Which offices/officials were responsible for Final Solution?

Discussions on the Holocaust and 20th Century War Crimes. Note that Holocaust denial is not allowed. Hosted by David Thompson.
Debbie
Member
Posts: 38
Joined: 04 Apr 2003 01:58
Location: US

Which offices/officials were responsible for Final Solution?

Post by Debbie » 19 Jun 2003 02:32

Has anyone seen any statistics about the number of employees in the Nazi government office, especially stats on how many employees were in specific offices?

Can someone suggest a good source in English for detailed information on the Nazi govenment and its structure? I'm trying to sort out in my mind who was responsible for what (which I knew is made more difficult because of the overlapping of official duites between the various offices).

Part of what I'm trying to determine is who was untimately responsible for the "Final Solution?" Which offices? Which officials" How far down the ladder did the responsibility go?

Were all the people who attended the Wansee Conference all in a position of responsibilty for the Final Solution? In what way? Where or how did the specific offices fall into the chain of responsibility?

I would appreciate any help in sorting this all out...resource suggestions would be greatly appreciated!

Thank you in advance.

Debbie

David Thompson
Forum Staff
Posts: 23090
Joined: 20 Jul 2002 19:52
Location: USA

Post by David Thompson » 19 Jun 2003 03:53

Debbie -- Raoul Hilberg's "The Destruction of the European Jews" is probably the most useful single source of answers for the questions you raised. Once you have that overview, it's a lot easier to work your way through the primary source material.

A fair amount of primary source material is on line, but it is just a fraction of what's out there. Here's a collection of websites which may be helpful to you.

The Avalon Project of Yale University Law School has all 22 volumes of the transcripts of the International Military Tribunal (IMT) trial of the major Nazi war criminals ("the Blue set") scanned and on-line at:
http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/imt.htm#proc

The US and UK exhibits introduced at the IMT trial are contained in the 8-volume "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression" series ("the Red set"). Some small arts of those volumes have been scanned and are available on the Avalon Project Website. More scanned material from these volumes is available on the Nizkor Project Shofar archives website at:
http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/imt/ftp.py?imt//nca

I've scanned a fairly large amount of material from these volumes which is not available on either the Avalon or Nizkor sites, and posted them here in the H&WC section of the forum in .jpeg format.

Following the 1946 IMT trial, the US government held a series of trials of other war criminals at Nuernberg. These proceedings are contained in the 15 volumes of "Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Council Control Law No. 10" ("the Green set"). The first 6 volumes have been scanned by the Mazal Library, as well as 1000 pages of vol. 7, and these are available on-line at:
http://www.mazal.org/NMT-HOME.htm

The reports of the SS-RSHA "Action Groups" (Einsatzgruppen) have been scanned and are available, with much other material, on the Einsatzgruppen website at:
http://www.einsatzgruppenarchives.com/einsatz.html

Dr. S.D. Stein has a site called the Web Genocide Documentation Center which has a number of war crimes trials, including the Bergen-Belsen trial, scanned and available on-line at:
http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/trials.htm

The Nizkor Project has scanned all of the volumes of the 1961 Eichmann trial, and you can find these at:
http://nizkor.com/hweb/people/e/eichman ... ex-01.html

As you already know, the East and West German trials of Nazi war criminals are summarized on the JuNSV website at:
http://www1.jur.uva.nl/junsv/brd/Dienstdeufr.htm
http://www1.jur.uva.nl/junsv/ddr/ddrdienststfr.htm

Trials of German and Austrian war criminals held by the authorities of the Netherlands can be found at:
http://www1.jur.uva.nl/junsv/NED/NL-VerfahrenInhalt.htm

Information on Austrian war crimes trials is at:
http://www.nachkriegsjustiz.at/

There's a lot more out there than this, but hopefully these sites will give you something to work with.

