Gonullu Sistemi

Discussions on the final era of the Ottoman Empire, from the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 until the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
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Peter H
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Gonullu Sistemi

Post by Peter H » 29 Apr 2007 02:17

The volunteer system that recruited foreign Muslims into Turkish service.

Used more in the Balkan wars than in WW1.

How many Muslim volunteer groups existed?

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 29 Apr 2007 12:25

Bulgarian Muslims among Volunteers in the Sinai 1915:

http://content.cdlib.org/xtf/view?docId ... and=eschol
Cemal had organized the expedition as a contrived manifestation of Ottoman-Islamic unity, with the participation of separate units of 200 to 300 troops each from the Druze (led by Shakib Arslan), the Kurds (led by senator ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Yusuf), the Circassians, Libyan resistance fighters, and Bulgarian Muslims in a military force named Halaskâr Mısır Ordu-yu İslamiyesi (The Savior Islamic Army of Egypt).

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infantry
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Post by infantry » 04 May 2007 21:43

As far as I know there were basically two groups; Muslims recruited from Balkan region and from Muslim POWs.

When the Ottoman administration decided to send units to support Austro-Hungarians and later on Bulgarians -of course with the enforcement of German General Staff- initially no body think about how to fill the places of the fallen. According to the Ottoman WW1 recruitment system units would get their replacements not from the their original province but from the nearest available depot units. But the units in non-ottoman theatres had no chance of getting support from the depot units. So the Austro-Hungarian Staff decided to give Ottoman recruiters to recruit Muslims from the occupied Serbian territory later on unwilling they gave permission for recruitment in Austro-Hungarian territories also. Same thing happened with the Bulgarians also. For example 177th Regimental group recruited Muslims not only in Serbian Macedonia but also from the Bulgarian one also. But overall we are talking about less than 5,000 recruits.

Recruiting the Muslim POWs was -most probably- a German idea which was happily accepted by the Ottoman general staff. Specially employed religious figures played important role to convince Muslim POWs to fight against their colonial masters. Some groups were more prone to defection others not so willing. No concrete figure available and we have lots of sagas.

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 05 May 2007 04:16

Thanks for the interesting information.

Regards
Peter

Tosun Saral
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Post by Tosun Saral » 07 Jun 2007 09:07

The book of History Department of the Turkish General Staff "Birinci Dunya Harbinde Turk Harbi, IV ncu cilt 1 nci kisim, Sina- Filitin Cephesi, Harbin Basindan Ikinci Gazze Muharebeleri Sonuna Kadar" (Turkish War during WW1, vol IV 1st Cgapter, Sina Palastine Front From the beginning of thge war till end of 2md Gazze battles) .p.174, Ankara 1979

"Gonullu Sistemi (volunteer System)

Especially thinking the religious and political influences the following volunteer system was organized to improve the strenght of the Expedition Force.(file in archiv)
Circassian Cav. Reg. 200 men
Kurdish Cav. company 200 men
Trablusgarb Volunteer Detachment 200 men
Sekip Arslan Detachment from Cebelilubnan Druzes 150 men
Nurettin Volunteer Detachment including verious volunteers and mucahidin 270 men

Kurdish Cav. company, Sekip Arslan and Nurettin Detachments were attached to the order of Hicaz Expedition Forces.

TS's NOTA: On the other hand there are no Bulgarian muslims but Muslim Turks of Bulgaria.

File in archiv of History Dept.:As.T. ve Str. E. BSK. Ars. 4/7302 Kls.3221 Dos. H-9A Fih.1-4

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Post by dibo » 07 Jun 2007 11:34

Tosun Saral wrote: TS's NOTA: On the other hand there are no Bulgarian muslims but Muslim Turks of Bulgaria.
:roll:

There are Bulgarian muslims and they are called Pomaks:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomaks

"Muslim turks of Bulgaria" are different - these are Turks that remain in Bulgaria after 1878.

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Post by Tosun Saral » 07 Jun 2007 15:19

My Friend dibo, My Dear Komschu/neighbour,
Please Ask your Pomaks and Cypsies weather they feel themselves as Turks or Bulgars? I am very willlingly waiting your answer.

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Post by dibo » 07 Jun 2007 19:58

There are many theories about these people and I think Wikipedia's article has fairly balanced sources to explain each. What I object is branding them as Turks so easily. They are indeed Muslims, but this is not enough IMHO to qualify them as Turks.

Anyway this is offtopic...

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Post by Nikolay » 09 Jun 2007 17:05

These people are called Pomaks precisely because they don't consider themselves Turks. Unlike some neighbouring countries in Bulgaria you are considered what you consider yourself to be. Even if you don't know Turkish, but still claim to be Turk- you are considered Turk. I have met and I have asked many Pomaks in Bulgaria how they consider themselves- answers vary - "Bulgarians", "Muslims", 'Muslim-Bulgarians", but not Turks. They speak Bulgarian as their mother tonque and most of them don't even speak Turkish.

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Post by Tosun Saral » 10 Jun 2007 19:56

Dear Nikolay, Thanks Got it is normal again.

The friendship will rule. It is the rule of Universe.

Tosun Saral
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Post by Tosun Saral » 10 Jun 2007 20:08

Es-Seyid Serif Ahmet es-Sunusi dear friend of Turks

Arap Scheik Nurettin Bey (Pasha) dear friend of Turks

Seyid Idris of Trablusgarb in adjutand of Sultan's uniform.

source Harb Mecmuası, p.135, issue:2005
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Post by Tosun Saral » 10 Jun 2007 20:12

Volunteers/Gonullu of Trablusgarb.
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