Slaughter of Polish professors in Lwow/Lemberg - 1941

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Somosierra
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Slaughter of Polish professors in Lwow/Lemberg - 1941

Post by Somosierra » 05 Mar 2003 22:55

In September 1939, Hitler's Nazi-German armies have attacked Poland from the West and the Stalin's Soviet Russian armies have attacked from the East. Thus, the Germans and Russians, who became allies after signing a secret pact in August 1939, have partitioned Poland, 49 to 51%.

Between September 1939 and June 1941, the fate of Polish citizens and University Professors could be summarized as follows:

(I) The German-occupied 49% of Poland, was subdivided into the German (Reich) and not-German (General Gouvernement) areas, Polish population was brutally sorted between this areas, concentration Camps were established, mainly for Poles, and the Polish intellectuals were selected to be first of those systematically liquidated. The University professors in Cracow were arrested on November 6, 1939 and interned in concentration camps, where many of them died.

(II) In the Soviet- occupied Poland, which included the Polish city of Lwów, horrendous, but unpunished, crimes against humanity were committed by the Soviets and their henchmen during these 22 months. About 20 000 Polish 'reserve' officers, including many university graduates and faculty, were immediately arrested and systematically murdered ("Katyn massacre" in Spring 1940). In addition, various classes of population, predominantly Polish intellectuals, were systematically arrested and deported to Siberia [husbands to the North, and wives and children to the South, mainly to the wilderness of Kazakhstan]. Over one million of Poles (of Catholic and Judaic background) were deported under totally inhuman conditions, and high proportion of them has perished, manly of hunger and diseases. In addition to those murdered by Soviets in Katyn, individual University Professors were arrested, some executed and some deported.

In June 1941, Hitler betrayed and attacked his faithful Soviet ally. At the beginning ot this campaign, Soviet troops were defeated, and Lwów together w the rest of Soviet-occupied eastern half of Poland fell into Nazi's hands. Then within about a week the horrible mass murder of Lwów University Professors took place, while the Nazi-Soviet war raged to the east of Lwów. The Lwów institutions of higher learning, including the University of Jan Kazimierz (UJK), the Lwów Institute of Technology (Politechnika Lwowska), Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Academy of Foreign Trade have lost nearly 50 of their Faculty members including members of their families, both wives and children. The circumstances and history of this abominable massacre or slaughter are described below by Zygmunt Albert, in the book "Kazn Profesorow Lwowskich" (Murder of the Lwowian Professors).

Several of the murdered Professors were closely connected, personally and/or professionally, with Waclaw Szybalski. Professor Franciszek Groër was his pediatrician and his daughter was his friend. Professors Jerzy Grzedzielski, and Roman Rencki, were his grand mother's physicians. Professor Henryk Hilarowicz, was family surgeon. Professors Stanislaw Pilat (chemistry), Kazimierz Bartel (descriptive geometry) and Wlodzimierz Stozek (mathematics) were his beloved teachers at Politechnika Lwowska. Professor Antoni Lomnicki (mathematics) was the father of his girlfriend, Ewa Lomnicka, and they both visited World Fair in Paris in 1937 and Italy in 1938. Prof. Cieszynski was his mother's dentist; he and his wife, Roza, were ther family friends and his three children were Waclaw's close childhood friends and colleagues. Also the children o Professor Roman Longchamps de Bérier were Waclaw's close childhood friends and colleagues, participating in many teenage or student dancing home parties.
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MORE ON: http://www.lwow.home.pl/Lwow_profs.html
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Regards.

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Post by Somosierra » 06 Mar 2003 00:55