Manstein
Member
Posts: 1294
Joined: 04 May 2003 06:45
Location: San Ramon, CA

Re:

Post by Manstein » 20 Jun 2003 02:06

Debbie, here are some of the principal positions and people that were involved in the "Final Solution":

The Fuehrer: Adolf Hitler

Deputy of the Fuehrer: Martin Bormann (predecessor: Rudolf Hess)

Office of the 4-year plan: Hermann Goering

Reich Chancery: Hans Heinrich Lammers

Minster of Propaganda: Paul Josef Goebbels
Minister of Justice: Otto Thierack (predecessors: Franz Schlegelberger, Franz Guertner)
Minister of the Interior: Heinrich Himmler (predecessor: Wilhelm Frick)
Minister of Finance: Luetz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk
Minister of Foreign Affairs: Joachim von Ribbentrop (predecessor: Konstantin von Neurath)
Minister of Eastern Occupied Territories: Alfred Rosenberg
Minister of Armaments and Munitions: Albert Speer (predecessor: Fritz Todt)
SS-Reichsfuehrer: Heinrich Himmler

Chief of the Order Police: Alfred Wuennenberg (predecessor: Kurt Daluege)

Reich Main Security Office chief: Ernst Kaltenbrunner (predecessor: Reinhard Heydrich)

Head of Dept. I (Personnel): Erwin Schulz (predecessor: Bruno Streckenbach)
Head of Dept. II (Legal Affairs): Haenel (predecessor: Rudolf Siegert, Werner Best)
Head of Dept. III (Security Police in Germany): Otto Ohlendorf
Head of Dept. IV (Gestapo): Heinrich Mueller
Head of Dept. V (Criminal Police): Friedrich Panzinger (predecessor: Arthur Nebe)
Head of Dept. VI (Security Police in Occupied Territories): Walter Schellenberg (predecessor: Heinz Jost)
Head of Dept. VII (Ideology): Paul Dittel (predecessor: Franz Alfred Six)

Head of Dept. IV-B-4 (Jewish affairs section of the Gestapo): Adolf Eichmann

Nazi government of Poland:

Governor-General: Hans Frank

Deputy Governor-General: Josef Buehler (predecessor: Arthur Seyss-Inquart)

Higher SS and Police Leader: Wilhelm Koppe (predecessor: Friedrich Wilhelm Krueger)

Security Police Chief: Josef Meisinger (predecessor: Karl Eberhard Schoengarth)

The Netherlands:

Reich Commissioner: Arthur Seyss-Inquart

Higher SS and Police Leader: Hanns-Albin Rauter

Security Police Chief: Karl Eberhard Schoengarth (predecessors: Erich Naumann, Wilhelm Harster)

Eichmann representative in Amsterdam: Ferdinand Hugo Aus der Fuenten

Eichmann representative in the Hague: Wilhelm Zoepf

Northern France and Belgium:

Higher SS and Police Leader: Carl Albrecht Oberg

Security Police Chief: Helmut Knochen (predecessor: Max Thomas)

Eichmann's representative: Heinz Roethke (predecessor: Theodor Dannecker)

Northern Italy:

Highest SS and Police Leader: Karl Wolff

Security Police Chief: Wilhelm Harster (predecessor: Martin Sandberger)

Austria:

Governor: Joseph Buerckel

Higher SS and Police Leader: Walter Schimana (predecessors: Rudolf Querner, Ernst Kaltenbrunner)

Eichmann's representative: Anton Brunner (predecessor: Alois Brunner)

Central Russia:

Higher SS and Police Leader: Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski

Greece:

Governor: Walter Schimana (predecessor: Juergen Stroop)

Higher SS and Police Leader: Walter Schimana (predecessor: Juergen Stroop)

Security Police Chief: Walter Blume

Eichmann's representatives: Dieter Wisliceny, Alois Brunner

Ukraine:

Reich Commissioner: Erich Koch

Highest SS and Police Leader: Hans-Adolf Pruetzmann

Slovakia:

Higher SS and Police Leader: Hermann Hoefle (predecessor: Gottlob Berger)

Security Police Chief: Josef Witiska

Eichmann's representative(s): Dieter Wisliceny, Alois Brunner

Croatia:

Higher SS and Police Leader: Konstantin Kammerhofer

Eichmann representative: Franz Abromeit (predecessor: Hermann Krumey)

Romania:

Eichmann representative: Gustav Richter

Baltic Territories (Byelorussia, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia):

Reich Commissioner: Hinirich Lohse

Higher SS and Police Leader: Friedrich Jeckeln

Security Police Chief: Eduard Strauch

Norway:

Reich Commissioner: Josef Terboven

Higher SS and Police Leader: Wilhelm Rediess (predecessor: Fritz Weitzel)

Security Police chief: Reinhard Hellmuth

Eichmann representative: Reinhard Hellmuth

Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic):

Governor: Wilhelm Frick (predecessors: Kurt Daluege, Reinhard Heydrich, Konstantin von Neurath)

Minister of State: Karl Hermann Frank

Eichmann representative: Hans Guenther

Serbia:

Nazi governor: Harald Turner

Higher SS and Police Leader: Hermann Behrends (predecessor: August Edler von Meyszner)

Security Police Chief: Wilhelm Fuchs

Hungary:

Higher SS and Police Leader: Otto Winkelmann

Eichmann representatives: Adolf Eichmann, Hermann Krumey, Otto Hunsche, Dieter Wisliceny

Denmark:

Reich Commissioner: Werner Best

Higher SS and Police Leader: Guenther Pancke

Security Police Chief: Otto Bovensiepen

Eichmann's representative: Rolf Guenther

I'll provide more later.

