Early JNAF Aircraft

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Early JNAF Aircraft

Post by Robert Hurst » 13 Oct 2003 14:45

Hi

Yokosuka (Yokosho) Navy Ro-go Ko-gata

During the First World War a number of Yokosho seaplane designs were created by Lieut. Chikuhei Nakajima with the assistance of Lieut. Kishichi Umakoshi, and there was much test flying associated with the improvements of these designs. Using foreign techniques, Umakoshi designed a reconnaissance seaplane with the emphasis on stability and control. The first prototype was completed in the autumn of 1917 and flight tests began in early 1918. Better performance was achieved with this aircraft than with any previous Japanese Navy aircraft.

Production began immediately at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal and four aircraft were built in 1918. Confirming acceptance as a Navy type, they were officially designated Ro-go Ko-gata. Originally powered by a 140 hp Salmson engine, the engine was soon changed to the 200 hp Salmson, followed by the 200 hp Mitsubishi-built Type Hi (Hispano-Suiza) engines which were used in production aircraft. The Ro-go Ko-gata was the first of the Japanese Navy's aircraft to be put into production. The Ro-go Ko-gata was a single-engined twin-float biplane of wooden construction, the crew of two being in open cockpits.

In April 1919 three of these aircraft were converted from two-seaters to single-seaters to increase their fuel capacity. In this configuration they made a record-breaking long-distance flight from Oppama, to Kure near Hiroshima, Chinhae (35.4 km/22 miles west of Pusan in Korea), Sasebo in western kyushu, and return to Oppama. On this flight Sub-Lieut Kanjo Akashiba set a record by flying from Sasebo to Oppama on 20 April, 1919, an indirect distance of 1,300 km (808 miles in 11 hr 35 min at an average speed of 61 kt (70.1 mph).

The manufacture of these aircraft continued at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal until 1921. In 1920 production was begun by Aichi and Nakajima, making this the first naval aircraft built by Nakajima. In November 1923, to conform with a new Navy designation system for aircraft, the official Navy designation for these aircraft was changed to Yokosho-Type Reconnaissance Seaplane.

This first mass-produced aircraft for the Navy was widely used together with the Hansa Reconnaissance Seaplane over the period 1921 to 1926.

In appreciation of his success, which began with the prototype design, Lieut. Kishichi Umakoshi was given special recognition by the Minister of the Navy, the first for an aircraft designer.

The entry into service of the Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata, with its increased speed and manoeuvrability, made the Farman pusher seaplanes then in service obsolete, and they were taken out of service. In time, a number of these aircraft were released for civil use on such duties as mail carriers. Some were in service as late as 1928.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho (Yokosuka Naval Arsenal).
Type: Single-engined reconnaissance Seaplane.
Crew (2): Pilot and observer/gunner in open cockpits.
Powerplant: (prototype) One 130-140 hp Mitsubishi-built Type Sa (Salmson M-9 ) nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, driving a two-balde wooden propeller, (pre-production) one 200 hp Mitsubishi-built Type Sa (Salmson M-7) nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller, (production) one 200-220 hp Mitsubish-built Type Hi (Hispano-Suiza E) eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, drifing a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: One rear-firing flexibly-mounted 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in dorsal cockpit.
Dimensions: Span (prototype) 15.53 m (50 ft 11 1/2 in), (Production) 15.692 m (51 ft 6 in); length (prototype) 10.172 m (33 ft 4 1/2 in), (production) 33 ft 4 in); height (prototype) 3.68m (12 ft 1 in), (production) 3.666 m (12 ft); wing area 48.22 sq m (519.052 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (prototype) 1,211 kg (2,669 lb), (production) 1,070 kg (2,358 lb); loaded (prototype) 1,676 kg (3,694 lb), (production) 1,628 kg (3,589 lb); wing loading (prototype) 34.75 kg/sq m (7.1 lb/sq ft), (production) 33.76 kg/sq m (6.9 lb?sq ft); power loading (prototype) 12.9 kg/hp (28.4 lb/hp), (production) 8.1 kg.hp (17.8 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (prototype) 75 kt (86.3 mph), (production) 84 kt (96.72 mph); climb to 500 m (1,640 ft) (prototype) in 4 min 12 sec, (production) 4 min; range (production) 420 nm (483 st miles); endurance (production) 5 hr.
Production: A total of 218 Ro-go Ko-gata were built as follows:

Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho [Yokosho] (Yokosuka Naval Arsenal:

32 - production aircraft between 1917-1921 (Type Sa and Type Hi engines).

Aichi Tokei Denki Kabushiki Kaisha:

80 - between 1920-1924 (Type Hi engine).

Nakajima Hikoki KK:

106 - between 1920-1924 (Type Hi engine).

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 14 Oct 2003 12:24

Hi

Yokosuka (Yokosho) Navy I-go Ko-gata Seaplane Trainer

As the replacement for the pusher I-go (Farman Small Model), a new design for a tractor seaplane trainer was created by chief designer Lieut. Kishichi Umakoshi in 1920. Based on experience of previous Yokosho aircraft, he adopted the staggered wing configuration used on the popular Avro 504K.

Various engines were tried including the 70 hp and 100 hp Renault, 200 hp Hispano-Suiza and the more popular 100 hp, 110 hp and 130 hp Benz engines. The twin-float arrangement with an auxiliary float beneath the rear fuselage was similar to that of the Ro-go Ko-gata which was standard equipment at that time. This was the Japanese Navy's first real seaplane trainer and was influential on the designs of this type that followed.

These seaplanes remained in operational service until around 1924 at which time many were released for civil use. As civil aircraft they were known as Chidori-go (Plover) and Nippon Koku Yuso Kenkyusho (Japan Air Transport Research Association), established in 1922 used six of them successfully for cargo and mail transport. Others were converted as civil aircraft with 160 hp Daimler engines.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho [Yokosho] (Yokosuka Naval Arsenal).
Type: Single-engined twin-float seaplane trainer.
Crew (2): Pilot and student in open cockpits.
Powerplant: 130 hp Gasuden-built Daimler F-D six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-balde wooden propeller.
Dimensions: Span 13.784 m (45 ft 2 3/4 in) length 9.755 m (32 ft); height 3.25 m (10 ft 8 in); wing area 41.1 sq m (442.411 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 873 kg (1,924 lb); loaded 1,124 kg (2,478 lb); wing loading 27.3 kg/sq m (5.6 lb/sq ft); power loading 8.64 kg/hp (19 lb/hp).
Performance: maximum speed 67 kt (77 mph) at sea level; climb to 1,000 m (3,280 ft) in 5 min; endurance 5 hr.
Production: A total of 70 aircraft were built by Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho as follows:

24 - 1920 (10 with 130 hp Benz, 10 with 70 hp Renault, 2 with 100 hp Benz and 2 with 100 hp Renault engines).
42 - 1921 (36 with 110 hp Benz and 6 with 200 hp Benz engines).
4 - 1922 (with 130 hp Benz engines).