Persons murdered on 4th July 1941 in the Wulecka-Hills dell

Prof. Dr Antoni Cieszynski, age 59 Chairman of Stomatology, UJK
Prof. Dr Wladyslaw Dobrzaniecki, age 44, head of Surgery, PSP
Prof. Dr Jan Grek, age 66, , Chairman of. Internal Diseases, UJK
Maria Grekowa, age 57, wife of prof. Grek
Doc. Dr Jerzy Grzedzielski, age 40, Chairman of Ophtalmology UJK
Prof. Dr Edward Hamerski, age 43, Chairman of Internal Diseases, AWL
Prof. Dr Henryk Hilarowicz, age 51, Chairman of Surgery, UJK
Priest Dr teol. Wladyslaw Komornicki, age 29, relative of Mrs Ostrowska
Eugeniusz Kostecki, age 36, husband of prof. Dobrzaniecki's housekeeper
Prof. Dr Wlodzimierz Krukowski, age 53, Chairman of Electrical Measurements, PL
Prof. Dr Roman Longchamps de Berier., age 59 Chairman of Civil Law, UJK
Bronislaw Longchamps de Berier, age 25, PL-graduate, son of professor
Zygmunt Longchamps de Berier, age 23, PL-graduate, son of professor
Kazimierz Longchamps de Berier, age 18, Secondary school-graduate, son of professor
Prof. Dr Antoni Lomnicki, age 60, Chairman of Mathematics, PL
Adam Miesowicz, age 19, Highschool graduate, grandson of professor Solowij
Prof. Dr Witold Nowicki, age 63, Chairman of Pathological Anatomy, UJK
Dr med. Jerzy Nowicki, age 27 , senior assistant of the Chair Hygiene, UJK, son of professor
Prof. Dr Tadeusz Ostrowski, age 60, Chairman of Surgery , UJK
Jadwiga Ostrowska, age 59, wife of prof. Ostrowski
Prof. Dr Stanislaw Pilat, age 60, Chairman of Petrol and Earth-Gas Technology ,PL
Prof. Dr Stanislaw Progulski, age 67, Chairman of Pediatrics UJK
Ing. Andrzej Progulski, age 29, son of professor
Prof. Dr Roman Rencki, age 67, Chairman of Internal Diseases, UJK
Dr med. Stanislaw Ruff, age 69, , Chairman of Surgery, Jewish Hospital taken from prof. Ostrowski's flat with his family
Anna Ruffowa, age 55, wife of dr Ruff
Ing. Adam Ruff, age 30, son of dr Ruff
Prof. Dr Wlodzimierz Sieradzki, age 70, Chairman of Forensic Medicine, UJK
Prof. Dr Adam Solowij, age 82, ret, Chairman of Obsterics and Gynaecology, PSP
Prof. Dr Wlodzimierz Stozek, age 57, , Chairman of Mathematics PL
Ing. Eustachy Stozek, age 29, ass. PL, son of professor
Emanuel Stozek, age 24, PL-graduate, son of professor
Dr iur. Tadeusz Tapkowski, age 44, taken from professor Dobrzaniecki's flat
Prof. Dr Kazimierz Vetulani, age 52, Chairman of Theoretical Mechanics PL
Prof. Dr Kacper Weigel, age 61, , Chairman of Measurements PL
Mgr iur. Jozef Weigel, age 33, son of professor
Prof. Dr Roman Witkiewicz, age 61, Chairman of Mechanical Measurements PL
Prof. Dr Tadeusz Boy-Zelenski, age 66, writer, Chairman of French Literature at the University, arrested in prof. Grek's flat

Persons murdered on 4th July 1941 in the courtyard of the hostel of Abramowicze:

Katarzyna Demko, age 34, teacher of English, taken from apartment of Prof. Ostrowski
Doc. Dr Stanislaw Maczewski, age 49, Chairman of Obsterics and Gynaecology, PSP
Maria Reymanowa, age 40, nurse taken from apartment of Prof. Ostrowski
Wolisch, age 40-45, businessman taken from prof. Sieradzki's flat

Persons murdered on 12th July 1941:

Prof. Dr Henryk Korowicz, age 53, Chairman of Economics, AHZ
Prof. Dr Stanislaw Ruziewicz, age 53, Chairman of Mathematics, AHZ

Person murdered in prison on 26th July 1941:

Prof. Dr Kazimierz Bartel, age 59, Chairman of Design Geometry, PL, former prime minister of Polish Republic (three terms of office), who has been arrested already on 2nd July 1941,

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Post by Benoit Douville » 06 Mar 2003 02:57

Somosierra,

I really enjoy your post here on the Holocaust & Warcrimes section. Keep them coming.

Best Regards

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Post by Somosierra » 06 Mar 2003 18:23

I am glad you have founded it interesting.

