson » 15 Oct 2004 02:02

19440708 Document: 200-PS; Description: Confidential telegram from Berger to Reich Ministry for Occupied Eastern Territories, 7/8/1944 concerning forced labor of children

"Document 200-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 214-215.

TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT 200-PS

Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories P 719a/44g [ink note]
Special Train, Gotenland 8.7. 1944

CONFIDENTIAL
TELEGRAM

1. Chief of the Civil Administration, Bialystok
2. Offices of the SS and Police Chiefs concerned, Bialystok
3. SD Unit concerned, Bialystok

Subject: HJ—Kriegseinsatzkommando Center.

The HJ Kriegseinsatzkommando center, which until now has been stationed in Minsk, must under all circumstances continue its duties, as regards the enrollment of young White Ruthenians and Russians for a military reserve in the Reich.

214

200-PS

The Command is further charged with the transferring of worth-while Russian youth between 10-14 years of age, to the Reich. The authority is not affected by the changes connected with the evacuation and transportation to the reception camps of Bialystok, Krajewo, and Olitei. The Fuehrer wishes that this activity be increased even more.

I request that the Command of Bialystok be assisted in the execution of its duties in every possible way. Should difficulties arise contrary to expectations, I request that I be informed immediately by wire.

Ministry for the East
[signed] Berger
Chief of the Command Staff for Politics
4. Copies to :
Office of the Gauleiter
Ministerialdirigent Dr. Braeutigam
Hauptbannfuehrer Nickel
initialled B 11/7

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Post by David Thompson » 15 Oct 2004 02:08

19440711 Document: *199-PS; Description: Letter from Alfred Meyer to Sauckel, 11 July 1944, concerning forced labor of children. (USA 606)

"Document 199-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 213-114.

COPY
Reichs Ministry for the Occupied East Berlin 11 July 1944

Correspondence

To the General Deputy for the Labor Employment, Gauleiter Sauckel
Berlin SW 11

I just learned that refugee camps for the White Russians in Bialystok, Krajewo and Olitai were closed for the recruiting for the war Einsatz Command middle. I call your attention to the following:

1. That the war employment command [Kriegseinsatzkommando] formerly stationed in Minsk must continue under all circumstances the calling in of young white Ruthenian and Russian manpower for military employment in the Reich. In addition, the command has the mission to bring young boys of 10-14 years of age to the Reich.

2. It deals here with a military employment approved by the Fuehrer, the measures of which will be increased in a newly released directive by the Fuehrer. Such military missions must forego all others.

3. Nothing changes these relative missions by the evacuation of these provinces in which the recruiting originally took place. The recruiting order does not pertain to certain territories but to the people living in these territories.

4. I must reject every responsibility for the consequences arising from the closing of the Refugee Camp and am compelled, upon further closing of camps, to request immediately a Fuehrer decision.

The same principle must prevail in the recruiting of Air Corps helpers in Estonia and Lithuania. I carefully point to this fact should similar situations occur there.
For.
Signed: Alfred MEYER

Copies to: Gauleiter bureau, Chief group leader Berger, Dr. Braeutigam, Chief bannfuehrer Nickel, Ministry director Beil.

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Post by David Thompson » 15 Oct 2004 02:15

19440730 Document: *D-762; Description: Order of Hitler, 30 July 1944, concerning combatting of "terrorists" and "saboteurs" in Occupied Territories. (GB 298)

"Document D-762: Combatting Of Terrorists And Saboteurs In The Occupied Territories [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VII: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 221-222.

TOP SECRET
The Fuehrer

Fuehrer's Headquarters,
30 July 1944
OKW/Operational Staff of the Armed Forces/Qu. 2/Admin. 1
No. 009169/44

30 copies
24th copy.

Re: Combatting of terrorists and saboteurs in the occupied territories. Jurisdiction.

The continually increasing acts of terror and sabotage in the occupied territories, which are being committed increasingly by uniformly led gangs, compel us to take the severest countermeasures, corresponding to the rigour of the war that has been forced on us. Those who attack us from the rear at the decisive stage of our fight for existence deserve no consideration.

I therefore order that:

I. All acts of violence by non-German civilians in the occupied territories against the German Armed Forces, the SS and the police and against installations which serve their purposes, are to be combatted as follows as acts of terrorism and sabotage:

1. The troops and every single member of the Armed Forces, the SS and the police are to overcome on the spot all terrorists and saboteurs whom they catch in the act.

2. Those who are apprehended later, are to be handed over to the nearest local station of the Security Police and SD.

3. Accomplices, especially women, who do not participate directly in the fighting are to be put to work. Children are to be spared.

II. The Chief of the OKW will issue the necessary executive instructions. He is entitled to make alterations and additions, as far as any need of the war operations makes it imperative.

Signed Adolf Hitler

certified copy
(signed) Oberfeldrichter (Senior Field Judge)

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Post by David Thompson » 15 Oct 2004 03:38

19441017 Document: *327-PS; Description: Letter of Rosenberg to Bormann, 17 Oct 1944, concerning liquidation of property in Eastern Occupied Territories. (USA 338)

"Document 327-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: GPO, 1947. pp. 257-264.

DRMfdbO.
F II 1 c 1183/44g
Copies for the Political Main Staff Str. 19/10 Q
19/x: 20/10 Dr. Wetzelz.k W 21/10
Pl P2 with request for acknowledgment, Dr. Kinkelein n.r.
Z.d. A. Str. 31/10 Pencilled Notes Berlin, 10/17/1944

Copy
SECRET

To: The Chief of the Party Chancellery Reich Leader Martin Bormann

Berlin W 8 Wilhelmstr. 63/64 [Stamp] Political Main Staff Journal No. P1011 a/44g Received 10/18/1944 encl.

Subject: Actions against civilians in rear echelons. Your circular No. 309/44 of 9 October 1944.