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 15 Oct 2003 13:42

Hi

Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier-borne Fighter.

In February 1921 the Nagoya factory of Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK (Mitsubishi Internal Combustion Engine Manufacturing Co Ltd), invited the former Sopwith engineer Herbert Smith, alongwith seven other former Sopwith engineers to assist the company in setting-up an aircraft design office to help design and manufacture mlitary aircraft. The first effort of this new design team was the Navy Type 10 (the 10 signifying the 10th year of the Taisho dynasty, and the Japanese calender year 2581, A D 1921) carrier-borne fighter for the Imperial Japanese Navy.

The first prototype aircraft, designated 1MF1 first appeared in October 1921, and was of wooden construction with fabric skinning, and was powered by a 300 hp Mitsubishi-built Hispano-Suiza eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine. The aircraft was delivered to the Provisional Naval Aeronautics Institution at Kasumigaura the following month. After flight testing, the aircraft was accepted by the Navy in the following month as the first fighter of indigenous design. The second prototype, the 1MF1A, embodied a 1.21 sq m (13 sq ft) increase in wing area, the 1MF2 had two-bay wings and increased tail area. All had honeycombe type frontal radiators. These three models made-up the Type 10-1 series of aircraft

The next model to appear was the 1MF3, which discarded the frontal honeycombe radiator in favour of Lamblin-type radiators fitted beneath the centre fuselage. The last mentioned version entered series production for the Imperial Japanese Navy as the Type 10-2 Carrier Fighter. the 1MF3 was followed by the 1MF4, which differed from the former in having the cockpit moved forward, stagger reduced by forward shift of the lower wing and redesign of the vertical tail surfaces. Some of these models had a larger wing cut-out over the pilot's head for ease of egress and better visibility. The 1MF5A, also of the Type 10-2 series, had an even larger wing for use a carrier fighter trainer. This model had torpedo-shaped floats beneath the lower wing along with a jettisonable undercarriage for alighting on the water in an emergency.

In October 1921, the first flight of the Type 10 Fighter was made by William Jordan, a former Flt. Lieut. with the RNAS, who joined Mitsubishi with the Smith team. Jordan made nine take-offs from and landings on the flight deck of the IJNS Hosho (Flying Phoenix) with the new fighter in December 1923. With satisfactory tests of the aircraft completed , carrier operations were begun. The first operational flights of the Type 10 from the Hosho were made by Lieut. Shunichi Kira on 16 March, 1923. Until then Sopwith Pups and Gloster Sparrowhawks imported from Great Britain had served as the Navy's standard deck fighters; the Type 10 was the world's first fighter designed specifically for carrier operations. They served with operational units from 1923 to 1930. Some were later released for civilian use.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK (Mitsubishi Internal Combustion Engine Manufacturing Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined Carrier-borne fighter.
Crew (1): Pilot in open cockpit.
Powerplant: One 300 hp Mitsubishi built-Hispano-Suiza eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, drivng a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: Two fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns.
Dimensions: Span (1MF1 prototype) 9.296 m (30 ft 0 in), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 8.50 m (27 ft 10 1/2 in); length (1MF1 prototype) 6.706 m (22 ft), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 6.90 m (22 ft 7 1/2 in); height (1MF1 prototype) 2.946 m (9 ft 8 in), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 3.10 m (10 ft 2 in); wing area 27.68 sq m (297.954 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (1MF1 prototype) 790 kg (1.741 lb), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 940 kg (2,073 lb); loaded (1MF1 prototytpe) 1,140 kg (2,513 lb), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 1,280 kg (2,821 lb); wing loading (1MF1 protoype) 41.2 kg/sq m (8.438 lb/sq ft); power loading (1MF1 protoype) 3.8 kg/hp (8.3 lb/hp), (1MF3. Type 10-2) 4.27 kg/hp (9.4 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (1MF1 protoype) 128 kt (147 mph), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 115 kt (132 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 10 min; service ceiling (1MF3, Type 10-2) 7,000 m (22,965 ft); endurance 2 1/2 hr.
Production: A total of 128 (including protoypes) were built by Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK between October 1921 and December 1939.

The top photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe. The centre and bottom photos were taken from The Complete Book of Aircraft, by William Green and Gordon Swanborough.

Regards

Bob.
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Post by Robert Hurst » 16 Oct 2003 13:35

Hi

Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft

While the Type 10 Carrier Fighter was still under design, Mitsubishi received a non-competitive request from the Navy to design and build a carrier-borne reconnaissance aircraft, the first of this type to be built in Japan for the new aircraft-carrier, Hosho. Designed by Herbert Smith, the 2MR1 as the new design was designated by Mitsubishi, was to be a scaled-up two-seat version of his Type 10 Carrier-borne Fighter. The first prototype was completed on 12 January, 1922, and was flown for the first time by William Jordan from the airfield in front of the Nagoya factory. The success of this aircraft was immediately apparent and this led the Navy to officially adopt this new design as the Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft. Production began at once in 1922 and continued until 1930, the type serving with operational units throughout this period.

Powered by a 300 hp Mitsubishi built-Hispano-Suiza eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, the 2MR1 was two-bay two-seat equal-span biplane of wooden construction with fabric covering. It was armed with two fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns in the engine cowling and two flexible rear-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns twin-mounted for operation by the observer., and three 30 kg (66 lb) bombs.

The aircraft was produced in a number of configurations to meet certain specific needs. Of these, two basic designs evolved: the Type 10-1 (2MR1) identified those with the honeycomb radiator in front of the engine, while the Type 10-2 (2MR2) had the more pointed nose and Lamblin radiators placed in other locations. Other variations included having the pilot's seat further forward on the 2MR2 than on the 2MR1, and replacing the car-type honeycomb radiator in front of the engine with that of a Lamblin radiator beneath the fuselage. This change improved pilot visibilty. The 2MR3 had an increase in tail area, and the Lamblin radiator moved further forward. The 2MR4 was the last production version of this aircraft for carrier duty. The wingtips were more rounded, and the pilot's seat was returned to the original rearward position for better communication with the rear-seat occupant.

