Early JNAF Aircraft

Discussions on all (non-biographical) aspects of the Luftwaffe air units and general discussions on the Luftwaffe.
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Robert Hurst
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Post by Robert Hurst » 05 Nov 2003 11:55

Hi

Kawasaki Experimental Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft

In March 1927, the Navy decided to manufacture an experimental aircraft funded by a programme sponsored by the Kaibo Gikai (Maritime Defence Volunteer Association), and named the project: 'Research of Material for All-metal Aircraft'. kawasaki was awarded the project by the Navy.

The aircraft was to be a single-engined carrier reconnaissance aircraft having an all-metal structure with fabric covering. It had a fully cantilever parasol wing with marked sweepback, and large area slotted flaps, the first in Japan and probably the first in the world. At that time, no monoplane aircraft existed for this particular role and there were certainly none with cantilever wings and slotted flaps. The fuselage was unusual in that it was almost triangular in cross section. The structure of the aircraft was heavily influenced by Dornier design practices.

Design was begun in March 1927 and completed in June 1928 under the leadership of Jun-ichiro Nagahata and his assistant Hiroshi Sato. Both engineers had been in charge of aircraft design at the Aviation Research Department, Naval Technical Research Institute. Built at the same time as the Giyu No.3 Flying-boat, both aircraft were constructed at the Kawasaki Dockyard, with the construction of the reconnaissance type being competed in September 1928, one month after the flying-boat.

Flight tests began in March 1929 at Kasumigaura under the control of Navy Cdr Sakae Yamamoto. However, tests were suspended after very few flight tests because of problems with flap operation. The flaps were considered to be a major feature of this aircraft and their use at such an early date deserves to be recorded in aeronautical engineering history. But early suspension of the tests without further refinements to the flaps, coupled with top-secret security, resulted in the lack of public awareness and has deprived that aircraft of its rightful place in history. With this aircraft Kawasaki's affiliation with the Japanese Navy ended, and the company became solely a manufacturer of Army aircraft and a few civil types.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki KK (Kawasaki Aircraft Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined experimental carrier-borne reconnaissance aircraft.
Crew (2): Pilot and observer in open cockpits.
Powerplant: One 450-600 hp Mitsubishi Type Hi (Hispano-Suiza) twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Dimensions: Span 16.60 m (54 ft 5 1/2 in); length 10.65 m (34 ft 11 1/2 in); height 3.18 m (10 ft 5 1/4 in); wing area 43.70 sq m (470.398 sq m).
Weights: Empty 1,200 kg (2,645 lb); loaded 1,800 kg (3,968 lb); wing loading 41.2 kg/sq m (8.4 lb/sq ft); power loading 4 kg/hp (8.8 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 142 kt (164 mph) at sea level; minimum speed 37 kt (43 mph) at sea level; service ceiling 10,000 m (32,808 ft); endurance 3 hr.
Production: One prototype only was built by Kawasaki Kokuki KK in September 1928.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 06 Nov 2003 11:49

Hi

Nakajima A1N1 and A1N2 Navy Type 3 Carrier Fighter

In April 1926, the Japanese Navy asked the following manufacturers, Aichi, Mitsubishi and Nakajima to submit proposals for a new carrier fighter to replace the ageing Mitsubishi Type 10 Carrier Fighters that had been in service since 1921.

Therefore, in 1926, Nakajima approached the Gloster Aircraft Company, in England and asked them to submit a design for a new shipboard fighter for the Imperial Japanese Navy. At this time, H P Folland was designing a shipboard fighter as a company private venture. Named Gambet, the prototype was of all-wood construction with fabric covering, and was powered by a 420 hp Bristol Jupiter nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, armament comprised two 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Vickers machine-guns mounted in troughs in the fuselage sides.