The Polish history is so gallant and so unknown… I do believe it is because for many people it is quite “unpleasant”…

Regards,
Somosierra.

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Post by Davey Boy » 07 Mar 2003 00:26

Somosierra wrote:Persons murdered on 4th July 1941 in the Wulecka-Hills dell

Prof. Dr Antoni Cieszynski, age 59 Chairman of Stomatology, UJK
Prof. Dr Wladyslaw Dobrzaniecki, age 44, head of Surgery, PSP
Prof. Dr Jan Grek, age 66, , Chairman of. Internal Diseases, UJK
Maria Grekowa, age 57, wife of prof. Grek
Doc. Dr Jerzy Grzedzielski, age 40, Chairman of Ophtalmology UJK
Prof. Dr Edward Hamerski, age 43, Chairman of Internal Diseases, AWL
Prof. Dr Henryk Hilarowicz, age 51, Chairman of Surgery, UJK
Priest Dr teol. Wladyslaw Komornicki, age 29, relative of Mrs Ostrowska
Eugeniusz Kostecki, age 36, husband of prof. Dobrzaniecki's housekeeper
Prof. Dr Wlodzimierz Krukowski, age 53, Chairman of Electrical Measurements, PL
Prof. Dr Roman Longchamps de Berier., age 59 Chairman of Civil Law, UJK
Bronislaw Longchamps de Berier, age 25, PL-graduate, son of professor
Zygmunt Longchamps de Berier, age 23, PL-graduate, son of professor
Kazimierz Longchamps de Berier, age 18, Secondary school-graduate, son of professor
Prof. Dr Antoni Lomnicki, age 60, Chairman of Mathematics, PL
Adam Miesowicz, age 19, Highschool graduate, grandson of professor Solowij
Prof. Dr Witold Nowicki, age 63, Chairman of Pathological Anatomy, UJK
Dr med. Jerzy Nowicki, age 27 , senior assistant of the Chair Hygiene, UJK, son of professor
Prof. Dr Tadeusz Ostrowski, age 60, Chairman of Surgery , UJK
Jadwiga Ostrowska, age 59, wife of prof. Ostrowski
Prof. Dr Stanislaw Pilat, age 60, Chairman of Petrol and Earth-Gas Technology ,PL
Prof. Dr Stanislaw Progulski, age 67, Chairman of Pediatrics UJK
Ing. Andrzej Progulski, age 29, son of professor
Prof. Dr Roman Rencki, age 67, Chairman of Internal Diseases, UJK
Dr med. Stanislaw Ruff, age 69, , Chairman of Surgery, Jewish Hospital taken from prof. Ostrowski's flat with his family
Anna Ruffowa, age 55, wife of dr Ruff
Ing. Adam Ruff, age 30, son of dr Ruff
Prof. Dr Wlodzimierz Sieradzki, age 70, Chairman of Forensic Medicine, UJK
Prof. Dr Adam Solowij, age 82, ret, Chairman of Obsterics and Gynaecology, PSP
Prof. Dr Wlodzimierz Stozek, age 57, , Chairman of Mathematics PL
Ing. Eustachy Stozek, age 29, ass. PL, son of professor
Emanuel Stozek, age 24, PL-graduate, son of professor
Dr iur. Tadeusz Tapkowski, age 44, taken from professor Dobrzaniecki's flat
Prof. Dr Kazimierz Vetulani, age 52, Chairman of Theoretical Mechanics PL
Prof. Dr Kacper Weigel, age 61, , Chairman of Measurements PL
Mgr iur. Jozef Weigel, age 33, son of professor
Prof. Dr Roman Witkiewicz, age 61, Chairman of Mechanical Measurements PL
Prof. Dr Tadeusz Boy-Zelenski, age 66, writer, Chairman of French Literature at the University, arrested in prof. Grek's flat

Persons murdered on 4th July 1941 in the courtyard of the hostel of Abramowicze:

Katarzyna Demko, age 34, teacher of English, taken from apartment of Prof. Ostrowski
Doc. Dr Stanislaw Maczewski, age 49, Chairman of Obsterics and Gynaecology, PSP
Maria Reymanowa, age 40, nurse taken from apartment of Prof. Ostrowski
Wolisch, age 40-45, businessman taken from prof. Sieradzki's flat

Persons murdered on 12th July 1941:

Prof. Dr Henryk Korowicz, age 53, Chairman of Economics, AHZ
Prof. Dr Stanislaw Ruziewicz, age 53, Chairman of Mathematics, AHZ

Person murdered in prison on 26th July 1941:

Prof. Dr Kazimierz Bartel, age 59, Chairman of Design Geometry, PL, former prime minister of Polish Republic (three terms of office), who has been arrested already on 2nd July 1941,




Probably all members of Endencja. Pffff.