Dear Party comrade Bormann:

In order to prevent difficulties and delaywhich is of course not desired by youin the liquidation of the companies under my supervision I have today dispatched the following telegram to the Gau Leaders because of the particular urgency:

In order not to delay the liquidation of companies under my supervision I beg to point out that the companies concerned are not private firms but business enterprises of the Reich so that also actions with regard to them just as with regard to government offices are reserved to the highest authorities of the Reich. I supervise the following companies:

(a) Zentralhandelsgesselschaft 0st fuer landwirtschaftlichen Absatz und Bedarf m.b.H. (ZO). (Central Trading Company East for Agricultural Marketing and Requirements Limited)

(b) Landbewirtschaftungsgessellschaft Ostlund und Ukraine (Agricultural Development Company Eastern Territories and Ukraine)

(c) Beschaffungsgessellschaft 0st m.b.H. (Supply Company East Limited)

(d) Pharm.0st G.m.b.H. (PharmaceuticsEast Company Limited)

The following banks under my supervision are also not private firms:

(e) Zentralnotenbank Ukraine (Central Exchange Bank Ukraine)

(f) Notenbank Ostland (Exchange Bank Eastern Territories)

(g) Zentralwirtschaftsbank Ukraine (Central Commercial Bank Ukraine)

(h) Verband der Wirtschaftsbanken in der Ukraine. (Association of Commercial Banks in the Ukraine)

(i) Gemeinschaftsbank Ostland und Weissruthenien. (Cooperative Bank Eastern Territories and White Ruthenia)

The liquidation of these companies and banks has been discussed with the Reich Plenipotentiary for total war effort and will be brought to a close not later than by the end of this year. Assets suitable for restitution of the companies have already been earmarked for the armed forces and war economy. Therefore, any intervention with regard to stocks and personnel does not only impede the liquidation of business which is inevitably necessary but also delays the supply of goods to the armed forces and war industry. For this reason I beg, to refrain from any intervention.

The Chief of the Party Chancellory has a copy hereof.

Enclosed I am sending you a copy of my letter of today to the Reich Plenipotentiary for total war effort from which you will note that the liquidation of the companies under my supervision has been agreed upon with the Reich Plenipotentiary and will be concluded at a relatively close date considering the vast operations which are indispensable for the liquidation in the interest of an orderly war economy. Restored property not yet surrendered has already been earmarked for the armed forces and war economy, so that any delay of the liquidation or perhaps even independent confiscation of the property by the Gau Leaders would impair or destroy an organized plan, something that should not be done without a compelling reason in the interest of war economy. In order to give you an idea of the past and present problems of these companies, I am attaching enclosed a corresponding survey.

I beg you to acknowledge receipt of the telegram to the Gau Leaders.

Finally, I want to point out also that in my mind it is not correct to simply order the Gau Leaders under the heading "actions against civilians in rear echelons" to press the speeding up of the liquidation of offices and establishments which have been brought ack from the occupied territories. Without doubt cases have occurred where such pressure was warranted by all means. On the other hand, it has been proven that, for instance, thousands of decent men and women as well as firms, who have done their duty under the most difficult conditions there, have been brought back from the occupied territories and have recognized the need of the hour immediately, but can simply not complete their work till necessary for the liquidation at present from one day to the other. As far as the Eastern territories are concerned, the above applies to the majority of the people assigned, so that I am obliged to regret that you also associate these people with the most reputed term of rear-echelon.

Signed: A Rosenberg

SECRET

(1) Zentralhandelsgessellschaft Ost fuer landwirtschaftlichen Absatz un Bodarf m.b.H. (Z.O.). (Central Trading Company East for Agricultural Marketing and Requirements Limited).

The following has been the mission of the Z.O. as a monopoly company for the Eastern Territories:

(a) Collection of all agricultural products as well as commercial marketing and transportation thereof. (Delivery to armed forces and the Reich),

(b) Trusteeship of enterprises dealing with food supplies,

(c) Providing enterprises dealing with food supplies with special equipment, supplying the agriculture with means of production and the rural population with commodities (premium goods).

The following is the present mission of the Z.O.:

(aa) Winding up of transactions relative to commodities and finances, particularly utilization of evacuated goods brought back from the Eastern Territories and goods which did not come into use there any more,

(bb) Collection of goods brought back from the agriculture and food industry of other occupied territories (General Government West),

(cc) Remaining current business,

(a) Fulfillment of the original assignments in the remainder of the Eastern Territories,

(b) Inter-territorial exchange of machines for the agriculture as well as for the dairy industry and inter-territorial exchange of seeds according to directives of the Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Planbusiness section food.

The actual significance of the Z.O. and the volume of its transactions can be seen from the following:

(1) 30 offices with 200 agencies were subordinated to each main office
for the Eastern Territories, the Central District and the Ukraine.

(2) 11 subsidiary companies of the food industry with 130 branches were founded in the Ukraine.

(3) The Z.O. including its subsidiary companies employed at the peak of its business during the summer of 1943 about 7000 German party members of the Reich and in addition has set up about 250 German firms of the Reich.

(4) The total turn-over of the Z.O. amounted to about 5.6 milliard Reichsmark, from its foundation until 3/31/1944.

(5) During this period, the Z.O. together with its subsidiaries has collected:

Grain, 9.2 million tons;
Meat and meat products, 622000 tons;
Linseed, 950000 tons;
Butter, 208000 tons;
Sugar, 400000 tons;
Fodder, 2.5 million tons;
Potatoes, 3.2 million tons;
Seeds, 141000 tons;
Other agricultural products, 1.2 million tons; 1075 million eggs

-The following was required for transportation:

1.418 million railroad box cars and 472000 tons of boat shipping space.

(6) A total of 32900 box cars of evacuated goods has been brought back by the Z.O. of which 22400 are grain, linseed and other seeds, etc., 9000 are agricultural machines, other machines, etc., and 1500 are goods for supply and consumption.

While the utilization of the evacuated agricultural products has been completed in the main part in spite of all difficulties by means of transfer to the Reich Agencies, it has not been possible to effect the utilization of the remaining goods (machines, furniture, supply goods etc.) in the same time and with as little friction. The utilization of these goods is being effected with the cooperation of the Commissioner for utilization of goods, Dr. Kemna, for the Reich Minister of Economy and the Reich Minister for Armament and War Production. Moreover, part of these goods which are composed of thousands of types of different goods must first be overhauled and repaired.

The number of personnel of the Z.O. and its subsidiary companies has already been reduced from 7000 to 681 employees, exclusive of 50 workers who are still working in the Eastern Territories.

(2). Landbewirtschaftungsgessellschaft Ukraine. (Agricultural Development Company, Ukraine)

The Landbewirtschaftungsgessellschaft Ukraine (LBGU) had the following missions (Figures according to status of 7/1/1943 ):

(a) Supervisory management of almost 31000 collective farms and agricultural cooperatives [former Kolhoze] with 1.7 million farms, of almost 540000 individual farms with an area used for cultivation of maximum 38 million hectars (93.9 million acres) 24.5 million hectars (60.5 million acres) during summer 1943,

(b) Managing trusteeship of 1875 state-owned estates with an area used for agriculture of 2.8 million hectars (6.9 million acres),

(c) Managing trusteeship of 72 breeding stations with an area of 124000 hectars (306400 acres), seed reproducing areas of 424000 hectars (1.047 million acres),

Trustee management of 17 offices for distribution of seeds of 270 seed distribution points and of 619 seed depots with a seed capacity of 192000 tons.