A later version of the Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft built around 1928 was called the Karigane-type. This had improved performance, and the Lamblin radiators were moved from beneath the fuselage to under the wings outside the propeller arc. This model also had a taller vertical tail, but with all these refinements at this late stage of development, neither the Navy nor the Army accepted the version.

Pushing the design even further, the 2MRT1 became an intermediate trainer with dual-controls fitted to the 2MR1. The 2MRT1A was as the previous model but with the horizontal tail of the 2MR2. The change from the frontal honeycomb radiator to that of the underfuselage located Lamblin-type created the 2MRT2. The rudder and vertical fin were identical to those of the later version (from the 93rd aircraft) of the 2MR2, ie larger rudder, smaller fin. The horizontal tail remained the same as that of the 2MR2. The 2MRT2A became the trainer version of the 2MR3, except that the Lamblin radiator was relocated to beneath the lower wing and the pilot's cockpit moved rearward. The wings were no longer staggered. The 2MRT3 model had the radiator of the 2MRT2 moved beneath the lower wings, and the final version, the 2MRT3A had emergency water alighting flotation bags installed inside the rear of the fuselage. External and intwernal lighting was also installed for night flying.

Until the Kusho Type 93 Intermediate Trainer, (K5Y), became operational in 1933, this converted reconnaissance aircraft was the sole intermediate trainer for the Navy. Most of them were assigned to Kasumigaura Air Base for Navy pilot training. Many were eventually released for civilian use, mostly by the press for communication, liaison and other duties.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK (Mitsubishi Internal Combustion Engine Manufacturing Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined Carrier reconnaissance aircraft.
Crew (2): Pilot and observer/gunner in open cockpits.
Powerplant: One 300 hp Mitusbishi-built Hispano-Suiza eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: two fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns and twin-mounted flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns in rear dorsal position. Bomb-load: three 30 kg (66 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span 12.039 m (39 ft 6 in); length 7.925 m (26 ft); height 2.895 m (9 ft 6 in); wing area 37.69 sq m (405.695 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 980 kg (2,160 lb); loaded 1,320 kg (2,910 lb); wing loading 35 kg/sq m (7.168 lb/sq ft); power loading 4.4 kk/hp (9.7 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 110 kt (127 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 17 min; endurance 3 1/2 hr.
Production: A total of 159 aircraft were built by Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK between 1922 and 1930.


The photo was taken from japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.
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Post by Robert Hurst » 16 Oct 2003 13:37

Hi

Mitsubishi Type 10 Carrier Torpedo Aircraft

It is interesting to note, yet confusing to some, that this and the two previously described Mitsubishi aircraft for the Navy have all been Type 10 aircraft. As a reminder, this number ten refers to the 10th year of the Taisho dynasty, 1921, the year that all these aircraft were accepted by the Navy yet differentiatated by function titles. This acceptance was before the introduction of competition between manufacturers and the contract to this single source was expected to produce acceptable aircraft.

At the request of the Navy, Herbert Smith was to design a single-seat torpedo aircraft, based upon the anticipated success of the previous fighter and reconnaissance designs. The prototype was completed on 9 August, 1922, and test flown by William Jordan at the factory airfield. In November, the first and second prototypes (designated 1MT1N and 1MT1L respectively) were test flown by Navy pilots at Kasumigaura. This brought about the acceptance of the design as the Type 10 Carrier Torpdeo Aircraft, which became the first in this category in Japan.

In order to carry the precribed payload of a torpedo as well as possessing good manoeuvrability, the Type 10 was configured as an equal-span two-bay triplane, with a wooden structure covered by fabric. A single-seat aircraft, its undercarriage was of the divided-type thus allowing for the carriage of a single 800 kg (1,764 lb) 457 mm (18 in) torpedo underneath fuselage.

The first prototype was powered by a 450 hp Napier Lion twelve-cylinder W water-cooled engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller, the second prototype was fitted with an 370 hp Lorraine engine. The Napier-engined version proved superior to the Lorraine-powered prototype during tests, and went into production and service as the Navy Type 10 Carrier Torpdeo Aircraft. However, the aircraft's performance failed to meet expectations and it was difficult to handle on the ground because of its height, although pilots liked its flying characteristics and general performance. However, production was suspended after only twenty aircraft had been built, in favour of the newer Mitsubishi-designed three-seat biplane, the Type 13 Carrier Attack Aircraft. The Type 10 Carrier Topredo Aircraft was the only triplane design for an aircraft ever to enter Japanese Navy or Army service.

One of these aircraft was converted into a seaplane by Ando Aeroplane Research Studio at Shin-Maiko beach, Chita Peninsular, Aichi Prefecture.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK (Mitsubishi Internal Combustion Engine Co Ltd).
Type Single-engined Carrier torpedo bomber.
Crew (1): Pilot in open cockpit.
Powerplant: One 450 hp Napier Lion twelve-cylinder W water-cooled engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: One 800 kg (1,764 lb) 457 mm (18 in) torpedo under the fuselage.
Dimensions: Span 13.259 m (43 ft 6 in); length 9.779 m (32 ft 1 in); height 4.457 m (14 ft 7 1/2 in); wing area 43 sq m (462.863 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,370 kg (3,020 lb); loaded 22,500 kg (5,511 lb); wing loading 36.1 kg/sq m (7.3 lb/sq ft); power loading 5.56 kg/hp (12.2 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 113 kf (130 mph), cruising speed 70 kt (81 mph); climb to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) in 13 min 30 sec; service ceiling 6,000 m (19,685 ft).
Production: A total of twenty Mitsubishi Navy Type 10s were built by Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK between 1922 and 1923.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.
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Post by Robert Hurst » 16 Oct 2003 13:57

Hi

Hiro (Hirosho) Navy Type F.5 Flying-boat.