The Gambet was a modified version of the Gloster company's year-old Gamecock fighter. The main difference was that the Gambet would have increased structural strength and be suitable for carrier operations. For this purpose the wing of the original Gamecock was increased in span from 9.18 m (30.118 ft) to 9.70 m (80.052 ft) which increased the wing area from 24.4 sq m (262.6 sq ft) to 276.3 sq m (283.0 sq ft) for better performance in manoeuvrability and carrier-deck take-offs and landings.
This prototype was acquired by Nakajima in July 1927, together with licence manufacturing rights.

Both the competing Mitsubishi Taka-type and the Aichi H-type, were powered by water-cooled engines, and incorporated such features as a jettisonable undercarriage and flotation system for emergency alighting on water, all of which led to the aircraft being overweight and reduced manoeuvrability. The Nakajima G (G for Gloster) did not feature any of the above devices. Powered by a Nakajima-built Jupiter VI air-cooled engine, the Nakajima G, was lighter in weight, had increased manoeuvrability and provided a very stable gun platform, these features made the aircraft attractive to the Navy, and it was officially accepted in April 1929 as the Type 3 Carrier Fighter, (A1N1).

In 1930, an improvement was made by using the 450 hp Nakajima Kotobuki 2 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial with a metal propeller. This became the Type 3-2 Carrier Fighter (A1N2), making the earlier Jupiter-powered version the Type 3-1 Carrier Fighter (A1N1). This was the first Nakajima naval fighter, although not purely Japanese because of its Gloster origin. It was considered the best fighter in Japan at that time.

When Japan became involved in the Shanghai Incident, so did Japan's A1N2 fighters, the first Japanese fighters to engage in combat. On 22 February, 1932, three A1N2s from the aircraft carrier Kaga, led by Lieut Nogiji Ikuta, flying from the land base in Shanghai, shot down a Boeing P-12 flown by the American pilot Robert Short, after two minutes of combat. On 26 April, during an attack on Hangchow airfield, A1N2s scored several victories and probables on Chinese flown aircraft, making it the classic fighter during the Shanghai Incident.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Nakajima Hikoki KK (Nakajima Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined carrier-borne fighter.
Crew (1): Pilot in open cockpit.
Powerplant: One (A1N1) 420 hp Nakajima-built Jupiter VI ninep--cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller, one (A1N2) 450 hp Nakajima Kotobuki 2 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade fixed-pitch metal propeller.
Armament: Two fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns mounted in fuselage troughs. Bomb load: two 30 kg (66 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span (A1N1) 9.674 m (31 ft 9 in), (A1N2) 9.70 m (31 ft 10 in); length (A1N1) 6.491 m (21 ft 3 1/2 in), (A1N2) 6.50 m (21 ft 3 3/4 in); height (A1N1) 3.25 m (10 ft 8 in), (A1N2) 3.30 m (10 ft 10 in); wing area 26.3 sq m (283.1 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (A1N1) 950 kg (2,094 lb), (A1N2) 882 kg (1,944 lb); loaded (A1N1) 1,450 kg (3,196 lb), (A1N2) 1,375 kg (3,031 lb); wing loading (A1N1) 55.1 kg/sq m (11.3 lb/sq ft), (A1N2) 52.3 kg/sq m (10.7 lb/sq ft); power loading (A1N1) 3.45 kg/hp (7.6 lb/hp), (A1N2) 3.05 kg/hp (6.7 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (A1N1) 129 kt (148 mph), (A1N2) 130 kt (149.6 mph); cruising speed (A1N1) 80 kt (92 mph); landing speed (A1N1) 43 kt (49.5 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in (A1N1) 7 min 18 sec, (A1N2) 6 min 10 sec; service ceiling (A1N1) 7,440 m (24, 409 ft), (A1N2) 7,000 m (22,965 ft); range (A1N1) 200 nm (230 miles); endurance (A1N1) 2 1/2 hr, (A1N2) 2 1/2 to 3 hr.
Production: A total of 150 Type 3 Carrier fighters were built by Nakajima Hikoki KK as follows:

50 - production A1N1s - 1929-1930
100 - production A1N2s - 1930-1932.