Hey Mills?

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Post by michael mills » 07 Mar 2003 14:48

There is an obvious contradiction in what Somosierra wrote.

He tells us that during the period of Soviet occupation 1939-1941, Polish intellectuals were deported to Siberia.

Then he tells us that when the German forces entered Lwow in June 1941, the Polish faculty of the university was still there, avaialble to be liquidated. But those were precisely the people that the previous Soviet occupiers would have deported.

This story has all the hallmarks of a Soviet purge of members of the Polish intelligentsia in the territories occupied in 1939, later blamed on the Germans.

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Roberto
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Post by Roberto » 07 Mar 2003 15:02

michael mills wrote:There is an obvious contradiction in what Somosierra wrote.

He tells us that during the period of Soviet occupation 1939-1941, Polish intellectuals were deported to Siberia.

Then he tells us that when the German forces entered Lwow in June 1941, the Polish faculty of the university was still there, avaialble to be liquidated. But those were precisely the people that the previous Soviet occupiers would have deported.


I bet Mills can show us that those very professors Somosierra mentioned by name had been deported to Siberia.

michael mills wrote:This story has all the hallmarks of a Soviet purge of members of the Polish intelligentsia in the territories occupied in 1939, later blamed on the Germans.


Why, that sounds as if framing the Germans with their own purges of the Polish intelligentsia, or other crimes against Poles, had been standard Soviet practice.

Yet the only documented case where such occurred are the Katyn killings, for all I know.

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Post by Davey Boy » 08 Mar 2003 02:59

michael mills wrote:There is an obvious contradiction in what Somosierra wrote.

He tells us that during the period of Soviet occupation 1939-1941, Polish intellectuals were deported to Siberia.

Then he tells us that when the German forces entered Lwow in June 1941, the Polish faculty of the university was still there, avaialble to be liquidated. But those were precisely the people that the previous Soviet occupiers would have deported.

This story has all the hallmarks of a Soviet purge of members of the Polish intelligentsia in the territories occupied in 1939, later blamed on the Germans.




Let's not get too wound up about contradictions in Somosierra's posts.

The fact is that those people were shot by the Germans. That's well documented. There were witnesses, and even people who somehow escaped the executions. Last year, some of them went back to Lwow to pay their respects to their former colleagues.

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Post by michael mills » 09 Mar 2003 12:09

The fact is that those people were shot by the Germans. That's well documented. There were witnesses, and even people who somehow escaped the executions. Last year, some of them went back to Lwow to pay their respects to their former colleagues.


Well, let's see the documentation. So far all we have is a list of names.

If the individuals concerned were not deported by the Soviet occupiers, as was the fate of most of the Polish ruling class in the areas of Poland occupied by the Soviet Union, then explain why.

Did those individuals, unlike those who were deported, collaborate with the Soviet occupiers? If so, that might explain why the German forces executed them (if indeed they were executed by the Germans).

Since Somosierra has made the allegation that these people were executed by German forces, he should provide all the background.

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Post by Marcus » 09 Mar 2003 12:28

Michael,

Please indicate whom you are quoting, it makes the discussions easier to follow, thanks.

michael mills wrote:text

Code: Select all

[quote="michael mills"]text[/quote]


/Marcus

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Post by Somosierra » 09 Mar 2003 12:30

michael mills wrote:
The fact is that those people were shot by the Germans. That's well documented. There were witnesses, and even people who somehow escaped the executions. Last year, some of them went back to Lwow to pay their respects to their former colleagues.


Well, let's see the documentation. So far all we have is a list of names.

If the individuals concerned were not deported by the Soviet occupiers, as was the fate of most of the Polish ruling class in the areas of Poland occupied by the Soviet Union, then explain why.