As a result of the British Aviation Mission under the Master of Semphill, that helped to train the Japanese Naval Air Force during 1921 and 1922, approximately ten types of British aircraft were taken to Japan by sea for instructional purposes. Among these was the very advanced Felixstowe F.5 flying-boat for which the Japanese Navy intended to build for its own use. After securing the manufacturing rights, the Japanese Navy invited to Japan a team of twenty-one engineers from Shorts Brothers for that purpose. This group, under the leadership of Mr Dodds, a Shorts' engineer who arrived in Japan in April 1921, and began work at the Ordance Department of the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal where the flying-boats were to be built. The Japanese contingent under British leadership were Capts (Ordnance) Ryuzo Tanaka and Tomasu Koyama, Lieuts Kishichi Umakoshi and Misao Wada, Engineer Masasuke Hashimoto and others. The manufacture of the Felixstowe F.5 was the start of many years of flying-boat conctruction in Japan.

In addition to the licenced manufacturing rights, Short Brothers supplied partially built assemblies to complete the first six* of the F.5s, in addition to assembly tooling and instruction in the manufacturing process. These F.5s were assembled at Yokosuka Arsenal, with the first one being completed in April 1921. Since the the F.5 was already renowned throughout the world as an excellent twin-engined all-wood flying-boat, it was no surprise that those assembled in Japan had an excellent performance. When the first of them visited Tokyo, with a fly past in October 1921, there was impressed public reaction to their, then, enormous size.

Following these imported and Japanese-assembled aircraft, the flting-boat was put into full production at the Aircraft Department of the Hiro Naval Arsenal in the Kure area, beginning in October 1921. An additional forty F.5s were built by Aichi up until 1929.

The engines initially used in these aircraft were the imported Rolls-Royce Eagle, which developed 360 hp. As work devloped, the Engine Factory of the Hiro Arsenal manufactured their first licence-built Lorraine engine in August 1924.

To be concluded.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 17 Oct 2003 11:11

Hi

Navy Avro 504 Trainer

In 1921 The Master of Semphill's British Aviation Mission took thirty Avro 504 primary trainers to Japan for use by the Japanese Navy. These consisted of twenty Avro 504K landplane trainers (now designated 504L), and ten seaplane trainers (504S), both types being outstanding in their class. The Japanese Navy decided to adopt these as its standard primary trainer and put them into production.

To prepare for production, the Navy sent several of its officers to Avro to study the manufacturing process. Among them were Capts (Ordnance) Ryuzo Tanaka and Tomasu Koyama, Lieuts Kishichi Umakoshi and Misao Wada, and Engineer Katsusuke Hashimoto. The Navy purchased the manufacturing rights from A V Roe, and supplied both Nakajima and Aichi with actual sample aircraft and manufacturing drawings for their production when placing its orders. The Avro trainer was a single-engined biplane of wooden structure with fabric covering, and fitted with either a fixed wheeled undercarriage or twin-wooden floats.

The land-version was generally referred to simply as the Avro L and the seaplane model was the Avro S; However, the official Navy designation was Avro Land-based Trainer and Avro Seaplane Trainer.

After the introduction of this aircraft by the Semphill Aviation Mission, it had a long life as the Japanese Navy's standard primary trainer. The later 504N model, was developed into the Navy Type 3 Primary Trainer. Around 1927-28, a number of these Avro-designed trainers were released for civil use and were highly regarded. They had good stability and control, and were good aerobatic aircraft. A few were still flying as late as 1937 and were the last of the rotary-engined aircraft in regulkar flying operations.

Technical Data

Manufacturer:
Type: single-engined land-and seaplane primary trainer.
Crew (2): Pilot and pupil in open cockpits.
Powerplant: One 120 - 130 hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a two- or four-blade wooden propeller.
Dimensions: Span 10.98 m (36 ft); length 8.57 m (28 ft 1 1/2 in); height 3.03 m (9 ft 11 1/4 in); wing area 30.7 sq m (330.462 sq ft).
Weight: Empty 557 kg (1,228 lb); loaded 830 kg (1,830 lb); wing loading 27 kg/sq m (5.5 lb/sq ft); power loading 6.9 kg/hp (15.2 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 78 kt (90 mph); cruising speed 64 kt (73.6 mph); landing speed 30 kt (34.5 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 23 min; service ceiling 4,340 m (14,238 ft); endurance 3 hr; range 185 nm (213 miles).
Production: A total of 280 Avro land-and seaplane trainers were built as follows:

Nakajima Hikoki Seisakusho:

250 - Avro L and S versions between 1922 and 1924.

Aichi Tokei Denki Kabushiki kaisha.

30 - Avro S versions from 1922.

The photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 18 Oct 2003 11:27

Hi

Navy Type Hansa Reconnaissance Seaplane

After the First World War, the Japanese Navy received from Germany a Hansa-Brandenburg W 33 reconnaissance seaplane as part of her share of War Reparartions. By 1922, the Navy had decided to adopt this aircraft as standard equipment and placed orders for their production by Nakajima and Aichi. The original Hansa seaplane, designed by Dr. Ernst Heinkel, was considered to be very advanced structurally and have excellent performance. To make it better suited to Japanese needs, modifications were made in the Nakajima production model.

The Navy Type Hansa was a single-engined twin-float low-wing monoplane of wooden construction with fabric covered wings and tail, with a plywood covered fuselage.

The Type Hansa was adopted to replace the Yokosuka (Yokosho) Navy Type Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane. This was the Navy's first shipboard low-wing monoplane. They were easily identifiable by their unusual tail configuration, having the vertical surfaces below the tailplane.
Pilots who flew these aircraft disliked their water-handling because of poor directional control and inadequate downward visibility. They also had other shortcomings.

These were the first reconnaissance seaplanes carried to be carried on the battleship Nagato, beginning in 1926. Many remained in service until around 1927 - 1928 when they were replaced by the Yokosho and Nakajima-built Type 14 and Type 15 Reconnaissance Seaplanes.

When the Hansa became surplus to requirements the Ando Aeroplane Research Studio and Japan Air Transport Research Association converted some of them into three-five seat passenger aircraft.

