Philippine generals during the war

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Lornito Uriarte Mahinay Jr.
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Philippine generals during the war

Post by Lornito Uriarte Mahinay Jr. » 29 Nov 2006 08:31

11 Philippine generals served in the war.2 of whom were revolutionary generals who served with the collaborationist government.4 were killed or died in the war.I forgot one general but the remaining 10 I can named:

Major General Paulino Santos,died
Major General Vasilio Valdez,survive
Brigadier General Mateo Capinpin
Brigadier General Vicente Lim,died
Brigadier General Simeon De Jesus,died
Brigadier General Guillermo Francisco,died
Brigadier General Manuel Acuna Roxas,survive
Brigadier General Carlos Pena Romulo,survive
General Emilio Aguinaldo,survive
General Artemio Ricarte,survive

BARON LORNITZ

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Post by Steen Ammentorp » 02 Dec 2006 09:28

Hi,

Do you have additional information on the military careers on these generals?

Kind Regards
Steen Ammentorp
The Generals of World War II

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Profiles of Filipino Generals in WW II

Post by Lornito Uriarte Mahinay Jr. » 05 Dec 2006 16:29

Good Day Sir!

I had already identify the sole general that I've forgot! He was Brigadier General Fidel Segundu. Also I found out that it is BG Guillermo Flores not Guillermo Francisco. I'm sorry but iI don't have any exact infos about these two generals but I'm still searching for with available resources here in the Philippines.

The ff. are the profiles and biographies of the Filipino generals who served during the war:

Brigadier General Vicente Lim (1889 - 1945) was a World War II general.The first Filipino Graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, General Lim served as a 2nd Lieutenant during World War I. At the war’s end, he returned to the Philippines, where he continued his military career and quickly rose in rank. By 1940, he was appointed to the post of Chief of Staff of the Philippine Army.When the Philippine Army was incorporated into the American Armed Forces on July 16, 1941, Lim was given the Rank of Brigadier General and became the top-ranking Filipino under General Douglas MacArthur.After the Attack on Pearl Harbor, he was placed in command of the 41st Philippine Division, tasked with the defense of Bataan. On April 9th, 1942, the 41st surrendered, along with all American and Filipino forces, to General Homma.Lim survived the infamous Bataan Death March, and on June 6th, 1942 was admitted to the Philippine General Hospital for treatment of injuries sustained at Bataan. He recovered quickly, but with the help of his brother-in-law, Dr. Jose N. Rodriguez, he concealed this fact. With the Japanese convinced of his incapacitation, he led the guerilla resistance forces of Luzon.In 1944 he was ordered to rejoin General Douglas MacArthur in Australia. He attempted the journey but was captured en route by the Japanese. He was held for months at Fort Santiago and the Bilibid prison before being beheaded, along with Colonel Antonio Escoda, shortly before the liberation.General Lim died 31 December 1944 and is listed among the Tablets of the Missing at Manila National Cemetery; Awards are the Legion of Merit and the Purple Heart. sourceIn addition to his military service, he also authored "To inspire and to lead: The letters of Gen. Vicente Lim, 1938-1942" source and was, in 1936, a charter member of the Boy Scouts of the Philippines.In recognition of his services to the Filipino people, General Lim appears on the 1,000 Peso banknote.

Brigadier General Simeon de Jesus was the Chief of the Military Intelligence Service in the United States Armed Forces in the Philippines (USAFFE). After the capitulation he worked largely in guerilla activities until he was arrested by the Japanese Military Police in 1944 in Paco, Manila and was incarcerated in Fort Santiago where he was eventually executed.