David Thompson
Forum Staff
Posts: 23090
Joined: 20 Jul 2002 19:52
Location: USA

Post by David Thompson » 20 Jun 2003 03:50

Manstein -- Thank you for that neatly done, concise and infomative post. Nice work!

xcalibur
Member
Posts: 1457
Joined: 20 Apr 2003 15:12
Location: Pennsylvania

Post by xcalibur » 20 Jun 2003 04:49

David Thompson wrote:Manstein -- Thank you for that neatly done, concise and infomative post. Nice work!


Indeed, well done... I would add to the list Philip Bouhler of the Chancellery, Walther Funk of the Reichsbank... and various and sundry party types: Bormann and his Gauleiter....

Debbie
Member
Posts: 38
Joined: 04 Apr 2003 01:58
Location: US

Thank you!

Post by Debbie » 20 Jun 2003 20:06

David,

Thanks so much for the references. I have been systematically working my way through the Avalon Project testimonies, but it is hard going! I am anxiously awaiting the posting of the Ministries Trial from the Green Series, but it looks like it might be a while yet.

I know I have seen Raoul Hilberg's book at the bookstores and will make sure to pick that one up.

Thanks again! This should get me started at least!

Debbie

Debbie
Member
Posts: 38
Joined: 04 Apr 2003 01:58
Location: US

Thanks again!

Post by Debbie » 20 Jun 2003 20:14

Debbie, here are some of the principal positions and people that were involved in the "Final Solution":


Thank you so much for the time and effort you took to put this fantastic listing together...it will be great outline to refer to while conducting research.

I appreciate your willingness to share your vast knowledge with the me and the others in this forum.

Manstein
Member
Posts: 1294
Joined: 04 May 2003 06:45
Location: San Ramon, CA

Re:

Post by Manstein » 25 Jun 2003 07:52

David and Debbie, you're welcome and thanks! Here's a lot of add-ons to my original list:

President of the Reichsbank: Walther Funk (predecessor: Hjalmar Schacht)
Vice-President of the Reichsbank: Emil Puhl

Deputies of the office of the 4-year plan: Paul Koerner, Erich Neumann (until 1942)

Chief of the Fuehrer Chancery: Philipp Bouhler
Deputy Chief of the Fuehrer Chancery: Viktor Brack

Interior Ministry:

Secretary of State of the Ministry of the Interior: Wilhelm Stuckart

Reich Health Leader: Karl Brandt (predecessors: Leonardo Conti, Gerhard Wagner)

Reich Minister of Economics: Walther Funk (predecessors: Hjalmar Schacht, Carl Schmitt, Alfred Hugenberg)

The Foreign Ministry:

Secretary of State of the Foreign Ministry: Gustav-Adolf Steengracht von Moyland (predecessor: Ernst von Weizsaecker)

Head of the Political Division: Ernst Woermann
Deputy Head of the Political Division: Otto von Erdmannsdorf

Head of the German Affairs section of the Foreign Ministry: Horst Wagner (predecessor: Martin Luther)

Head of the Jewish desk of the Foreign Office: Eberhard von Thadden (predecessor: Franz Rademacher)

Ambassadors:

Ambassador to the Balkans: Edmund Veesenmayer
Ambassador to Bulgaria: Adolf-Heinz Beckerle
Ambassador to Croatia: Siegfried Kasche
Ambassador to Hungary: Dietrich von Jagow
Ambassador to Italy: Rudolf Rahn (predecessor: Ulrich von Hassel (not one of the Nazi war criminals)
Ambassador to Romania: Manfred von Killinger
Ambassador to Slovakia: Hanns Elard Ludin (predecessor: Manfred von Killinger)
Ambassador to the Vichy Government: Otto Abetz

Concentration Camps:

Chief of the Economic Administration of the SS: Oswald Pohl

Deputy Chief of the Economic Administration of the SS: Georg Loerner(predecessor: August Frank)