Managing trusteeship of 900 machine and tractor stations (MTS) with 49600 tractors.

The LBGU maintained 1 central business office, 6 district offices (with 5 branch offices), 114 regional offices, 431 county offices, 2870 base offices and 400 supervisory bodies.

The LBGU has already completed the liquidation of the following affairs:

(1) Management of the general enterprises (see above under a),

(2) Management of the state-owned estates (see above under b),

(3) Sheep-breeders association Ukraine,

(4) Financial liquidation (balance-sheet of liquidation as of 1 July 1944 will be completed on 20 October 1944).

At present the LBGU still attends to the following matters:

(aa) Utilization of still remaining 5400 tons of highly valuable, evacuated seeds (a total of 98000 tons have been brought back), most of which will be transferred to the Landbau-Gesellschaft m.b.H. (Land Development Company Limited) founded recently by the Commissioner for the Four Year Plan,termination by the end of this year,

(bb) Utilization of the rolling stock, parts of equipment and similar matters confiscated by the armed forces.

(cc) Realization of the MTS evacuation depots and work shops. The personnel used in connection with this (90 civilians, 34 military personnel) occupied mainly with new problems regarding the employment of agricultural machines and the repair thereof. The transfer of these machines to the above mentioned Landbau-Gesellschaft has been projected in the near future.

The number of personnel employed by the LBGU has been reduced from 4500 German and Dutch workers as of 30 June 1943 to 410 as of 1 October 1944.

Of these latter 248 were made available for other important war jobs, especially in the general government, by way of orders and leaves from present jobs. 28 employees are assigned to supervise 50000 Ukrainian workers in key-positions and skilled laborers of the LBGU. Another 90, as mentioned, are employed for the problems of utilizing agricultural machines and c for the repair thereof (see above cc). Consequently, only 44 persons are employed to wind up the remaining affairs.

(3). Beschaffungsgesellschaft Ost m.b.H. (BGO). (Supply Company East Limited)

The BGO has been founded with the purpose to procure machines and other investment goods for the economy of the Eastern Territories as well as to perform special assignments.

Today, it has the following assignments:

(a) Winding-up of concluded business-contracts (50 mill. Reichsmark of a total procurement in the value of 115 mill. Reichsmark), according to which deliveries will be made within the next 9 months;

(b) Procurement of machine tools and wood-working machines by order of the Reich Minister for Armament and War production.

(c) Collection and utilization at economic assets evacuated from the Eastern Territories and the General Government whereby the BGO acts as an executive company for Dr. Kemna, the Commissioner for the utilization of goods for the Reich Minister for Economy and the Reich Minister for Armament and War production (see Annex (1) and (2)).

Liquidation of the Steine und Erden Ost G.m.b.H. (Stone and Soil East Company Limited).

To (a): According to orders by the Reich Minister for Armament and War production the machines which are being delivered in agreement with current business contracts are being transferred particularly to German industries damaged by bombing. The other deliveries are being disposed of in accordance with orders of the OKH/Chief H Ruest u.BdH. (Supreme Command Army) as well as of the economic administrative agencies and of the Planning Commissioners.

To (b): This procurement is also done for the German industry.

To (c): The execution of these assignments is in full swing, and the work connected with it is steadily increasing. So far the BGO has collected about 1000 carloads of evacuated goods.

One part of these is directed by the B.G.O. to agencies charged with their utilization which operate under its management. Another partparticularly machines and investment goodsare stored in own depots, repaired, catalogued and catalogue submitted to the Office of Armament Supplies as well as to Special Agencies [SonderringeCommittees set up by Speer to organize the-production of component parts of the armament industry] and apportioned according to their directions to the Armament Industry.

The number of personnel employed at present by the BGO is 118 employees of whom 55 are male employees.

(4). Pharm-Ost G.m.b.H. (Pharmaceutics-East Company Limited)

The company had the assignment to supply the Eastern Territories with medicines and other drugs within the range of human and veterinary medicines as well as with all equipment for medical and veterinary requirements, hospital requirements, etc.

Apart from supplying the remainder of the Eastern Territories, the company's main assignment at present is essentially to direct the evacuated goods to other consumers, the armed forces in particular, its stocks and those goods which are to be delivered according to business contracts already concluded, while observing the necessary financial liquidation procedure.

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Post by David Thompson » 15 Oct 2004 03:44

APPENDIX DOCUMENT

19411005 Document 053-PS: Report of Captain Dr. Girus Koch on Civil Affairs in the Ukraine, 5 October 1941.

"Document 053-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: GPO, 1947. pp. 83-89.

The Deputy of the Reichs Ministry [Reichsministerium] for the occupied Eastern Provinces with the Army Group South. Captain Dr. Koch

REPORT 10 (Concluded on 5 October 1941)

SECRET (See also the morale report which will be ready in a short time "Legacy of the Soviets in the Ukrainian Areas"concluded at the end of September 1941)

A. The Ukraine on the Right of the Dnieper can, for all purposes, be considered as inactive.

a. The German Wehrmacht was regarded by the populace now, as ever, as emancipator and liberator from physical and mental pressure; the political points of view at present are not as important as the physical.

A temporary administration was almost put in everywhere by the troops, especially by officers of Defense II, who were reserved for this, and will be enlarged upon by the field commanders under the direction of Section VII (military) with the commander-in-chief of the rear communication zone; the proportional far-reaching net of the field and Army post command will be support and condensed through the organization of the office of the inspector of economy (especially the chief group of agriculture) which is of the same opinion. Occasional or regular conferences lead to unification of the points of view. Upon my trip through the land (so far about 6000 km), I have tried through personal contacts, to work for clearness and unification as much as possible; through Speeches, conferences, participation in informal discussions, etc., I have reached, so far, some 600 native village burgermeisters, 12 larger city governments with their burgermeisters, about 500 professors or students, 30 ministers with their church councils and 20 leaders of rayons or their assistants. I was asked by 4 commanders-in-chief several garrison leaders [Standortaelteste], and a few division commanders of various German garrisons, to lecture I was heard by almost all Ic officers of the armies and other higher command posts, also some 100 agriculture leaders, 30 communications officers and 3 propaganda companies. The present Defense II officers gladly procured such connections for me and guaranteed continued execution of probable decisions.

b. Where friction arises between German-(Retinue) sections and the native populations, they are not of political, but economical or personal nature.