Brigadier General Mateo Capinpin, a war time commander of the Philippine Army?s famed 21st Division, was born in Morong Rizal on April 22, 1887. He grew up and took his elementary & secondary education in Laguna High School. After graduating from High School in 1906, at the age of 19, he joined and was enlisted in the Philippine Scouts where he started as a Private and was honorably discharged as a Major. During his itinerary with the Philippine Scouts from 1906 to 1918, Capinpin was acclaimed to be the only one who knew his Company Roster by heart. Stories have it that at night, he could call from the roll even without lights. As the youngest First Sergeant, he was only 24 when he was given his strips. He was noted to be a strict disciplinarian and that he had the reputation of being the "meanest" non-commissioned officer.From the Philippine Scouts, Capinpin joined the Philippine National Guards as First Lieutenant in 1918 with the corresponding rank of Major in the United States Army. The following year, he returned to the Philippine Scouts. Promoted in the Permanent rank of Captain in 1920, Gen. Capinpin was sent to the United States to attend the Officers Courses at Fort Benning Infantry School in Georgia. While a Captain in the 45th Infantry, PS, he commanded the same company for over 20 years. His Company "I" was famous as Exhibition and Demonstration Company for five years in carnivals and elsewhere and held championship for athletics for a longer period.He was given command of the PA 21st Division with the rank of Colonel when the Philippines was under the Commonwealth regime in 1934. War caught up with him in Lingayen, Pangasinan.Forced to be in Bataan when the Japanese Forces invaded the country, Capinpin earned honors for the orderly retreat he conducted during his commands trip from Pangasinan to Bataan.
He was captured by the Japanese when Bataan fell. Undaunted, Capinpin forcibly joined the "DEATH MARCH" which began at daylight of April 10, 1942. Together with the haggard and terrified troops, they herded into groups of 500 to 1,000. Thousands wept while others stood stiffly, with blank, rigid stares. About 12,000 American soldiers, 65,000 Filipino soldiers, 6,000 Filipino civilian employees, and 10,000 Filipino refugees forced to join the trek. More than 600 Americans and 8,000 Filipino soldiers died along the way. On the 65-mile trek from Marivelez, Bataan, Capinpin and others were bayoneted, beaten and hauled off to Camp O?Donnell, a concentration Camp in Capas, Tarlac where the prisoners of war were confined. Documented stories of their confinement described their ordeal as "grim" and "nightmarish." Released in the latter part of 1942, Capinpin briefly served in the puppet government upon the invitation of Jose P. Laurel, the occupation president. During his service with the puppet government, Capinpin saw in his position a strong cover for his guerilla activities. He planned out to rejoin the underground when he and other officials were dispatched to Baguio. The end of the last war found him in Japan.Among the commendations he received, topped by the distinguished Service Cross, were telegraphed praises from General Douglas Mac Arthur, then commander-in-chief of all U.S Armed Forces in the Far East, Colonel Clark and the late General Vicente Lim.Brig. Gen. Capinpin was the Armed Forces of the Philippines Adjutant General when he retired from the military service on April 30, 1948. He was then the Superintendent of the Far East Military Academy in Highway 54, Quezon City. His last public appearance was on December 16, 1958 during the convocation at the FEMA. At the age of 71, on December 28, 1958, he died of heart attack while spending holidays at his residence in Bi񡮬 Laguna.Brigadier General Capinpin was survived by his wife, Mrs. Trinidad F. Vda. de Capinpin, and three (3) children; Emmanuel, Ernesto and Alita.

Brigadier General Carlos Pena Romulo(b. 14 January 1899, Camiling, Tarlac, Philippines - d. 15 December 1985, Manila, Philippines) was a Filipino general and diplomat with tremendous writing skills.During the war he served in the army and rose to the rank of brigadier general. Romulo was among those who escape into the US before the capitulation of the Philippines.He accopained President Osmena and General Macarthur during the landing at Red Beach in Palo, Leyte in October 1944.He served as Resident Commissioner of the Philippines to the United States Congress from 1944 to 1946.

Brigadier General Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was a Filipino general and politician.Having enrolled prior to World War II as an officer in the reserves, he was made liaison officer between the Commonwealth government and the United States Army Forces in the Far East headquarters of General Douglas MacArthur. He accompanied President Quezon to Corregidor where he supervised the destruction of Philippine currency to prevent its capture by the Japanese. When Quezon left Corregidor, Roxas was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. Subsequently he went to Mindanao to direct the resistance there. It was prior to Quezon's departure that he was made Executive Secretary and designated as successor to the presidency in case Quezon or Vice-President Sergio Osmeña were captured or killed. Roxas was captured (1942) by the Japanese invasion forces. After a period of imprisonment, he was brought to Manila and eventually signed the Constitution promulgated by the Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic. He was made responsible for economic policy under the government of Jose P. Laurel. During this time he also served as an intelligence agent for the underground Philippine guerrilla forces. In 1944 he unsuccessfully tried to escape to Allied territory. The returning American forces arrested him a Japanese collaborator. After the war, Gen. Douglas MacArthur cleared him and reinstated his commission as an officer of the US armed forces. This resuscitated his political career.When the Congress of the Philippines was convened in 1945, the legislators elected in 1941 chose Roxas as Senate President. In the Philippine national elections of 1946, Roxas ran for president as the nominee of the liberal wing of the Nacionalista Party. He had the staunch support of General MacArthur. His opponent was Sergio Osmeña, who refused to campaign, saying that the Filipino people knew his reputation. However, in the April 23, 1946 election, Roxas won 54 percent of the vote, and the Liberal Party won a majority in the legislature. When Philippine independence was recognized by the United States on July 4, 1946, he became the first president of the new republic.