Head of Division A (Finance and Administration): Heinz-Karl Fanslau (predecessor: August Frank)
Head of Division B (Food supply, raw materials, uniforms and equipment): Georg Loerner
Head of Division C (Construction and Maintenance): Hans Kammler
Head of Division D (Administration of the concentration camps): Richard Gluecks
Head of Division W (Economic Enterprises): Oswald Pohl

Inspector of Czech concentration camps: Walter Schmitt (also committed crimes in Flossenbuerg and Mauthausen)

Commandant of Auschwitz: Richard Baer (predecessors: Arthur Liebehenschel, Rudolf Hoess)

Commandant of Bergen-Belsen: Josef Kramer (predecessor: Adolf Haas)

Commandant of Buchenwald: Hermann Pister (predecessor: Karl Koch)

Commandant of Chelmno: Hans Bothmann (predecessor: Herbert Lange)

Commandant of Dachau: Eduard Weiter (predecessors: Martin Weiss, Hans Loritz, Theodor Eicke)

Commandant of Flossenbuerg: Max Koegel (predecessors: Egon Zill, Karl Fritzsch, Karl Kuenstler, Jacob Weiseborn)

Commandant of Gross-Rosen: Johannes Hassebroek

Commandant of Majdanek: Arthur Liebenschel (predecessors: Martin Weiss, Hermann Florstedt, Max Koegel, Karl Koch)

Commandant of Mauthausen: Franz Ziereis (predecessor: Albert Sauer)

Commandant of Natzweiler-Struthof: Friedrich Hartjenstein (predecessors: Josef Kramer, Egon Zill, Herbert Kramer)

Commandant of Neuengamme: Max Pauly (predecessor: Martin Weiss)

Commandant of Plaszow: Amon Leopold Goeth

Commandant of Ravensbruck: Johann Schwarzhueber (predecessors: Fritz Suhren, Max Koegel)

Commandant of Sachsenhausen: Fritz Suhren (predecessors: Anton Kaindl, Hans Loritz, Hermann Baranowski)

Commandant of Stutthof: Paul Werner Hoppe (predecessor: Max Pauly)

Commandant of Theresienstadt: Heinrich Joeckel

Head of the Aktion Reinhard program: Odilo Globocnik

Commander of all Aktion Reinhard camps: Christian Wirth

Commandant of Belzec: Gottlied Hering (predecessor: Christian Wirth)

Commandant of Sobibor: Franz Reichleitner (predecessors: Franz Stangl, Richard Thomalla)

Commandant of Treblinka: Kurt Franz (predecessors: Franz Stangl, Irmfred Eberl)

The Einsatzgruppens (1941-1944):

Commander of Einsatzgruppen A: Wilhelm Fuchs (predecessors: Friedrich Panzinger, Humbert Achamer-Piffrader, Heinz Jost, Franz Walter Stahlecker)

Victims: Over 363,337 people

Commander of Einsatzgruppen B: Heinz Seetzen (predecessors: Erich Ehrlinger, Horst-Alwin Boehme, Erich Naumann, Arthur Nebe)

Victims: Over 134,000 people

Commander of Einsatzgruppen C: Max Thomas (predecessor: Otto Rasch)

Victims: Over 118,341 people

Commander of Einsatzgruppen D: Walther Bierkamp (predecessor: Otto Ohlendorf)

Victims: Over 91,728 people

David Thompson
Forum Staff
Posts: 23090
Joined: 20 Jul 2002 19:52
Location: USA

Post by David Thompson » 25 Jun 2003 08:41

Excellent job, Manstein. A double thank-you.

Manstein
Member
Posts: 1294
Joined: 04 May 2003 06:45
Location: San Ramon, CA

Re:

Post by Manstein » 25 Jun 2003 19:01

A few more...

Chief of the Race and Resettlement Office: Richard Hildebrandt (predecessors: Otto Hofmann, Guenther Pancke, Richard Walter Darre)
Deputy Chief of the Race and Resettlement Office: Fritz Schwalm

Chief of the VOMI: Werner Lorenz
Deputy Chief of the VOMI: Hermann Behrends

Chief of the Main Staff Office: Ulrich Greifelt
Deputy Chief of the Main Staff Office: Rudolf Creutz

Reich Minister of Transportation: Julius Dorpmueller
Secretary of State of the Ministry of Transportation: Albert Ganzenmuller

Reich Minister of Food and Agriculture: Herbert Backe (predecessor: Richard Walter Darre)
Secretary of State of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture: Hans-Joachim Riecke