Economy. The populace is aware and understands that a very large part of their total harvest has to be given to the Wehrmacht (and economical command); but they resist against "unjust" and "individual" requisitions, that means against continued confiscation in the villages along the same large routes of march, without uniformly requisitioning in the country; and also against unrationalized or wild demands (the confiscation of pregnant cows requisition without proper receipts, disregarding of letters of safe conduct issued by higher German echelons, etc.).

Individual German economical commands made complaints, and rightly so, over delayed terms and quantities; in most cases i was found that technical hindrances were the reasons (delayed or curtailed orders, lack of transportation) and not malice or sabotage. The farmers reply to the oft heard remarks of their laziness and lack of working effort, was that they brought in the large harvest on their own free will without having many machines, manpower and the time.

Personal. The Bolshevists, using brutal measures (such as prison, deportation, etc.) in general nevertheless refrained from punishing individuals (by whipping). Now that it occasionally i done by German troops, well meaning people blame it on the misunderstanding or ignorance of the language; but should it be done too often, antipathy and distrust will be created.

Furthermore the population emphasizes the difference which exists between the occasional mistakes of the Germans and the systematic oppressions by our allies. Here especially the Rumanians and Hungarians caused much gossip. The German Army Command, which operated for the safeguarding of German property in the newly acquired Rumanian special (partly drastic countermeasures. [sic]

c. A complete report on these so-called Partisan-movement was made on 14 September 1941.

The Army High Command decided, therefore, in favor of centralizing the work on the problem, and requested Captain Lazarel for this, who until now was assigned to me (Koch).

Examples from Czernigow, Poltawa and other Army group (for example, Staraja Russa near Orscha) prove that the enemy in the future will employ partisans using explosives and mines.

d. The inner political interest of the population is limited at present to questions of administration and meritorious service in offices or semi-military associations.

Of all the old, strong political parties in Kiev, only a subordinate ("Kultur") section of the "Sojus Wyzwolennia Ukrainy" (organisation for the liberation of the Ukraine) could be found; Other trails led to Shitomir, Uman, and Lemberg, but were lost there in some remnants of local organizations

Up till now, the Bandera people could not fulfill their original plan, the establishment of a self-supporting government in Kiev, since the "Command Kiew" which was to perform this, was removed by the security service [SD] in Fastow and Wassilkow; in the first days after the occupation of the city, they pasted small propaganda placards right next to the German governmental publications, however without much result. Also handbills, in which it was tried to justify the attentat of Shitomir, remain ineffective. The burning of Kiev and the strict screening of the population following thereafter [Sichtungen] have caused, it seems, a (passing) standstill in the organizational construction of the Bandera group.

From the Melnyk organization it was possible to obtain a secret directive called "in Matters of Propaganda"; aside from the old and well-known requests ( self-rule demands of totalitarianism, national socialistic philosophy of life) the following is noticeable in regards to the Reich's relative points (Par. 18): "The special aim is to obtain a clarification of the relations to the German factors. It is to be pointed out that Germany is at war with Moscow and therefore is our ally which one must support in battle. At the same time it is emphasized that the opportunity of the construction of a Ukrainian political system does not only depend alone on the Germans but also on our own combined organization and on our ability to produce. Our motto here is: "Our strength lies in ourselves." (This settlement of a German policy differentiates itself despite their careful composure and stipulation, fundamentally from the rules laid down by Banderas, in whichto my knowledgeit was, up until now, referred to as "allies", often set in quotation marks but never used in connection with the specific references to the Reich.)

e. A permanent security police force (military) is in every town. It draws its replacements from newly captured Ukrainians, is entirely under German command and wears the blue-yellow brassard; weapons are only issued them for guard duty or patrols. At the beginning of September a (melnyk-friendly) group of 300-500 Ukrainian fugitives out of Bukawia was used in the district Winnica-Gaisin They are mainly serious men with some knowledge of German and up till now we received no complaints about their services.

f. The fire of Kiev (9/24-29/1941) destroyed the very center, that is the most beautiful and most representative part of the city with its two large hotels, the central Post Office, the radio station, the telegraph office and several department stores. An area of about 2 square kilometers was affected, some 50000 people are homeless; they were scantily housed in abandoned quarters. As reconciliation for the obvious sabotage, the Jews of the city, approximately (according to figures from the SS Commands for commitment) 3500 [sic] people, half women, were liquidated on the 29th and 30th September. The population took the execution -- as much as they found out about it -- calmly, many with satisfaction; the newly vacated homes of the Jews were turned over for the relief of the housing shortage. Even if certain relief was created in a social respect, the care of the city of half a million is still in danger and one can already foresee food shortages and eventual epidemics.

Up to date the danger of mines has not been eliminatedaccording to official reports of the engineer officersat least 10000 (ten thousand!) mines were deactivated, among them, of course, a great number in the outskirts of the city (railroad station, civilian airport, etc.) and in the tactical forward areas; in individual buildings (also in museums) there were found 3 1/2 tons of explosives in prepared, technically correct mine chambers; captured detonator apparatus leads to the belief that other arrangements of similar nature were built for wireless detonation. With consideration to possible electrical mine detonation, the power supply has not yet been switched on and therefore most staffs and commands are functioning only with candle or poor petroleum lighting. The explosion and the burning of the city caused several losses on officers, men and materials.

The inhabitants of the city remain quiet and disciplined as before; German regulations are enforced to the best ability and without resistance.

I reported over the evacuation measures of the Bolshevists in Kiev in my telephone conversation of the 24-29 September; the picture has not changed noticeably as a whole.

g. I safe-guarded as much of the local art treasures from libraries, academies, institutes and museums with my special detail (2 officers, 2 drivers) as I could. Around 20, partly large, objects could be safe-guarded in this manner and are at the disposal of the Reich.

B. A uniform and supervised administration has not become possible in the Ukraine on the left of the Dnieper River; the streets to the few Dnieper bridges are swarming with prisoners and fugitives the active troop counter-traffic eastward still hasn't stopped. The Bolshevists were able to trash and carry away undetermined quantities of the harvest, according to the populace. On the other hand, several evacuees, formerly of Soviet authority, managed to stay back in the "Kessel of Kiev" and to save themselves from further deportation; the whole Kiev fire department with its equipment, which was evacuated by the Russians, came back again in a like manner on the day before the fire. In some cases it was possible to salvage several herds of cattle and machinery.

