# MATHEMATICS buying toothpaste the following question. â€œWhat is your favorite...

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NAME: _________________________________

DATE: __________________________

BLOCK: ___________

TEACHER: ___________________________

MATHEMATICS 9 Chapter 11

Data Analysis

Chapter 11.1 Factors Affecting Data Collection

Survey: a ___________________ or questions asked of a ___________________ of the population to gather ___________________ and/or information. Several influencing factors affect how data is collected or how responses are obtained. These include:

________________: Does the question show a preference for a specific product?

_____________________________: Is the question presented in such a way that people understand what is being asked?

________________: Does the question refer to inappropriate behaviour?

________________: Does the cost of the study outweigh the benefits?

_____________________________: Does the time the data were collected

influence the results? Is the timing of the survey appropriate?

___________________: Do people have the right to refuse to answer? Are the responses kept confidential?

_____________________________: Might the question offend people from

different cultural groups?

**Survey questions should be worded so they are free from factors influencing the response.**

Identify Factors Affecting Data Collection Example 1: Helen and Andre are reviewing the data collection methods used by a marketing company. For each situation, help them identify any influencing factors. Explain your reasoning. a) A sales representative stands in front of a display of different kinds of toothpaste. He asks every person buying toothpaste the following question. Whatis your favorite brand of toothpaste? b) Free samples of sunscreen are sent to every home in fall and winter. A mail reply card asks people if they would use the product again. c) A grocery store employee conducts a telephone survey of people living within 10 km of the store. To help determine what meat products to sell, she asks what type of red meat people prefer. d) A sales representative conducts a telephone survey. As she poses the question, a person receiving the call says, I am not interested, thank you. The sales representative responds, Why not?Yourinput providesusefulinformation.Shebeginstorepeatthesurveyquestion. e) Your school is under construction and is quite dusty and dirty. A survey is conducted about the environmental health of your school. The survey is done every four years. f) A sales representative sets up an online survey. The survey offers a free MP3 file of a song that was downloaded from the Internet to everyone who completes the survey. The company has not bought the rights to the song.

Example 2: A marketing firm displayed two sports shirts at a grades 7 to 12 school with 800 students. The first ten grade 12 students who entered the school were asked the following question. Whichoneof these two sportsshirtswouldyoubuy? A week later, the firm gave this flyer to the student council. What factors might have affected the data collected and the companysconclusions? Explain.

Write Survey Questions Free of Influencing Factors Example 3: A steel milling company conducts a survey. a) Does the survey question influence the results? Explain. b) Rewrite the question so that it is free of influencing factors.

Example 4: For each situation, explain whether the question has influencing factors. If it does, rewrite the question. a) Daniel is studying the population of polar bears in eastern Hudson Bay. He drafts the following question. Do you think the senseless slaughter of polar bears should be stopped? YES NO

b) A recent study shows that 45% of Canadians are using the Internet to shop. Amy develops the following question for a class survey. What kinds of products and services do you buy online?

Chapter 11.2 Collecting Data ____________________ - all of the individuals in the group being studied. It is not always cost effective or practical to survey everyone in a large population. Ex: the population in a federal election is all eligible voters. Ex: the population in the SRC election is all current Gr. 9, Gr. 10, and Gr. 11 students. __________________- any group of individuals selected from the population Ex: a sample of the population in a federal election might be 100 people chosen from each province or territory. Ex: a sample of the population in an SRC election might be 30 students chosen from each grade. (Gr. 9, Gr. 10, and Gr. 11.)

Types of Samples: ______________________sample- created by choosing individuals from the population who are easy to access. ____________________________ sample - created by inviting the whole population to participate. __________________ sample - created by choosing a specific number of individuals randomly from the whole population. Everyone has an equal chance of being selected. This is likely to represent the whole population. The information can be used to make predictions about the population. It can be one of two types: stratified or systematic.

____________________ sample - created by dividing the whole population into distinct groups, and then choosing the same fraction of members from each group

____________________sample - created by choosing individuals at fixed intervals from an ordered list of the whole population

Identify the Population Example 1: Identify the population for each situation. Then, state whether you would survey the population or a sample of the population. Explain your reasoning. a) A bicycle store owner wants to know which brand of mountain bike her customers prefer.

b) The school board wants to know how many hours of homework students do each day. c) A candle manufacturer wants to know how many of its candles are made with flaws. Example 2: For each scenario, identify the population. Then, indicate whether you would survey the population or a sample. Explain your reasoning. a) The Royal Garden restaurant needs to know which main dish its customers favourite. b) Stephan wants to find out if teachers in Canada prefer to wear glasses or contact lenses. c) A junior hockey team wants to find out why some people who bought season tickets last year are not buying them this year. Identify a Sample Example 3: For each situation, describe how the sample could be selected. Identify the type of sample. a) A teacher wishes to get feedback from her class about the school dance. She plans to survey 5 students out of a class of 30. b) A telephone company wants to determine whether a fitness centre would be well used by its 3000 employees. The company plans to survey 300 employees.

c) A chain store is trying to decide whether to open a store in Camrose, Alberta. The company decides to survey people in Camrose and three nearby towns. The population of each location is shown in the table. d) A marketing research company mails surveys to all of the adult residents in a town. The survey asks about brands of consumer products. The residents are asked to mail their responses in a prepaid envelope. e) A restaurant owner wants to know the favourite pizza topping of his customers. He plans to survey every customer who orders a pizza in his restaurant between 5:00 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. one evening. Example 4: For each scenario, what type of sample would you use? How would you select the sample? Amarketingfirm plans to conduct a telephone survey in a city of 800 000 people. The survey asks whether there is interest in a new art gallery. Astudentwantstoknowthemostpopular cell phone provider that grade 9 students use. Example 5: In each case, identify the type of sample. Acoachputsthenamesofallofthe basketball players into a hat and draws one name for a free basketball. Aquestionnaireissenttoeveryninth person on an alphabetical list ofastorescreditcardcustomers. Thestudent council invites all students to provide ideas for activities.

Chapter 11.3 Probability in Society

____________________ is something taken for granted as if it were true. _____________________________ does not represent the population and can make survey results inaccurate.

Examples of biased samples: Survey seniors at a fitness centre to determine overall fitness level of all seniors,

(_______________________________________________________________). Survey college students to determine young adultsfavoritemusic,

(_______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________).

SurveyaskingteengirlsWhatkindofmagazinesteensprefertoread:fashionor mechanics (____________________________________________________).

Use a Sample to Make a Prediction about the Population Example 1: Ruth wants to determine the most common eye colour of students. All grade 12 students in five of seven high schools in a city recorded their eye colour. A total of 2300 students were surveyed. The results are shown in the table.

a) From the results, predict how many of the 7200 students at the local college will have brown eyes?

b) Is your prediction reasonable? Explain why or why not.

c) Predict how many college students will have blue eyes or green eyes.

d) Can you generalize the results from the sample to the local college population? Explain.

e) What limitation might you include to make your prediction more accurate?

Avoid Making a False Prediction Example 2: Mr. Krutz gave an assignment worth 30 marks. After marking the first five papers, he was concerned that the students d