Technical Data

Manufacturer:
Type: Single-engined twin-float reconnaissance seaplane.
Crew (2): Pilot and observer/gunner in open cockpits.
Powerplant: One 170 - 210 hp Mitsubishi Type Hi (Hispano-Suiza) twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: One flexible rear-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun mounted in open dorsal cockpit.
Dimensions: Span 13,57 m (44 ft 6 1/4 in); length 9.287 m (30 ft 5 1/2 in); height 2.996 m (9 ft 10 in); wing area 31.3 sq m (336.921 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,470 kg (3,240 lb); loaded 2,100 kg (4,629 lb); wing loading 67.1 kg/sq m (13.7 lb/sq ft); power loading 10.5 kg/hp (13.7 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 91 kt (104.7 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 23 min; service ceiling 4,500 m (14,763 ft).
Production: Approximately 310 Navy Type Hansa aircraft were built as follows:

Nakajima Hikoki Seisakusho:

160 - Navy Type Hansa aircraft between 1922-1925.

Aichi Tokei Denki Kabushiki Kaisha.

150 - Navy Type Hansa aircraft.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards
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Post by Marcus » 18 Oct 2003 11:28

Excellent posts as always, thanks.

/Marcus

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Post by Robert Hurst » 20 Oct 2003 14:18

Hi

Yokosuka (Yokosho) Navy Type 10 Reconnaissance Seaplane.

A new design for a high performance reconnaissance seaplane was begun in 1921 as a replacement for the Ro-go Ko-gata type. This aircraft called the 10th Year Type two-seat reconnaissance seaplane, was to be the first Japanese aircraft designed to have the very powerful 400 hp Lorraine engine. Another first in Japan was the use of long single-step floats which eliminated the need for a tail float. The design was a co-operative effort by Lieut. Misao Wada*, Sub-Lieut (Ordnance) Jun Okamura and Engineer Masasuke Hashimoto, under the leadership of Mr Fletcher, a member of a visiting Short Brothers' team from England, which in turn was under the leadership of an engineer named Dodds.

Two prototypes were completed in 1923, but these were disappointingly unusable because of excessive weight. A modified version was completed the following year, known as the Model A, but this showed only slight improvement and therefore unacceptable for Navy use. This setback temporarily suspended further work on the project. The Navy Type 10 was a single-engined twin-float biplane of wooden construction with fabric covering. The crew of two were seated in open cockpits.

By 1925, however, Lieut-Cdr Kiyosaku Shimura and Engineer Masasuke Hashimoto recognised the finer points of the design, and built another example referred to unofficially as the 10th Year Type Reconnaissance Seaplane Model B. By correcting the weight problem as well as the poor stability and control problems of the former, a satisfactory prototype emerged and several pre-production aircraft followed. This type was never officially adopted by the Navy, but the Model B was again redesigned and later developed into the Navy Type 14 Reconnaissance Seaplane, (E1Y1).

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho (Yokosuka Naval Arsenal).
Type: Single-engined twin-float reconnaissance seaplane.
Crew (2): Pilot and observer/ gunner in open cockpits.
Powerplant: One 400 hp Lorraine I twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: One flexible rear-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in open dorsal mounting.
Dimensions: Span (prototype) 16.822 m (55 ft 2 1/2 in), (Model B) 16.164 m (53 ft 0 1/4 in); length (protoype) 12.167 m (39 ft 11 in), (Model B) 11.77 m (38 ft 7 1/4 in); height (prototype) 4.244 m (13 ft 11 in), (Model B) 4.308 m (14 ft 1 1/2 in); wing area (prototype) 74.3 sq m (799. 784 sq ft), (Model B) 66 sq m (710.441 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (prototype) 1,920 kg (4,232 lb), (Model B) 1,912 kg (4,215 lb); loaded (prototype) 3,010 kg (6,636 lb), (Model B) 2,878 kg (6,344 lb); wing loading (prototype) 40.5 kg/sq m (8.3 lb/sq ft), (Model B) 43.6 kg/sq m (8.9 lb/sq ft), power loading (prototype) 7.52 kg/hp (16.5 lb/hp), (Model B) 7.19 kg/hp (15.8 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (prototype) 79 kt (91 mph), (Model B) 85 kt (97.8 mph); climb to (Model B) 2,500 m (8,202 ft) in 60 min; range (prototype) 1,125 nm (1,295 sm); endurance (prototype) 12 1/2 hr.
Production: The total number of Type 10 aircraft built by Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho were as follows:

2 - prototypes built in 1923
1 - Model A in 1924 and several Model B in 1925.

*Later Vice-Admiral Wada, Chief of the Naval Air Headquarters, by the end of the Pacific War.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 20 Oct 2003 14:26

Hi

Mitsubishi Navy Type 13 Carrier Attack Aircraft (B1M1 to 3)

Based upon experience in satisfying the needs of the Japanese Navy, Herbert Smith undertook a new design for a carrier attack bomber, reverting to the biplane configuration. The first of this type (Company designation 2MT1) was completed in 1923, and a year later was accepted as the Navy Type 13 Carrier Attack Aircraft, of which several versions were produced.

The first production version was powered by a 450 hp Napier Lion W-type water-cooled engine, and designated Type 13-1 carrier Attack Aircraft (B1M1). It was of wooden construction with fabric covering. It had a fixed wide-track undercarriage which allowed the following military load to be carried; one 800 kg (1,764 lb) 457 mm (18 in) torpedo or two 240 kg (529 lb) bombs. The aircraft had a crew of two, consisting of pilot and observer, both in open cockpits. The observer had a 7.7 mm (0.303 in Lewis machine-gun in the rear cockpit. Most aircraft also had a fixed synchronised forward-firing Vickers machine-gun operated by the pilot. All could be equipped with either wheel undercarriage or twin floats to meet different mission requirements.

Within the Type 13 Carrier Attack Series was the Model 2MT4 Ohtori (Wild Goose) Type Reconnassaince Seaplane (3 built). This was a twin-float long-range reconnassaince aircraft completed in 1925. it was evaluated by the Navy at Kasumigara along with the Nakajima-Breguet 19A.2B and the Kawasaki-Dornier Do D, but none of the three were accepted by Navy.