* * * * *

The economical commands concerned and 1st Lt. Dr. Dittloflf report through channels about the special economical situation of the occupied Ukrainian provinces.

* * * * *

With the continuation of the peace, the people are again concerned with cultural and religious questions:

a. Where it as technically possible, the lower classes of schools were opened. The initiative (and the cost) lie with the inhabitants themselves. The administrative court will be held responsible for the political attitude of the teachers, the supervision ties with the Germans. The Soviet school texts are destroyed, all communistic emblems removed from the buildings and institutes.

Request by Russian (and occasionally Polish) minorities to establish Russian (or Polish) -- especially private -- schools will be denied in all cases.

Junior high schools, business schools, or even colleges, will not even be subject to discussion.

b. A permanent press can be assumed to be existing (in a technical sense).

There are Ukrainian newspapers in Kamienec Podolsk, Rowne, Berditschew; Winnica, Shitomir, Uman, Kirowograd, Nowo-Ukrainka, Kriwoirog, Cherson, Nikolajew and Kiev (perhaps in a few other places); the papers are published from once to six times weekly and are mostly, fairly pure newspapers; some (naturally censored) articles deal with the anti-bolshevistics and in the field of German-Ukrainian cooperation (thankfulness for the emancipation similar parallels, etc.). The following ground rules pertain to the technique of foreign propaganda: The term Ukraine can only be used in a territorial ( not pertaining to state) sense; the Reich is not an "ally", but a "protector" of the Ukraine; the German Wehrmacht is not "garrisoned" (or even "occupationally army" as was formulated by several Bandera men) but instead "saviors"; the title "Fuehrer-Emancipator" is to be used when talking of Adolf Hitler, etc.; as far as these directives went, they were looked upon as natural and obeyed without a trace of objection.

c. Six different groups were found in the religious circles in the Ukrainian Province right of the Dnieper:

1. The old Orthodox-Eastern Church (also named "Tychon" or "Slavian"); it is the closest successor of the pre-bolshevistic religious organization and includes the greater part of the churchgoing populace, Ukrainians and Russians alike; amongst the priests are several pro-Russians; the rest lean toward a final reestablishment of the Ukraine. The strength of the group cannot yet be given in figures. Alone in the Shitomir province for example, there are 100 priests; in the city of Kiev there remained two small churches during the time of the Russians. Bishops are not present. The 83 year old Archbishop Antonij Abaschidse, who was found in Kiev, is crippled and not capable of any conceivable service. A published appeal by the metropolite and so-called patriarch Sergius from Moscow to resist against "Fascism and the German bandits" (dated 22 June 1941) aroused no interest among the populace.

2. The Ukrainian "Autokephal" Church, a (from an orthodox standpoint) uncanonic group, consisting of a Ukrainian, home conscious people, without lawful bishops; it constitutes a religious minority, but suffered especially severe persecutions from the Bolshevists and is composed exclusively of radical enemies of Moscow and Bolshevism. It has congregations and churches in almost all Ukrainian cities and openly pledges ties to the national Ukrainian bishops in Wolhynien and to the general government.

Its union with the first mentioned group for a permanent, anti-Moscow and pro-German organization is probable. The German authorities [Behoerde], remembering the decree of the Fuehrer, did not hinder the religious participation of both groups, however instructed them, in the main intersession prayerto first remember a prayer for the Fuehrer, the Reich and the German Wehrmacht; the instructions were carried out everywhere where they had been given. Larger religious services (in open places, etc.) were often requested, but have so far been rejected.

3. The Synodale (also "Erneuerungs Synodale" or "Lebende") church. It is justified by laws of the church; however it stands at present near an agreement with the Soviet government. Their services where requested for example in Berditschowwere not permitted.

4. The Roman-Catholic Church. Within the framework of the German military administration, only one religious service was permitted at the old cathedral in Shitomir (16 Sept 41), but was stopped because of the following "misuse of the trust placed in the (Polish) local priests." The Roman-Catholic cathedral of Shitomir was closed again for Latin and Polish services and might be taken over by the Ukrainian-Orthodox congregation.

5. The Sect of the Altglaeubigen (Russian and Ukrainian "Raskolniki").

6. Sects converted to Protestantism (Adventists, Baptists, Evangelical Christians, Stundists, etc.).

Both sect groups did not request religious services and did not openly come into appearance and can be regarded as harmless.

Special director Dr. Stumpp, who was especially appointed for this, reported on the situation of the Evangelical Congregations in the German Settling Space; he is at present with Lt. Vohrer in the German settlement on the Black Sea.

IV Next Intentions for the Future:

As soon (around the end of October) as the civilian administration occupies the whole territory right of the Dnieper and their Headquarters are established in Kiev, I will followproviding no other commands are giventhe high command of the Army Group South and report at that place.

For the time, after the conclusion of the Eastern campaign, I request permission for special proposals.

signed: GIRUS KOCH Captain

David Thompson
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Post by David Thompson » 15 Oct 2004 04:35

APPENDIX DOCUMENT

19431100 Document: *1702-PS; Description: Report on evacuation of Kasatin November-December 1943. (USA 193)

"Document 1702-PS [partial translation]" in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume IV: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 205-208.

Rec'd: 1025/44g
encl: 1 August 1944
Copy
SECRET
II 1C

Evacuation Report of District Commissariat of Kasatin [Illegible notes]
REPORTER: District Commissar STEUDEL, Kasatin.
Time of report: 8 November-28 December 1943.

1. The military situation in November/December 1943.

Immediately following the capture of Kiev by the Soviets on 7 November, the district town of Wassilkow as well as the important railroad center Fastow, belonging to the district of Wassilkow, fell into enemy hands, (8-9 November). The following day, the Soviets attempted to advance farther along the rail line Fastow-Kasatin They succeeded in capturing with weak armored and infantry spearheads in one move, the stations of Kozanka, Popilnva and Browki, situated along this line, and to execute further sudden advances past the station of Czernorudka. For this reason the district of Wischeraische had to be evacuated on 15 November. I withdrew the Germans committed there to the district of Rushin situated 20 kilometers to the South. The withdrawal was effected according to plan and without friction, with all implements, after all camps had been evacuated previously; the cattleabove all the valuable breeds (Oxen and colt stables) led back. German tractors and farm machines transported away and all businesses had been crippled. (Fundamentally, the chief command of the 4th Armored Army, in whose zone these battles took place, had ordered that in the district West of the Dnjepr, in contrast to the ones to the East, no destructions of farm goods or businesses should take place).