Did those individuals, unlike those who were deported, collaborate with the Soviet occupiers? If so, that might explain why the German forces executed them (if indeed they were executed by the Germans).

Since Somosierra has made the allegation that these people were executed by German forces, he should provide all the background.



I am getting tired of your posts Mr. michael mills…

I am not going to correct your question marks or just lies… Maybe we have to ask those slaughter professors – are they really murdered!?!

I must also add that you sound very familiar, so please be thankful to Poles and Poland for saving members of family and maybe you, also – you are not an Aborigine, aren’t you?

Somosierra.

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Post by Davey Boy » 09 Mar 2003 12:45

Mills,

Why don't you read the original link provided above...

http://www.lwow.com.pl/Lwow_profs.html

It's a very detailed account based on the book "Kazn Profesorow Lwowskich". The information comes from many sources, and, to my knowledge, no one in Poland has ever questioned its accuracy. I don't see why the Soviets wouldn't be blamed if they indeed perpetrated the crimes. But they didn't, as the surviving relatives and friends of those murdered know.

Also, there is no evidence or even suspicion that the murdered professors collaborated in any way with the Soviets. If you have such evidence, then many people in Poland would be very interested in examining it. The Soviets simply didn't get around to deporting these people, or maybe they didn't see them as an immediate threat. Which, of course, means that the Soviets weren't as thorough as the Nazis in neutralizing the Polish nation. Here's a quote from the above link...

While attempting to destroy Poles as ideologically hostile nation, they resolved to dispose not only of the Jews and communist leaders, but selected already prior to starting WWII many the other Polish intellectuals, some of which in 1939 - 1941 already died or were deported by Soviets to Siberia.



Now, if you are going to make any claims against the aforementioned source, "Kazn Profesorow Lwowskich", then produce it. But if you don't have anything, then just accept that the Germans went on a killing spree in Lwow, as they did in many other parts of Poland. And in the vast majority of cases, their victims weren't members of Endencja... 8O

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Post by Davey Boy » 09 Mar 2003 12:49

Mills,

Also, if you have any lingering doubts, then I suggest you contact the "League of Descendants of Lvov's Professors Murdered by Gestapo in July 1941".

They can be found at the Wroclaw University.


So, there goes your fantasy about the Germans helping Poles in the south east. LOL

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Post by David Thompson » 09 Mar 2003 16:10

Please avoid personal hostility in posts.

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Post by michael mills » 10 Mar 2003 02:13

It appears from the material on the link provided (which has the flavour of an extreme Polish nationalist source) that the German security police regarded the Polish academics executed as collaborators with the former Soviet occupiers.

That was certainly the case with the former Polish prime minister, Bartel, who was being wooed by both the Soviets and the British-backed Polish Government-in-Exile as a possible leader of an anti-German Polish resistance movement to be based in the Soviet-occupied areas of Poland.

In that regard, I recall that the late Dr Joachim Hoffmann, in his "Stalin's War of Extermination", found evidence that, before the German invasion, the Soviet Government had begun to recruit ethnic Poles for all-Polish units of the Red Army. That suggests that Stalin had changed his policy towards the Polish minority in the area annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939 from one of repression to one of turning it into an ally against Germany in the conflict that was clearly coming. Soviet dealings with former Polish prime minister Bartel probably formed part of that endeavour.

It is possible that Germany had found out about the Soviet moves in regard to the Polish minority (the Ukrainian nationalist underground would have been a likely source), and set out to nip any pro-Soviet activity in the bud.

There is a number of indications that the executed academics may have been collaborating with the Soviet authorities.

1. They were not deported in 1940 or 1941, in one of the waves of deportations by which the Soviet occupiers set out to destroy the former Polish ruling class in the region. As members of the intelligentsia, the executed academics would certainly have been seen as part of that ruling class (particularly former Prime Minister Bartel), and the fact that they were not deported suggests that they had made some sort of accommodation with the Soviet regime. Perhaps they were part of the Soviet plan to set up a Polish anti-German movement in East Galicia, as a base for subverting German rule in the Generalgouvernement.