As an experiment the 2MT5 Tora (Tiger) Type Carrier Aircraft was fitted with the 450 hp Mitsubishi Type Hi (Hispano-Suiza) water-cooled engine instead of the Napier Lion. Completed on 4 February, 1926, it recorded a maximum speed of 122 kt () and a rate of climb of 17 min to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) during tests flights at Kagimigahara. On a closed-course distance test from Kasumigaura and return with stop-overs, Mitsubishi pilot Sumitoshi Nakao flew this aircraft 3,108 km () from 25 May to 31 May, 1926. This model became the prototype of the Type 13-2 Carrier Attack Aircraft (B1M2) although production aircraft were built as three-seaters.

the Model 3MT2 was also powered by the Type Hi engine had Farman reduction gear fitted to improve take-off and climb performance. The propeller was either a four-blade or a larger diameter two-blade unit to absorb the added power. This model was officially accepted by the Navy as the Type 13-3 Carrier Attack Aircraft (B1M3) in January 1931 and served as an all-round combat aircraft for the Japanese Navy. it was relied upon as the main strike force aircraft until the early stages of the Sino-Japanese Conflict. It was never considered inferior to its Western counterparts and was therefore highly respected within the operational units. Many remained in operational service until 1938, some having been donated as Hokuku-go aircraft.

When the Shanghai Incident broke out in January 1932 the carriers Akagi and Hosho were in Chinese waters and the Imperial Japanese Navy's 1st Air Wing deployed 32 Type 13 Carrier Attack Aircraft against targets in and around Shanghai. On 5 February, 1932 two Mitsubishi Type 13s escorted by three Nakajima Type 3 Carrier Fighters were engaged in aerial combat with some Chinese Vought Corsairs. While on 22 February, 1932, over Suchou, three Mitsubishi Type 13-3s, escorted by three Nakajima Type 3-2 (A1N2) Carrier Fighters from the Kaga were attacked by a single Chinese Boeing Model 218 (export version of the Boeing P-12E), flown by the American volunteer pilot Robert Short. The Boeing was shot down by the combined fire of the six Japanese aircraft. The unit commander Lieut Susumu Kotani, was killed and his radio-operator/gunner, was badly injured. However, Sub-Lieut Yoshiro Sakinaga flew the aircraft back to its base at Shanghai.

The top photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe. The bootom photo was taken from The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, by David Donald.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK (Mitsubishi Internal Combustion Engine Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined Carrier Attack Bomber.
Crew (2 or 3): Pilot and radio-operator/gunner in open cockpits.
Powerplant: (Type 13 -1) One 450 hp Napier Lion twelve-cylinder W water-cooled engine with reduction gearing, driving a two-blade wooden propeller, (Type 13-2) one 450 hp Mitsubishi Type Hi (Hispano-Suiza) twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled direcxt drive engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: (Type 13-1) twin rear-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns flexibly mounted in open dorsal position, (Type 13-2) two fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns and twin flexibly mounted 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns in open dorsal position. Bomb-load: One 800 kg (1,764 lb) 457 mm (18-in) Torpedo, ot two 240 kg (529 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span 14.766 m (48 ft 5 1/2 in); length (Type 13-1) 9.773 m (32 ft 1 in), (Type 13-2) 10.06 m (33 ft); height (Type 13 -1) 3.505 m (11 ft 6 in), (Type 13-2) 3.52 m (11 ft 6 1/2 in); wing area (Type 13 -1) 59 sq m (635 sq ft), (Type 13-2) 57 sq m (613.5 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (Type13-1) 1,442 kg (3,179 lb), (Type 13-2) 1,765 kg (3,891 lb); loaded (Type 13-1) 2,697 kg (5,945.7 lb), (Type 13-2) 2,850 kg (6,283 lb); wing loading (Type 13-1) 45.6 kg/sq m (9,339 lb/sq ft), (Type 13-2) 50 kg/sq m (10,241 lb/sq ft); power loading (Type 13-1) 6 kg/hp (13.227 lb/hp), (Type 13-2) 6.33 kg/hp (13.955 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (Type 13-1) 113 kt (130 mph), (Type 13-2) 105 kt (121 mph); landing speed (Type 13-2) 75 kt (86 mph); climb to (Type 13-2) 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 20 min; service ceiling (Type 13-1) 4,500 m (14,763 ft); endurance (Type 13-1) 2.6 hr, (Type 13-2) 5 hr.
Production: A total of 402 Type 13s were built as follows:

Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK as follows:

197 - 2MT1-3 (Type 13-1) from 1923.
1 - 2MT4 Ohtori - 1925
1 - 2MT5 Tora - 1926
115 - 2MT5 (Type 13 -2) from 1926
88 - 3MT2 (Type 13-3) from 1930

Hiro Kaigun Koshol as follows:

Approx 40 - Type 13-3
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Post by Robert Hurst » 23 Oct 2003 11:48

Hi

Kaibo Gikai KB Experimental Flying-boat

In September 1922, a patriotic organisation known as the Teikoku Kaibo Gikai (Imperial Maritime Defence Volunteer Association) recognised that an all-metal aircraft of the quality being demonstrated by other countries, had not been manufactured in Japan, and therefore undertook such a project. For the design they organised the All Metal Aeroplane Committee which consisted of leading authorities of the Aeronautical Research Institute of Tokyo Imperial University, the Army, and the Navy. Although this was a joint effort, the design was identified with the PMBRA since the main component the hull, was built by the Army Arsenal.

The committee was led by Dr. Sc. Aikichi Tanakadate, the other members being Narihisa Yokota who became the chief designer, Yuzo Hishida, Matsutaro Honda, Shuhei Iwamoto, Yoshitake Ueda, Haruhiko Uemura, Hisakichi Akaishi, Masayuki Hori, Fumio Murase and Kyohei Arisaki. Joining the committee at a later date were two engineers, Keikichi Satake and Jun Okamura. The basic design for what was at first called the All Metal Seaplane was undertaken at the Aeronautical Research Institute, Tokyo Imperial University. Detail design, tooling and manufacturing of components and airframe were provided by the Army Artillery Arsenal, Army Ordnance Arsenal, Tokyo. Wind-tunnel model testing, powerplant and control system installations became the responsibility of the Aeroplane Factory, Department of Ordnance, Yokosuka Naval Arsenal.

The planned performance was a operational altitude of 3,000 m (9,843 ft) with a maximum speed of 108 kt (125 mph) provided by two 200 hp engines, giving a range of more than 1,080 nm (1,250 sm). A unique feature of this parasol-wing design was that the wing was supported by two massive wide-chord outward sloping structures in place of the more normal pylon connecting the hull to the wing. This feature was later patented, along with the type of metal propellers developed as well as the all-metal metal hull. A spare hull was built for additional tests purposes.