Notable Gauleiters involved in the "Final Solution":

Gauleiter of Baden: Robert Wagner (also head of the civil administration of Alsace)
Gauleiter of Berlin: Paul Josef Goebbels
Gauleiter of Carinthia: Friedrich Rainer
Gauleiter of Danzig-West Prussia: Albert Forster
Gauleiter of East Prussia: Erich Koch
Gauleiter of Hamburg: Karl Kaufmann
Gauleiter of Hessen-Nassau: Jakob Sprenger
Gauleiter of Kassel-Mainfranken: Otto Hellmuth
Gauleiter of Lower Danube: Hugo Jury
Gauleiter of Lower Silesia: Karl Hanke (predecessor: Josef Wagner (not a participant in the "Final Solution", actually a conspirator of the July Plot)
Gauleiter of Lower Styria: Siegfried Uiberreither
Gauleiter of Luxembourg: Gustav Simon
Gauleiter of Munich-Upper Bavaria: Paul Giesler (predecessor: Adolf Wagner)
Gauleiter of Pomerania: Franz Schwede-Coburg
Gauleiter of the Sudetenland: Konrad Henlein
Gauleiter of Tirol-Vorarlberg: Franz Hofer
Gauleiter of Upper Danube: August Eigruber
Gauleiter of Upper Silesia: Fritz Bracht (predecessor: Josef Wagner)
Gauleiter of Vienna: Baldur von Schirach (predecessor: Odilo Globocnik)
Gauleiter of the Warthegau: Arthur Greiser

User avatar
John W
Financial supporter
Posts: 9088
Joined: 03 Jan 2003 07:12
Location: United States of America

Post by John W » 25 Jun 2003 20:51

Jaysus! 8O Will you look at all that info! Thanks a million fellas.

A couple of questions:

1. Wasn't the Kommandant of Einsatzgruppe A, a famous Wilhelm Fuchs a member of the Heer or Waffen SS? Or am I thinking of someone else?

2. Were all these people put on trial for warcrimes?

- John

David Thompson
Forum Staff
Posts: 23090
Joined: 20 Jul 2002 19:52
Location: USA

Post by David Thompson » 25 Jun 2003 21:23

Sturm -- You asked:

(1) "Wasn't the Kommandant of Einsatzgruppe A, a famous Wilhelm Fuchs a member of the Heer or Waffen SS? Or am I thinking of someone else?"

Were you thinking about this guy?

Fuchs, Dr. Wilhelm (1.9.1898-24.1.1947) [SS-Oberfűhrer und Oberst der Polizei] -- NSDAP: 1038061; SS: 62760; acting SS and Police Commander "Latvia" (SSPF "Lettland") at Riga June 1942; acting Senior SS and Police Commander "Center" (HSSPF "Mitte") at Brunswick (Braunschweig) 8 Jul 1943-15 Sept 1943; commander, 3rd Action Command (Einsatzkommando 3) 15 Sept 1943-6 May 1944; commander, Action Group A (Einsatzgruppe A) May-Oct 1944; commander, Action Group "Serbia"/ Action Froup E (Einsatzgruppe "Serbien"/ Einsatzgruppe E) 1944; Inspector, German Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst - SD) Braunschweig; commander, Security Police and Security Service "Eastland" (BdSich. P. u.SD Ostland) (on 9 Nov 1944) {arrested and extradited to Yugoslavia; put on trial by the Supreme Military Court of Yugoslavia at Belgrade for war crimes; convicted and sentenced to death by hanging 22 Dec 1946; execution at Belgrade for war crimes reported 24 Jan 1947 by Yugoslav news agency Tanjug (NYT 23 Dec 1946:2:3; 25 Jan 1947:2:3; History of the United Nations War Crimes Commission and the Development of the Laws of War p. 531, United Nations War Crimes Commission, London: HMSO, 1948; Dienstaltersliste der Schutzstaffel der NSDAP [9 Nov 1944]).}

(2) You also asked: "Were all these people put on trial for warcrimes?"

Not all, but a lot.

User avatar
John W
Financial supporter
Posts: 9088
Joined: 03 Jan 2003 07:12
Location: United States of America

Post by John W » 25 Jun 2003 21:30

Sorry david. I'm quite sure I read that he was a miliraty commander (Commanded military formations), not Police. Perhaps I was wrong.

Thanks anyhow!

-John

Return to “Holocaust & 20th Century War Crimes”