* * * * *

The results of the hereby described military events between 8 November and 20 December were as follows:

In a conference, called by me, of the authoritative leaders of all offices of the civilian sector on 8 November, I ordered the immediate start of, and discussed in detail, measures for the most far-reaching decentralization. At the same time, the leaders of all vital, above all of the economic food industry, were informed to effect, in case of an evacuation, the crippling of factories (by taking away important and hard-to-replace machine parts, belts, etc.,) and to prepare this already now. Up till then, however, all factories had to be kept running at full capacity. It should be emphasized here, praisingly, that all measures ordered by me in strictest accordance with the army economic leader [A.W.F.] of the chief command of the 4th Armored Army, were executed by the responsible parties and their staff in an exemplary manner, and with the greatest conscientiousness. Although the delivery of cars, for conceivable reasons, did meet with considerable difficulties, we succeeded, due to the splendid cooperation of the authoritative Reich German organizations of military and civil government, in transporting to the West approximately 80 of the most vital goods (grain, cattle, sugar, etc), or in making them available for the armed forces for immediate use as provisions for the fighting troops.

* * * * *

5. In the midst of the conditions, almost restored to normal, I received a call on the eve of the 25th of December from the Army according to which the Soviets with super or forces of tanks and motorized troops, had exerted a strong renewed pressure on the line of Kotscherowo-Brusilow-Fastow and along the street Kiev-Shitomir with the main advance in a South West direction. Shortly afterwards, the long distance calls, as per attached inclosure number 2, was put through according to which the able-bodied male population in the ages between 15 and 65 as well as the cattle had to be led back in the direction East of the line Kililowka-Berkitschew-Shitomir. The transporting of the able-bodied population was charged to the military authorities by the chief quartermaster of the army, while beginning with the morning of 26 December. I discussed and ordered in detail, during an immediate conference for the whole district the shipment of all the cattle. This action started successfully on that day according to plan, while the discussions over the seizure of the male population were not yet concluded in the afternoon hours of the 26th of December and no positive measures of any kind were taken.

******************************************

Enclosure II

SECRET
Kdt. rueckw. A. Geb. 585 Abt. Qu. Nr. 452/43 geh.

In the field 12/25/1943 To the District Commissar KASATIN

1. The able-bodied male population between 15 and 65 years of age and the cattle are to be shipped back from the district East of the line Belilowka-Berditschen-Shitomir (places excluded).

4. Destruction of farm goods and factories in all places must not take place, only a crippling of factories for several weeks will be executed by army economic leader (A.Wi.Fue.).

In charge [signature illegible] Lt. General

Distribution: See original.

**********************************************

Enclosure III
Copy
SECRET

High Command of the 4th Armored Army 0. Qu/Qu 2 Nr. 1662/43/ secret
Army Headquarters, 12/26/1943

Re: Evacuation measures.

1. The city of Berditschew is to be evacuated of Reich Germans, German [Volksdeutschen] agencies of the civil government, government of the country, able-bodied population. The cattle is to be taken away. Execution of evacuation measures is charged to the civil government.

* * * * *

4. No destructions are to take place as far as they are not expressly ordered by the armored army. All factories are to be prepared for crippling so that this can be accomplished in the shortest possible time. The electricity and water plants are to be taken over by the technical troops.

* * * * *

6. The same measures are to be prepared for Kasatin in such a way that they can be started at once at the command of the armored army.

For the High Command of the Armored Army

The Chief of the General Staff In charge
Original
signed MUELLER
Colonel, General Staff

Correct:
[signature illegible]
Lt Colonel, General Staff

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Post by David Thompson » 15 Oct 2004 06:48

APPENDIX DOCUMENT

"Document 2992-PS: Affidavit of Hermann Friedrich Graebe [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume V: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1946. pp. 696-703

AFFIDAVIT

I, Hermann Friedrich Graebe, declare under oath:

At Wiesbaden, on 10 November 1945 I made two statements describing as an eye-witness the execution of Jews on the former airport near Dubno, Ukraine, and the herding together, ill-treatment and killing of men, women and children of the former Ghetto at Rowno, Ukraine.

By way of corollary to these statements I depose as follows:

1. The SS-man acting as the executioner on the edge of the pit during the shooting of Jewish men, women and children on the airport near Dubno, wore an SS-uniform with a grey armband about 3 cm wide on the lower part of his sleeve with the letters "SD" in black on it, woven in or embroidered.

2. SS-Sturmbannfuehrer Dr. Puetz was in charge of the carrying out of the operation (Aktion) at Rowno during the night of 13 July 1942. I knew Dr. Puetz personally as the "Kommandeur der SP u. SD" [commander of the Security Police and Security Service] of Rowno, for I had had several discussions with him with a view to preventing a pogrom against the Jews [Judenaktion] at Sdolbunow, Misotsch and Ostrog. Dr. Puetz was introduced to me by the Area Commissioner Georg Marschall. In addition I definitely remember that a nameplate was fixed on the outside of the door to his office bearing his name and rank.

On the morning of 14 July I recognized three or four SS-men in the Ghetto, whom I knew personally and who were all members of the Security Service in Rowno. These persons also wore the armband mentioned above. I cannot recall their names, but, in my opinion, the foreman Fritz Einsporn must know their names, as, to my knowledge, he corresponded with them.

I make the foregoing statement in Wiesbaden, Germany, on 13 November 1945. I swear before God, that this is the absolute truth.

(S) Fr. Graebe (t) HERMANN FRIEDRICH GRAEBE


*****************************************

Before me, Homer B. Crawford, being authorized to administer oaths, personally appeared Hermann Friedrich Graebe, who, being by me duly sworn through the interpreter Elisabeth Radzie-Jewska, made and subscribed the following statement:

I, Hermann Friedrich Graebe, declare under oath:

From September 1941-January 1944 I was manager and engineer-in-charge of a branch office in Sdolbunow, Ukraine, of the Solingen building firm of Josef Jung. In this capacity it was my job to visit the building sites of the firm. Under contract to an Army Construction Office, the firm had orders to erect grain storage buildings on the former airport of Dubno, Ukraine.

On 5 October 1942, when I visited the building office at Dubno, my foreman Hubert Moennikes of 21 Aussenmuehlenweg, Hamburg-Haarburg, told me that in the vicinity of the site, Jews from Dubno had been shot in three large pits, each about 30 meters long and 3 meters deep. About 1500 persons had been killed daily. All of the 5000 Jews who had still been living in Dubno before the pogrom were to be liquidated. As the shootings had taken place in his presence he was still much upset.

