Soviet fuels

Discussions on all aspects of the USSR, from the Russian Civil War till the end of the Great Patriotic War and the war against Japan. Hosted by Art.
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Der Alte Fritz
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Soviet fuels

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 01 Jan 2017 17:15

What were the uses of these various types of fuel?
Fuels.jpg
High octane
Gasoline B-70
Gasoline HB-70
Gasoline
Naptha
Kerosine
Diesel
Aviation fuel
Avtol
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GregSingh
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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by GregSingh » 02 Jan 2017 02:55

масло = lubricant, oil
Авиамасло = aviation oil
Автол = автомобильное масло = motor/engine oil

Б = бакинский, from Baku type crude oil

I would think high octane would be an aviation fuel, but it seems 70 octane was also considered high octane and used in some types of plane's engines. 70 octane would also be used in petrol tank's engines (eg. T-70).

Naptha and Kerosine would be used rather for heating, not as fuel; eg. to start engines in low temperatures.

What is this allocation for? I am surprised with a low diesel amount. Not too many T-34 tanks! :D
If we become increasingly humble about how little we know, we may be more eager to search.

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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by Art » 02 Jan 2017 09:01

GregSingh wrote: Б = бакинский, from Baku type crude oil
I guess it stands for 'benzin' (benzine/petrol/gasoline). There were also -g and -b indexes - Grozny and Baku oil works respectively. Designation are explained down the link:
http://istorya.ru/forum/?showtopic=3993
КБ - cracking gasoline.
High octane gasoline was used by modern aircraft
(K)B-70 - obsolete aircraft (e.g. U-2) or light tanks
diesel fuel - tanks or tractors with diesel engines
ligroin/kerosene - tractors other than diesel types
automobile gasoline, lubricants - self-descriptive

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Der Alte Fritz
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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 02 Jan 2017 11:29

The reference is Сборник Материалов № 25 (Study of war experience) on the 1st Belorussian Front for the Oder Vistula Operation.
You often see references to other petroleum products in these reports such as Solidoil - which is cooking oil, so the uses are not necessarily motor relates. Kerosene is used in lamps and heaters and cookers as well as motors.
Last edited by Der Alte Fritz on 02 Jan 2017 13:09, edited 1 time in total.

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Der Alte Fritz
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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 02 Jan 2017 11:32

I am going to copy the main post off the link as they often break after a while on forums:
One of the topics raised was the issue of production of aviation fuel in the USSR during the war. It was even suggested that the Red Army pilots flew isklyuchitelno on American gasoline. In this case it was found that the information on namenklature avitsionnyh gasoline at bolshinstva panelists quite vague.

And so to begin in the USSR following items were produced aviation fuel types: B-59, B-70, B-74, B-78b, B-78g.
But not all so simple, so-called core of aviation fuel, the number corresponds to the octane number, "b" and "d" means "Grozny" and "Baku", which differ slightly in composition.

However, it is often found in documents such as this symbol: 2B-70. These designations mean the so-called "lead" gasoline derived from basic by adding anti-knock additive (ethyl zhikosti) .Ispolzovalis two main ethyl zhikosti:
P-9: Tetraethyl (TPP) - 55%, ethyl bromide - 35%, monochloronaphthalene - 10% red dye - 1.5 g. to 1 liter.
B-20: identical, but instead contains bromistogoetila dichloroethane and monochloronaphthalene. Fluid is dyed blue. It is a substitute for R-9, and is used in case of its absence.
Anti-knock properties of both fluids are identical, but predpochtitelney use P-9 as a less then polluting engine spark. Added of 1-4 cubic meters. cm. ethyl fluid per 1 kg of gasoline. Sootvesvenno in 2B-70 designation of the first number is just the number of cubic meters. cm. at petrol kilogram. Adding more than 4 cc. ethyl fluid per kilogram of gasoline is impractical because the octane number decreases dramatically increase.

Results obtained in the following items of the brand of gasoline (in parentheses rezultirueschee octane number)

B-59: 1B-59 (73), 2B-59 (78), 3B-59 (81), 4B-59 (82)
B-70: 1B- 70 (80), 2B-70 (85), 3B-70 (87), 4B-70 (88)
B-74: 1B-74 (85), 2B-74 (88), 3B-74 (90) 4B-74 (92)
B-78: 1B-78 (87), 2B-78 (92), 3B-78 (93), 4B-78 (95)

Such gasolines prepared in troops to benzostantsiyah or directly in benzozapravschike carefully mixing petrol.

Immediately clarify that the P-9 and B-20 isklyuchitelno domestic production and allies we have not delivered (this is for the fans poraskazat that such additives in the USSR was not all honey agaric is supplied from overseas).

As supplied the Allies?

Supplying gasoline B-95 and B-100 with the appropriate octane numbers. However, contrary to popular opinion, these benzinv with domestic not mix. By B-95 additive also added R-9 and B-20.