Although the work was suspended temporarily by the severe Kanto earthquake in September 1923, the airframe was nearly completed by March 1924, with the exception of the engine installation and other systems. In July of that year, the airframe was transported to the Department of Ordnance, Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, where the engines and other systems were installed. Because of development delays with the Japanese engines which were to deliver 200 hp at 3,000 m (9,843 ft), it was decided to use two 185 hp BMW IIIa engines instead. With these installed, the KB Flying-boat (KB for Kai Bo) as it was now called, was completed in December 1924.

The Kaibo Gikai KB was a twin-engined parasol-wing monoplane flying boat with a two-step hull and sponsons. It was of all-metal construction with metal stressed skin covering apart from some fabric covering on the wings and control surfaces.

After the aircraft was donated to the Navy by the Kaibo Gikai, flying trials began at Taura Beach, Yokosuka, with Navy test pilot Lieut-Cdr Hisakichi Akaishi, at the controls. As a result of minor modifications, the aircraft showed excellent take-off and alighting performance under light load conditions. The preliminary performance in speed and range gave strong indications that the desired performance would be met at the intended operational altitude. However, on 22 March, 1926, during its seventh test flight, the aircraft was seen in a glide with both engines stopped, its gliding angle continued to steepen and it crashed into the water nearly vertical, killing all four crew members on board. The cause of the crash was attributed to a malfunction of the flight control system.

With this loss, further development of the design was ended; however tests did continue with the second hull that was built for structural analysis. Considerable experience was gained thorough the design of this aircraft and it greatly influenced the 1928 Giyu No.3 flying-boat sponsored by the Kaibo Gikai and built by Kawasaki.

Technical Data

Manufacturer:
Type: Twin-engined flying-boat.
Crew(4):
Powerplant: Two 185-230 hp BMW IIIa six-cylinder water-cooled inline engines, driving two-blade metal (Later wooden) propellers.
Dimensions: Span 21.78 m (71 ft 5 1/2 in); length 13.95 m (45 ft 9 in); height 4 m (13 ft 1 1/2 in).
Weights: Empty 2,012 kg (4,435 lb); loaded 3,086 kg (6,803 lb); power loading 6.7 kg/hp (14.7 lb/hp).
Performance: maximum speed 109 kt (125 mph); minimum speed 50 kt (58 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 15 min; service ceiling 6,500 m (21,325 ft).
Production: Only a single prototype was built in 1924.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 25 Oct 2003 09:38

Hi

Yokosuka (Yokosho) Navy Type 13 Trainer (K1Y1 and 2)

In 1924 as a replacement for the I-go Ko-gata and the Avro 504 seaplane trainers, the Navy asked for a new design, one that would have an interchangeable wheel and twin-float undercarriage. Chief designer for the project was again Masasuke Hashimoto. The first prototype was completed in 1925 and it proved to have good flying qualities and was accepted in October 1925 as standard equipment for the Navy. Production of the new aircraft was placed with the Nakajima, Kawanishi and Watanabe concerns, who together had produced about one hundred aircraft by 1935.

The K1Y1/2 was a single-engined land-based/twin-float biplane trainer, of wooden conctruction covered with fabric. It was powered by a 130 hp Gasuden-built Benz six-cylinder water-cooled engine. The Instructor and student were both housed in open cockpits.

This new Navy trainer was representative of the late Taisho to early Showa reigns (1926/27). The land version was designated Type 13 Land-based Trainer (K1Y1) and with twin-floats it was the Type 13 Seaplane Trainer (K1Y2). This design reverted to the use of a tail float, but it was the last to do so. In about 1930 many were released for civil use as trainers and general-purpose aircraft. Some surviving until the erly part of the Pacific War.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Yokosuka (Yokosho)
Type: single-engined (K1Y1) land-based, or (K1Y2) twin-float trainer.
Powerplant: One 130 hp Gasuden-built Benz Six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Dimensions: Span 10.205 m (33 ft 5 3/4 in); length (K1Y1) 7.90 m (25 ft 11 in); (K1Y2) 8.68 m (28 ft 5 3/4 in); height (K1Y1) 3.15 m (10 ft 4 in), (K1Y2) 3.47 m (11 ft 4 1/2 in); wing area 32.65 sq m (351.453 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (K1Y1) 670 kg (1,477 lb), (K1Y2) 872 kg (1,922 lb); loaded (K1Y1) 928 kg (2,046 lb); (K1Y2) 1,056 kg (2,328 lb); wing loading (K1Y1) 28.6 kg/sq m (5.85 lb/sq ft), (K1Y2) 32.3 kg (6.61 lb/sq ft); power loading (K1Y1) 7.13 kg/hp (15.7 lb/hp), (K1Y2) 8.12 kg/hp (17.9 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (K1Y1) 77.5 kt (89 mph), (K1Y2) 70 kt (80.6 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) (K1Y1) in 52 min 4 sec, (K1Y2) 42 min; endurance (K1Y2) 3 hr.
Production: A total of 104 Type 13 trainers were built as follows:

Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho:

6 - Production aircraft - 1925

Kawanishi Kokuki KK:

48 - production aircraft as Tyoe 0 - 1928-33

Nakajima Hikoki KK:

40 - prodcution aircraft - 1925

Watanabe Tekkosho KK:

10 - production aircraft - 1933-1934.

The photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 25 Oct 2003 10:01

Hi

Yokosuka (Yokosho) Navy Type 14 Reconaissanace Seaplane

After modifications made to the earlier 10th Year Type Reconnaissance Seaplane Model B, it was officially accepted by the Navy in January 1926 as the Navy Type 14 Reconnaissance Seaplane. Over several years it was devloped into three distinct models. The 400 hp Lorraine powered model was the Navy Type 14-1 Reconnaissance Seaplane, E1Y1; the Model B previously described. It was originally a two-seater, later changed to have three seats. The Navy Type 14-2 Reconnaissance Seaplane, E1Y2, was powered by a 450 hp Lorraine engine with newly designed all-metal twin-floats. This came into being in January 1926 at the same time as the E1Y1. The last of the series was the Type 14-3 Reconnaissance Seaplane, E1Y3, accepted in January 1931. In addition to its 450 hp Lorraine with four-bladed propeller, it had many refined details, particularly a newly designed tail unit. It showed a marked increase in general performance and proved to be a very practical aircraft.

In addition to these three production models there were two experimental versions. These were the Type 14-2 Reconnaissance Seaplane Model Kai-1-C and Model Kai-1-D which became the prototypes for the Navy Type 90-3 Reconnaissance Seaplane.