Thereupon I drove to the site, accompanied by Moennikes and saw near it great mounds of earth, about 30 meters long and 2 meters high. Several trucks stood in front of the mounds. Armed Ukrainian militia drove the people off the trucks under the supervision of an SS-man. The militia men acted as guards on the trucks and drove them to and from the pit. All these people had the regulation yellow patches on the front and back of their clothes, and thus could be recognized as Jews.

Moennikes and I went directly to the pits. Nobody bothered us. Now I heard rifle shots in quick succession, from behind one of the earth mounds. The people who had got off the trucks -- men, women, and children of all ages -- had to undress upon the order of an SS-man, who carried a riding or dog whip. They had to put down their clothes in fixed places, sorted according to shoes, top clothing and underclothing. I saw a heap of shoes of about 800 to 1000 pairs, great piles of under-linen and clothing. Without screaming or weeping these people undressed, stood around in family groups, kissed each other, said farewells and waited for a sign from another SS-man, who stood near the pit, also with a whip in his hand. During the 15 minutes that I stood near the pit I heard no complaint or plea for mercy. I watched a family of about 8 persons, a man and woman, both about 50 with their children of about 1, 8 and 10, and two grownup daughters of about 20 to 24. An old woman with snow-white hair was holding the one-year old child in her arms and singing to it, and tickling it. The child was cooing with delight. The couple were looking on with tears in their eyes. The father was holding the hand of a boy about 10 years old and speaking to him softly; the boy was fighting his tears. The father pointed toward the sky, stroked his head, and seemed to explain something to him. At that moment the SS-man at the pit shouted something to his comrade. The latter counted off about 20 persons and instructed them to go behind the earth mound. Among them was the family, which I have mentioned. I well remember a girl, slim and with black hair, who, as she passed close to me, pointed to herself and said, "23". I walked around the mound, and found myself confronted by a tremendous grave. People were closely wedged together and lying on top of each other so that only their heads were visible. Nearly all had blood running over their shoulders from their heads. Some of the people shot were still moving. Some were lifting their arms and turning their heads to show that they were still alive. The pit was already 2/3 full. I estimated that it already contained about 1000 people. I looked for the man who did the shooting. He was an SS-man, who sat at the edge of the narrow end of the pit, his feet dangling into the pit. He had a tommy gun on his knees and was smoking a cigarette. The people, completely naked, went down some steps which were cut in the clay wall of the pit and clambered over the heads of the people lying there, to the place to which the SS-man directed them. They lay down in front of the dead or injured people; some caressed those who were still alive and spoke to them in a low voice. Then I heard a series of shots. I looked into the pit and saw that the bodies were twitching or the heads lying already motionless on top of the bodies that lay before them. Blood was running from their necks. I was surprised that I was not ordered away, but I saw that there were two or three postmen in uniform nearby. The next batch was approaching already. They went down into the pit, lined themselves up against the previous victims and were shot. When I walked back, round the mound I noticed another truckload of people which had just arrived. This time it included sick and infirm people. An old, very thin woman with terribly thin legs was undressed by others who were already naked, while two people held her up. The woman appeared to be paralyzed. The naked people carried the woman around the mound. I left with Moennikes and drove in my car back to Dubno.

On the morning of the next day, when I again visited the site, I saw about 30 naked people lying near the pit -- about 30 to 50 meters away from it. Some of them were still alive; they looked straight in front of them with a fixed stare and seemed to notice neither the chilliness of the morning nor the workers of my firm who stood around. A girl of about 20 spoke to me and asked me to give her clothes, and help her escape. At that moment we heard a fast car approach and I noticed that it was an SS-detail. I moved away to my site. 10 minutes later we hear shots from the vicinity of the pit. The Jews still alive had been ordered to throw the corpses into the pit -- then they had themselves to lie down in this to be shot in the neck.

I make the above statement at Wiesbaden, Germany, on 10 November 1945. I swear before God that this is the absolute truth.

Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Subscribed and sworn to before me at Wiesbaden, Germany, 10 November 1945.

Homer B. Crawford Major, AC Investigator Examiner, War Crimes Branch

I, Elisabeth Radziejewska, being first duly sworn, state: That I truly translated the oath administered by Major Homer B. Crawford to Hermann Friedrich Graebe and that thereupon he made and subscribed the foregoing statement in my presence.

Elisabeth Radziejewska Interpreter
Subscribed and sworn to before me at Wiesbaden, Germany, 10 November 1945.

Homer B. Crawford,
Major, AC Investigator Examiner,
War Crimes Branch


*********************************************

SECRET

The Area Commissioner [Gebietskommissar] ROWNO

Ref Messrs. JUNG Rowno

The Jewish workers employed by your firm are not affected by the program [Aktion]. You must transfer them to their new place of work by Wednesday, 15 July 1942 at the latest.

13 July 1942
For the Area Commissioner Beck [Stamp]
Area Commissioner Rowno


**************************************************

Before me, Homer B. Crawford, being authorized to administer oaths, personally appeared Hermann Friedrich Graebe, who, being by me duly sworn through the interpreter Elisabeth Radziejewska, made and subscribed the following statement:

I, Hermann Friedrich Graebe, declare under oath:

From September 1941-January 1944 I was manager and engineer-in-charge of a branch
office in Sdolbunow, Ukraine, of the Solingen building firm of Josef Jung. In this capacity it was my job to visit the building sites of the firm. The firm had, among others, a site in Rowno, Ukraine.

During the night of 13 July 1942 all inhabitants of the Rowno Ghetto, where there were still about 5000 Jews, were liquidated.

I would describe the circumstances of my being a witness of the dissolution of the Ghetto, and the carrying out of the pogrom [Aktion] during the night and the morning, as follows:

I employed for the firm, in Rowno, in addition to Poles, Germans, and Ukrainians about 100 Jews from Sdolbunow, Ostrog, and Mysotch. The men were quartered in a building, 5 Bahnhofstrasse, inside the Ghetto, and the women in a house at the corner of Deutsche Strasse, 98.

On Saturday, 11 July 1942, my foreman, Fritz Einsporn, told me of a rumor that on Monday all Jews in Rowno were to be liquidated. Although the vast majority of the Jews employed by my firm in Rowno were not natives of this town, I still feared that they might be included in this pogrom which had been reported. I therefore ordered Einsporn at noon of the same day to march all the Jews employed by us -- men as well as women -- in the direction of Sdolbunow, about 12 km from Rowno. This was done.