Major General Paulino Santos was a Filipino general. Santos served as Commander in Chief of the Philippine Commonwealth Army before the outbreak of the Second World War in the country. During the Japanese period, although already retired, he was taken by the Japanese and was held as hostage. He died in Ifugao in 1945 while in captivity due to malnutrition and disease.

Major General Dr. Basilio Valdez was born on July 10, 1892 in Manila. He is the third boy among a brood of four of Dr. Benito Valdez and Filomena Pica. On 1916, he finished medicine in University of Santo Tomas. During his studies, he exhibited academic excellence, finishing at the top of his class, and winning awards in school activities. As a young man, he already showed his leadership traits.During World War I, he had a brief stint as an instructor in University of the Philippines College of Medicine. He decided to stop teaching and instead on September 1916, he went to Europe and joined the French Red cross as a medical surgeon. He was often engaged in missions involving war casualties and inspecting the conditions of the prisoners of war in various camps. Later, he joined the U.S. Army Medical Corps and subsequently appointed as Captain of the American Red Cross in Paris, France without remuneration. Dr. Valdez left Paris and became the Chief Surgeon of the Anglo-French Military Hospital. He was just twenty-six years old.Due to illness in 1919, he was forced to return to Manila. He resumed his private practice and joined the faculty of UST medical school. Due to diligence of his friend Senate President Manuel L. Quezon, he was persuaded to serve the government in 1921. He assumed the post as a Medical Inspector with the rank of 1st Lieutenant of the Philippine Constabulary. In 1926, he rose from the ranks and became Lt. Colonel and Chief Surgeon.In 1932, while in military service, he became the first commissioner of Health and Public welfare. Two years after, he was also appointed member and subsequently President of the Board of Medical Examiners.In May 1, 1934, Pres. Manuel Quezon appointed him as the Chief of Staff of the Philippine Constabulary with the rank of Brigadier General. During his term, he expanded the strength of the Philippine Constabulary from a measly 4,500 to 8,000 soldiers strong. He also pioneered the Air Corps to protect the Philippines aerial territory. In 1936, he became Major General and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Philippine Army. In 1938, a major reorganization happened in the armed forces. Philippine Constabulary (PC) was separated from the Philippine Army and he was designated as the Acting ChieMaf of PC. During that time, he was instrumental in forming Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame. In 1939, he became the first Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines until World War II broke out. In 1941, during the siege of Japanese forces, Pres. Quezon appointed him as secretary of National Defense in Corregidor. During that fateful period, disregarding the most extreme conditions, he treated injured Filipino and American soldiers from the exploded trenches brought about by Tora-Tora air raids.Since he is Pres. Quezon personal physician, he was forced to accompany his ailing President and join the Commonwealth cabinet in exile in U.S. where he became active in lobbying for Philippine independence. In August 1, 1944, he was present when his friend Pres. Quezon died and consoled Mrs. Aurora Quezon during her moment of grief.After few months, he accompanied Gen. Douglas McArthur during the historic Leyte Landing. In Tacloban, Leyte, Pres. Sergio Osmena reestablished the commonwealth government. In addition to his duties as Secretary of National Defense and Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, he was appointed as Secretary of Health.His experience in Red Cross during World War I became useful to him. During the liberation of Manila, he established the Philippine Civil Affairs Unit (PCAU). This unit organized food distribution and medical relief operations in Manila and provinces. He also established ten PCAU hospitals in various parts of Manila and nearby towns while fighting the Japanese continued. After the war, these PCAU hospitals continued to operate. PCAU-1 and PCAU-5 hospitals were subsequently became National Orthopedic Hospital and Dr. Jose R. Reyes Memorial Hospital, respectively.On July 4, 1946, he resigned from government service and rejoined the academe and private practice. He became Professor of Surgery and Chief of Orthopedics in UST College of Medicine. In September 15, 1949, he is one of the six distinguished physician who founded the Philippine Hospital Association. In 1950, he helped establish the Lourdes Hospital.

General Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader.He served as the First President of the Republic of the Philippines during the Spanish-American War and served with the Japanese in World War IIWhen the American government finally allowed the Philippine flag to be displayed in 1919, Aguinaldo transformed his home in Kawit into a monument to the flag, the revolution and the declaration of Independence. His home still stands, and is known as the Aguinaldo Shrine.Aguinaldo retired from public life for many years. In 1935, when the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established in preparation for Philippine independence, he ran for president but lost by a landslide to fiery Spanish mestizo Manuel L. Quezon. The two men formally reconciled in 1941, when President Quezon moved Flag Day to June 12, to commemorate the proclamation of Philippine independence.Aguinaldo again retired to private life, until the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in World War II. He cooperated with the Japanese, making speeches, issuing articles and infamous radio addresses in spport of the Japanese — including a radio appeal to Gen. Douglas MacArthur on Corregidor to surrender in order to spare the innocence of the Filipino youth.After the Americans retook the Philippines, Aguinaldo was arrested along with several others accused of collaboration with the Japanese. He was held in Bilibid prison for months until released by presidential amnesty. In his trial, it was eventually deemed that his collaboration with the Japanese was probably made under great duress, and he was released.Aguinaldo lived to see independence granted to the Philippines July 4, 1946, when the United States Government marked the full restoration and recognition of Philippine sovereignty. During the independence parade at the Luneta, the 77-year old general carried the flag he raised in Kawit on June 12, 1898, the date he believed to be the true Independence Day.

General Artemio Ricarte was born on October 20, 1866-died on July 31, 1945.He was a Filipino general who actively took part in the Philippine Revolution. Ricarte was forced into exile in Japan after the American occupation of the country. After the Japanese occupied the Philippines in 1942, Ricarte and his family returned to their country and helped the Japanese in pacifying the Filipinos, taking active part in the Japanese-sponsored government. When the Philippine-American War started in 1899, he was Chief of Operations of the Filipino forces in the second zone around Manila. In 1910 he was captured by the Americans and deported.


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Post by Steen Ammentorp » 06 Dec 2006 11:15

Hi Baron,

Excellent information - thank you very much. I am just wondering whether your list covers all the Philippine generals of WW2. The number 12 seems very low to me, especially when you list even include a number of retired generals who only played a political role. What about Major-General Rafael Jalandoni, who suceeded Major-General Basilio J Valdez as CGS/CinC of the Philippine Army on 21st December 1945, did he reach a generals rank during the war. Otherwise he would have seen a rapid promotion just after the war.

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Steen Ammentorp
The Generals of World War II

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Philippine Generals

Post by Lornito Uriarte Mahinay Jr. » 07 Dec 2006 08:31

Sir,

I had gathered somehow short inforrmations about BGs Guillermo Flores and Fidel Segundu. The former commanded the 2nd Divison and the latter commanded the 1st Divison during the campaign in the Philippines.

During the camapign, BG De Jesus gathered some 60 agents across Manila Bay to meet the need for intelligence behind enemy lines. Intelligence reports were then transmitted into Manila then to General Macarthur in Corregidor. After the capitulation, he went underground and was subsequently arrested on October 26, 1944 in Paco, Manila because of his guerilla activities.

General Artemio Ricarte had served as chief of staff of the Philiipine Revolutionary Army from march 22, 1897 until January 22, 1899.

I think MG Jalandoni was promoted right after the war. Several other Filipinos who took part in the guerilla activities and commanded divisional-size formations during the war were promoted BG before and after the war. Don't worry because I send you the names and of course the careers of these generals if I will get some info.

Sir Im still researching for other retired generals who was living during the war. One of these is Major General Jose J. Delos Reyes who was the chief of staff of the Philippine Commonwealth Army from january 11, 1936 until May 3, 1936.


Baron

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Re: Philippine Generals

Post by Lornito Uriarte Mahinay Jr. » 07 Dec 2006 08:55

Baron.waffen wrote:Sir,

I had gathered somehow short inforrmations about BGs Guillermo Flores and Fidel Segundu. The former commanded the 2nd Divison and the latter commanded the 1st Divison during the campaign in the Philippines.

During the camapign, BG De Jesus gathered some 60 agents across Manila Bay to meet the need for intelligence behind enemy lines. Intelligence reports were then transmitted into Manila then to General Macarthur in Corregidor. After the capitulation, he went underground and was subsequently arrested on October 26, 1944 in Paco, Manila because of his guerilla activities.