Ready-mix based on our B-70 and benzenes and isooctanes (passing under the name of light fractions of gasoline supply nomenclature)

are willing to mix following items:

A mixture №1:
60% of the B-70, 20% iso-octane and 20% neohexane.


The mixture №2:
60% B-70, 20% and 20% alkylbenzene neohexane.


The mixture №3:
60% B-70% isooctane and 32% isopentane 8.

The octane number of the mixture at about 95.


And for a snack data engines - the main consumption bezin, and in brackets the possible substitute. If you are using are not the main type of fuel imposed various restrictions (depending on engine type) the prohibition of afterburner, limit boost in turnover or capacity.

M-105PF
4B-78, Smesi1 2 and 1B-95

M-105Pa, 105RA-M, M-105
3,5B-78 Smesi1 2 and 1B-95 (4B-74)

M-103A
3,5B- 78, 1B-95 (4B-70)

M-103
3B-74, 2B-78, B-95 (4B-70)

M-100, M-100A, F-100a
2B-70

AM-38
4B-78 ( 95) (1B-95)

AM-35A
4B-78

AM 34FRNB
3B-78 (93), 4B-74, B-95

AM 34RNB, AM-34H, AM 34RN
2B-70

M-17,
B-70

M-88B, M-88
3B-78, 4b-74, B-95 (4B-70)

M-87B, F-87A, F-86
2B-78, 3B-74, B-95,

M-85
3B- 70

M-82
4 B-78

M-63
3B-78, B-95 (4B-70)

M-62
3B-74 (4B-70)

M-62IR, M-25, M-11
3B 74, 3B- 70 (4B-70)


data from the "Handbook on aircraft engines," 1943 and "A short course of aviation fuels, oils and coolants." 1942 (somehow ran through on VIF)

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Der Alte Fritz
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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 02 Jan 2017 11:37

An interesting note from a VIZh article on 1987 -01 "Technical Support of Armoured Forces in the Vistula-Oder Operation" is that they could not use captured enemy fuel dumps until they had been tested for octane rating, water contamination, type of fuel, etc which was done by the Army laborotory but took some time to find out if the fuel is usable.

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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by Art » 07 Jan 2017 09:37

GregSingh wrote:I am surprised with a low diesel amount. Not too many T-34 tanks! :D
Total army expendition from 6.41 to 5.45 was (in thousands tons):
High octane aviation fuel - 2998.4
Low octane (B-70, KB-70) - 1483.0
Gasoline (automobile) - 5750.1
Diesel fuel - 911.1
Kerosene and ligroin - 1103.9
Aviation oil - 325.7
Automobile and tractor oil - 370.7
Other oil products - 415.8
Total 13 358.7 thousand tons.
Not much tank fuel in overall expendition.

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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by GregSingh » 07 Jan 2017 12:00

Interesting... Thanks Art.
If we become increasingly humble about how little we know, we may be more eager to search.

History Learner
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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by History Learner » 30 Jan 2019 06:09

Hello Art,

Would you happen to have production figures for the Soviets in aviation fuels for the war years and in the immediate Post-War period, as well as consumption figures? Especially on High Octane fuels, if you have data that detailed.

Thanks!

Art
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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by Art » 30 Jan 2019 13:01

There are available figures from a commonly available handbook on Soviet economy in war:
Aviation gasoline production (thous. tons)
1940 - 889
1941 - 1269
1942 - 912
1943 - 1007
1944 - 1334
1945 - 1017
http://www.teatrskazka.com/Raznoe/StatS ... 04.html#t6

More detailed stats and breakdown - I don't have it right now.

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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by gomwolf » 29 Jul 2019 15:38

Art wrote:
07 Jan 2017 09:37
GregSingh wrote:I am surprised with a low diesel amount. Not too many T-34 tanks! :D
Total army expendition from 6.41 to 5.45 was (in thousands tons):
High octane aviation fuel - 2998.4
Low octane (B-70, KB-70) - 1483.0
Gasoline (automobile) - 5750.1
Diesel fuel - 911.1
Kerosene and ligroin - 1103.9
Aviation oil - 325.7
Automobile and tractor oil - 370.7
Other oil products - 415.8
Total 13 358.7 thousand tons.
Not much tank fuel in overall expendition.
Interesting figures... Could you please tell me the source of this table? I just wanna know the title of the document.

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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by Art » 29 Jul 2019 19:33

Report by lieutenant general Milovskiy "Summary of rear services activity during the Great Patriotic War" 26 June 1946

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Der Alte Fritz
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Re: Soviet fuels

Post by Der Alte Fritz » 29 Jul 2019 20:32

Very distinguished general who was Chief of Staff of the Rear to Gen Khrulev
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0 ... 0%BD%D1%8B

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