The E1Y2 and E1Y3 were the most successful of the so-called Yokosho Type reconnaissance seaplanes. They were the first of the long-range three-seaters for which the Japanese Navy was noted. Replacements were designed but proved unsatisfactory and as a consequence these Type 14s remained in service for many years.

Although by then obsolete, the Type 14s were very active in the Shanghai Incident, being carried aboard the seaplane tender Notoro. They remained operational up to the early stage of the Sino-Japanese Conflict together with Type 90 Reconnaissance Seaplanes. As late as 1932 when the Type 90-3 Reconnaissance Seaplanes were put into operational service, Type 14s remained onboard battleships and seaplane tenders as the main reconnaissance equipment of the fleet. They were widely usedby shore-based Kokutais and training Kokutais.

Many of these Type 14s were eventually released for civil use and converted to multi-purpose seaplanes or passenger transports from 1932 up to the early stages of the Pacific War. The most popular conversion of many of these aircraft was in making a three/four-seat cabin at the rear while leaving the pilots open cockpit unchanged. Some, however, were unmodified or only embodied small changes while others were re-engined with the 450 hp Napier Lion. The main uses for these converted aircraft were sight-seeing, advertising and aerial photography. The main user of the type was Nippon Koku Yuso Kenkyusho (Japan Air Transport Research Association) in Sakai, near osaka.

The photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Technical Data

Manufacturer:
Type: Single-engined twin-float reconnaissance seaplane.
Crew (2/3): In open cockpits.
Powerplant: One (E1Y1) 400 hp Lorraine 1 twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, one (E1Y2) 450 hp Lorraine 2 W water-cooled engine, both driving a two-blade wooden propeller, one (E1Y3) 450 hp Lorraine 3 twelve-cylinder W water-cooled geared engine, drivnig a four-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: One flexible-mounted twin 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in open dorsal cockpit. Bomb-load: two 110 kg (242 lb) or four 30 kg (66 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span (E1Y1) 13.99 m (45 ft 11 in), (E1Y2) 14.22 m (46 ft 8 in), (E1Y3) 14.232 m 46 ft 8 1/2 in); length (E1Y1) 10.91 m (35 ft 9 1/2 in), (E1Y2) 10.59 m (34 ft 9 in), (E1Y3) 10.735 m (35 ft 2 1/2 in); height 4.15 m (13 ft 7 1/2 in); wing area (E1Y1) 54.31 sq m (584.63 sq ft), (E1Y2) 54.21 sq m (583.53 sq ft), (E1Y3) 54.312 sq m (584.628 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (E1Y1) 1,660 kg (3,659 lb), (E1Y2) 1,889 kg (4,164 lb), (E1Y3) 1,930 kg (4,255 lb); loaded (E1Y1) 2,600 kg (5,732 lb), (E1Y2) 2,750 kg (6,062 lb), (E1Y3) 2,800 kg (6,172 lb); wing loading (E1Y1) 47.87 kg/sq m (9.8 lb/sq ft), (E1Y2) 50.7 kg/sq m (10.4 lb/sq ft), (E1Y3) 51.5 kg/sq m (10.5 lb/sq ft); power loading (E1Y1) 6.5 kg/hp (14.3 lb/hp), (E1Y2) 6.1 kg/hp (13.4 lb/hp), (E1Y3) 6.2 kg/hp (13.6 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (E1Y1) 96.5 kt (111 mph), (E1Y2) 96 kt (110 mph), (E1Y3) 102 kt (117 mph); cruising speed (E1Y1) 75 kt (86 mph), (E1Y2) 70 kt (80.5 mph), (E1Y3) 75 kt (86.3 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in (E1Y1) 35 min 25 sec, (E1Y2) 28 min 13 sec, (E1Y3) 20 min; service ceiling (E1Y1) 3,500 m (11,482 ft), (E1Y2) 4,000 m (13,123 ft); range (E1Y1) 530 nm (610 miles), (E1Y2) 624 nm (718 miles); endurance (E1Y1) 7 hr, (E1Y2) 9 hr.

To be continued.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 27 Oct 2003 14:47

Hi

Aichi Experimental Type 15-Ko Reconnaissance Seaplane (Mi-go)

In 1924, the Imperial Japanese Navy wished to replace its war-vintage Type Hansa Reconnaissance Seaplanes. Three aircraft companies, Aichi, Nakajima and Yokosuka (Yokosho), made proposals since all three had experience with the German-designed Type Hansa seaplane for the Navy.

Under the supervision of Narihasa Yokota, the Aichi company completed four prototypes in 1925 and 1926. There was a close similarity to the earlier low-wing twin-float Hansa monoplane, but Aichi's entry had noticeable refinements. The wing and float designs were completely changed, and there was a different strut arrangement for attaching the floats to the wing instead of the fuselage. A Dornier bench-type aileron balance was tried, but was not as effective as was expected. When flight tested for the first time by Lieut-Cdr Hisakichi Akaishi, he reported that the aircraft had poor stability.

Modifications were made in the hope of correcting this and other problems, which included adjusting the centre of gravity, raising the pilot's seat, and lowering the rear observer's seat for better access to interior equipment. Despite numerous modifications, the instability of the aircraft could not be rectified to the satisfaction of the Navy. As a consequence, the Nakajima Navy Type 15 Reconnaissance Seaplane won the competition.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Aichi Tokei Denki KK (Aichi watch and Electgric Machinery Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined twin-float reconnaissance seaplane.
Crew (2): Pilot and observer in open cockpits.
Powerplant: One 300 hp Mitsubishi Type Hi (Hispano-Suiza) vee water-cooled engine, drinv a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: One flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in open dorsal position.
Dimensions: Span 13.63 m ( 44 ft 9 in); length 9.485 m (31 ft 1 1/2 in); height 3.28 m (10 ft 9 in); wing area 32.45 sw m (349.3 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,200 kg (2,645 lb); loaded 1,700 kg (3,748 lb); wing loading 25.4kg/sq m (5.2 lb/sq ft); power loading 5.67 kg/hp (12.5 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 97.5 kt (112 mph) at sea level; minimum speed 52 kt (60 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 18 min 10 sec; service ceiling 4,800 m (15,748 ft).
Production: A total of four prototypes were built by Aichi Tokei Denki KK between 1925 and 1926.

Regards

Bob
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