The Senior Jew [Judenrat] had learned of the departure of the Jewish workers of my firm. He went to see the Commanding Officer of the Rowno SIPO and SD, SS Major [SS- Sturmbannfuehrer] Dr. Puetz, as early as the Saturday afternoon to find out whether the rumor of a forthcoming Jewish pogrom -- which had gained further credence by reason of the departure of Jews of my firm -- was true. Dr. Puetz dismissed the rumor as a clumsy lie, and for the rest had the Polish personnel in my firm in Rowno arrested. Einsporn avoided arrest by escaping from Sdolbunow.

When I learned of this incident I gave orders that all Jews who had left Rowno were to report back to work in Rowno on Monday, 13 July 1942. On Monday morning I myself went to see the Commanding Officer, Dr. Puetz, in order to learn, for one thing, the truth about the rumored
Jewish pogrom and secondly to obtain information on the arrest of the Polish office personnel. SS Major [SS-Sturmbannfuehrer] Puetz stated to me that no pogrom (Aktion) whatever was planned. Moreover such a pogrom would be stupid because the firms and the Reichsbahn would lose valuable workers.

An hour later I received a summons to appear before the Area Commissioner of Rowno. His deputy, Stableiter and Cadet Officer [Ordensjunker] Beck, subjected me to the same questioning as I had undergone at the SD. My explanation that I had sent the Jews home for urgent delousing appeared plausible to him. He then told me -- making me promise to keep it a secret -- that a pogrom would in fact take place on the evening of Monday 13 July 1942. After lengthy negotiation I managed to persuade him to give me permission to take my Jewish workers to Sdolbunowbut only after the pogrom had been carried out. During the night it would be up to me to protect the house in the Ghetto against the entry of Ukrainian militia and SS. As confirmation of the discussion he gave me a document, which stated that the Jewish employees of Messrs. Jung were not affected by the pogrom [Original attached.]

On the evening of this day I drove to Rowno and posted myself with Fritz Einsporn in front of the house in the Bahnhofstrasse in which the Jewish workers of my firm slept. Shortly after 22:00 the Ghetto was encircled by a large SS detachment and about three times as many members of the Ukrainian militia. Then the electric arclights which had been erected in and around the Ghetto were switched on. SS and militia squads of 4 to 6 men entered or at least tried to enter the houses. Where the doors and windows were closed and the inhabitant did not open at the knocking, the SS men and militia broke the windows, forced the doors with beams and crowbars and entered the houses. The people living there were driven on to the street just as they were, regardless of whether they were dressed or in bed. Since the Jews in most cases refused to leave their houses and resisted, the SS and militia applied force. They finally succeeded, with strokes of the whip, kicks and blows with rifle butts in clearing the houses. The people were driven out of their houses in such haste that small children in bed had been left behind in several instances. In the street women cried out for their children and children for their parents. That did not prevent the SS from driving the people along the road, at running pace, and hitting them, until they reached a waiting freight train. Car after car was filled, and the screaming of women and children, and the cracking of whips and rifle shots resounded unceasingly.

Since several families or groups had barricaded themselves in especially strong buildings, and the doors could not be forced with crowbars or beams, these houses were now blown open with hand grenades. Since the Ghetto was near the railroad tracks in Rowno, the younger people tried to get across the tracks and over a small river to get away from the Ghetto area. As this stretch of country was beyond the range of the electric lights, it was illuminated by signal rockets. All through the night these beaten, hounded and wounded people moved along the lighted streets. Women carried their dead children in their arms, children pulled and dragged their dead parents by their arms and legs down the road toward the train. Again and again the cries "Open the door!" "Open the door!" echoed through the Ghetto.

About 6 o'clock in the morning I went away for a moment, leaving behind Einsporn and several other German workers who had returned in the meantime. I thought the greatest danger was past and that I could risk it. Shortly after I left, Ukrainian militia men forced their way into 5 Bahnhofstrasse and brought 7 Jews out and took them to a collecting point inside the Ghetto. On my return I was able to prevent further Jews from being taken out. I went to the collecting point to save these 7 men. I saw dozens of corpses of all ages and both sexes in the streets I had to walk along. The doors of the houses stood open, windows were smashed. Pieces of clothing, shoes, stockings, jackets, caps, hats, coats, etc., were lying in the street. At the corner of a house lay a baby, less than a year old with his skull crushed. Blood and brains were spattered over the house wall and covered the area immediately around the child. The child was dressed only in a little shirt. The commander, SS Major Puetz, was walking up and down a row of about 80100 male Jews who were crouching on the ground. He had a heavy dog whip in his hand. I walked up to him, showed him the written permit of Stabsleiter Beck and demanded the seven men whom I recognized among those who were crouching on the ground. Dr. Puetz was very furious about Beck's concession and nothing could persuade him to release the seven men. He made a motion with his hand encircling the square and said that anyone who was once here would not get away. Although he was very angry with Beck, he ordered me to take the people from 5 Bahnhofstrasse out of Rowno by 8 o'clock at the latest. When I left Dr. Puetz, I noticed a Ukrainian farm cart, with two horses. Dead people with stiff limbs were lying on the cart. Legs and arms projected over the side boards. The cart was making for the freight train. I took the remaining 74 Jews who had been locked in the house to Sdolbunow.

Several days after 7/13/1942 the Area Commissioner of Sdolbunow, Georg Marschall, called a meeting of all firm managers, railroad superintendents, and leaders of the Organization Todt and informed them that the firms, etc., should prepare themselves for the "resettlement" of the Jews which was to take place almost immediately. He referred to the pogrom in Rowno where all the Jews had been liquidated, i.e. had been shot near Kostolpol.

I make the above statement in Wiesbaden, Germany, on 10 November 1945. I swear by God that this is the absolute truth.

Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Subscribed and sworn to before me at Wiesbaden, German 10 November 1945.

Homer B. Crawford
Major, AC Investigator Examiner,
War Crimes Branch

I, Elisabeth Radziejewska, being first duly sworn, state; That I truly translated the oath administered by Major Homer B. Crawford to Hermann Friedrich Graebe and that thereupon he made and subscribed the foregoing statement in my presence. Elisabeth Radziejewska Interpreter

Subscribed and sworn before me at Wiesbaden, Germany, 10 November 1945.

Homer B. Crawford
Major, AC Investigator Examiner
War Crimes Branch, US Army

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