2. They had not taken the opportunity to move west to the German zone of occupation in the last months of 1939, under the population-exchange agreements in place at that time. One of the arrested academics, Groer, was specifically accused of that. (According to the information in the link, Groer survived, indicating that he probably made a deal with the Germans, despite the denials on the link).

Under the population exchanges agreed between Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939, ethnic Ukrainians and Belorussians west of the demarcation line could move into the Soviet Occupation Zone, and ethnic Poles and Germans east of the line could move into the German Occupation Zone. Movements under the agreement were quite substantial; for example, some 300,000 Jews from West Poland moved to the Soviet Zone (the German even encouraged the Jews to claim to be "Ukrainians of Mosaic religion", in order to be eligible for transfer).

Ethnic Poles also moved west into the Generalgouvernment. These were mainly landowners and others who had been expropriated by the Soviet occupation regime. After the German invasion in 1941, many of them returned to their former homes, so Gerlach tells us in "Kalkulierte Morde", and collaborated with the Germans as managers of their former properties.

It was not until the population exchanges were completed that the Soviet authorities began the deportation, in February 1940, of the members of the Polish ruling class that had remained in the Soviet Occupation Zone, and was still anti-Soviet. At a later date, the 300,000 Jewish refugees from West Poland were also evacuated to Central Asia (most were settled in Tashkent); the reason for that is not clear, and may have been connected with Soviet preparations for the coming war with Germany.

3. The arrested academics and their families had a considerable store of valuables that was confiscated by the German security police. One wonders why those valuables had not been previously seized by the Soviet authorities, as part of the general expropriation of the Polish ruling class that was carried. It may be that the persons concerned had been allowed to keep their personal property in return for collaborating with the Soviet authorities, either in the administration of the annexed parts of Poland, or in the setting up of a Polish anti-German movement based in East Galicia, or both.

On the basis of the above, I would suggest that the persons arrested and executed in Lwow were part of Soviet moves to subvert German rule in the Generalgouvernement in the context of the lead-up to the German-Soviet war, and had been fingered to the German authorities by the Ukrainian underground.

It is noteworthy that the Polish-Jewish historian, Jan Tomasz Gross, in his book "Revolution From Abroad", came to the conclusion that until 1941 Soviet repression of the Polish population in the Soviet-annexed areas was worse than German repression in the Generalgouvernment. That makes the survival of the Lwow academics under Soviet rule all the more suspicious.

Another noteworthy point is the fact that the quoted link also ascribes the blame for the execution of the Lwow academics to Ukrainian nationalists. Indeed, it seems to portray it as a joint German-Ukrainian operation, with the Ukrainian nationalists having the task of identifying the persosn to be arrested and executed.

It is certainly true that the Ukrainian nationalist groups, those of Bandera and Melnyk, which later formed the UPA, were anti-Polish as well as anti-Soviet. Until the Soviet occupation, they were primarily anti-Polish, driven by the harsh Polish rule over lands with a Ukrainian majority.

Ukrainain nationalist opposition to the Poles went back to 1918, when the newly independent Polish state brutally crushed the attempts of the Ukrainian majority to set up an independent state in East Galicia. In that year, the government of a collapsing Austria had granted independence to the Ukrainians of East Galicia, but the territory was invaded by the Polish army (which had arrived from France), and West Ukrainian independence was extinguished with great bloodshed. It was not until 1924 that the Entente finally recognised Polish possession of East Galicia.

Ukrainian resentment at the brutal Polish crushing of their independence fuelled the flames of anti-Polish nationalism. In 1918 the Polish Government sowed a wind; in 1941 the Lwow academics reaped the wirlwind. Whether those academics had played a role in the repression of the Ukrainian majority is not clear, but it cannot be ruled out.

By the way, although Ukrainian nationalist groups collaborated with the Germans when they first entered East Galicia in 1941, within a few weeks they were repressed by the German occupiers, who did not want any hint of Ukrainian independence. In fact, the Reichskommissar Ukraine, Erich Koch, was very anti-Ukrainian and adopted very repressive policies, contrary to the wishes of Rosenberg, his nominal superior.

Thus, it is quite unfair of Polish chauvinists, such as those who produced the quoted link, to depict the Ukrainians as equal perpetrators with the German Government. In fact, such a claim is an indicator of Polish chauvinism. Some Jewish chauvinists make the same claim.

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