I think MG Jalandoni was promoted right after the war. Several other Filipinos who took part in the guerilla activities and commanded divisional-size formations during the war were promoted BG before and after the war. Don't worry because I will send you the names and of course the careers of these generals if I will get some info.

Sir Im still researching for other retired generals who somehow took an active part during the war. One of these is Major General Jose J. Delos Reyes who was the chief of staff of the Philippine Commonwealth Army from January 11, 1936 until May 3, 1936.


Baron

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Post by Galahad » 07 Dec 2006 09:43

Hi Baron.....I was wondering if you've read John Whitman's book, "Bataan: Our Last Ditch"? It's probably the best account there is concerning the operations of the Philippine Army in World War II--at least up to the surrender of Corregidor. Among other things, it gives the background for the organization and activation of the units, describes their equipment and their problems, and describes their actions during the 1st Luzon Campaign. It also names a lot of their officers and tells of their background.
--If you've not read it, I think you'd find it very interesting.
Rob

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Post by pitman » 08 Dec 2006 02:52

In the Philippine Army, only a few Filipino officers had achieved high rank by 1942.

A great many Filipinos led with great distinction as guerrilla leaders from 1942-1945, but there were no officially recognized guerrilla leaders of general officer rank (Wendell Fertig, an American, appointed himself a general, but was "demoted" by MacArthur back to colonel). As a result, there were a number of Filipino guerrilla colonels who led a great many men.

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Post by Kim Sung » 08 Dec 2006 12:31

pitman wrote:A great many Filipinos led with great distinction as guerrilla leaders from 1942-1945, but there were no officially recognized guerrilla leaders of general officer rank (Wendell Fertig, an American, appointed himself a general, but was "demoted" by MacArthur back to colonel). As a result, there were a number of Filipino guerrilla colonels who led a great many men.
I personally know a US army captain whose Filipino grandfather was a guerilla leader during the war. For his contribution to war against Japanese invaders, he got a US citizenship.

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Post by Katipunero » 02 Jan 2007 20:51

pardon my ignorance, but I though Aguinaldo didn't participated on WW2?

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Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo

Post by Lornito Uriarte Mahinay Jr. » 04 Jan 2007 04:48

Revolutionary General Emilio Aguinaldo took part in the war in the political field. He even signed statements made or may not by the Japanese against MacArthur. During the crucial battle in 1942 he made such propagandas. During the declaration of the Philippine Independence in 1943 he was the one (the other was General Artemio Ricarte) of the two revolutionary generals who raised the Philippine Flag, for the frist time in public since the Japanese Occupation, during the ceremony held in Manila. After the war, of course, he was arrested by the American MPs and was incarcerated until he was given amnesty.

Although he did not took part actively in the military or any paramilitary fields he took an important part in the war (for the occupational forces).

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Re: Profiles of Filipino Generals in WW II

Post by Gen_Del_Pilar » 16 Jan 2007 01:55

Some excellent info Baron. Out of curiosity, did the Americans ever catch up with Ricarte again before his death in July 1945 (which I presume was of natural causes)?
Baron.waffen wrote:General Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader.He served as the First President of the Republic of the Philippines during the Spanish-American War and served with the Japanese in World War II
Just to expand on this (for those that don't know why Aguinaldo would have "served with the Japanese in World War II"): after the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, hostilities broke out between the Philippine army, led of course by President Aguinaldo, and their former allies the Americans. Aguinaldo fought the American occupation forces from 1899 until his capture in 1901.

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Post by Lornito Uriarte Mahinay Jr. » 18 Jan 2007 07:20

It may be because General Aguinaldo wants to protect the Filipino people from the severe Japanese Administration as what the others do during the Japanese occupation such as Brigadier Generals Manuel A. Roxas, Mateo Capinpin, and Major General Paulino Santos.

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Post by Lornito Uriarte Mahinay Jr. » 24 Jan 2007 02:57

I have difficulties in knowing the death of Major General Jose Delos Reyes. One version states that he was murdered. The question is who killed him and when that happens. Can anyone help me?

I hope my friends in the Philippines or from the other countries might help me.

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Post by Lornito Uriarte Mahinay Jr. » 08 Feb 2007 19:59

One article mentined that he was killed by the Japanese but I don't know the exact date.

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