The top and middle photos were taken from The Complete Book of Fighters, by William Green and Gordon Swanborough. The bottom photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 06 Nov 2003 13:45

Hi

Yokosuka K2Y1/K2Y2 Navy Type 3 Land-based Primary Trainer

In 1928 when the Avro 504 became obsolete the Navy began a new trainer design at the Yokosuka Navy Arsenal as a replacement. Listed as an experimental aircraft in April 1929, it was officially accepted as the Type 3 (later Type 3-1) Land-based Trainer in January 1930. It was also tested on twin-floats, but was not accepted in this form as operational equipment.

In essence this was a modernised version of the Avro 504, using a 130 hp Mitsubishi-built Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose radial engine in place of the former 110 hp Le Rhone rotary. Other noticeable differences were an entirely new undercarriage and tail unit. Manufacture of the new trainer was entrusted to Kawanishi which completed its first aircraft in June 1930. Further production was also undertaken by Watanabe and Mitsubishi.

Development of this design continued at Yokosho and in February 1930 the original Mongoose engine was replaced by a Gasuden Jimpu. This proved to be a better combination and became standard as the Type 3 land-based Trainer KAI-1. When officially adopted with this engine in March 1932 it became the Type 3-2 land-based Trainer (later changed to Land-based Primary Trainer), and was put into production by the same three manufacturers and later by Nippi and Showa. The Jimpu-powered aircraft had the short designation K2Y2, while the earlier Mongoose-powered version was the K2Y1.

This type gained a good reputation as a Navy primary trainer from 1930 to the early stages of the Pacific War. They were stable and easily controlled trainers and good aerobatic aircraft commensurate with their limited power. Many were eventually released to civil users, the Students' Aviation League being the largest user. A number were supplied to the Air Corps of the Manchurian National Military Forces.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho (Yokosuka Naval Arsenal).
Type: Single-engined primary trainer.
Crew (2): Instructor and student in tandem open cockpits.
Powerplant: One (K2Y1) 130-150 hp Mitsubishi-built Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose five-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller, one (K2Y2) 130-160 hp Gasuden Jimpu 2 seven-cylinder air-cooled radial engne, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Dimensions: Span (K2Y1) 10.97 m (36 ft), (K2Y2) 10.90 m (35 ft 9 in); length (K2Y1) 8.67 m (28 ft 5 1/2 in), (K2Y2) 8.60 m (28 ft 2 1/2 in); height (K2Y1) 3.11 m (10 ft 2 1/2 in), (K2Y2) 3.13 m (10 ft 3 in); wing area 29.43 sq m (316.792 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (K2Y1) 590 kg (1,300 lb), (K2Y2) 657 kg (1,448 lb); loaded (K2Y1) 865 kg (1,906 lb), (K2Y2) 890 kg (1,962 lb); wing loading (K2Y1) 29.4 kg/sq m (6 lb/sq ft), (K2Y2) 30.7 kg/sq m (6.2 lb/hp); power loading (K2Y1) 6.66 kg/hp (14.6 lb/hp), (K2Y2) 6.93 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (K2Y1) 84.5 kt (97.5 mph) at sea level, (K2Y2) 87.3 kt (100.4 mph) at sea level; cruising speed 55 kt (63 mph) at 1,000 m (); landing speed (K2Y1) 30 kt (34.5 mph), (K2Y2) 35 kt (40.3 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in (K2Y1) 18 min 35 sec, (K2Y2) 21 min 10 sec; service ceiling (K2Y1) 4,400 m (14,435 ft), (K2Y2) 4,600 m (15,091 ft); endurance (K2Y2) 4.2 hr.
Production: A total of 360 Type 3 Primary Trainers were built as follows:

Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho:

6 - production aircraft between 1929-1930

Kawanishi Kokuki KK:

66 - production aircraft between 1930-1932

Watanabe Tekkosho KK:

114 - production aircraft between 1931-1937

Mitsubishi Jugogyo KK:

45 - production aircraft 1934

Nihon Hikoki KK:

126 - production aircraft between 1939-1940

Showa Hikoki KK:

3 - production aircraft between 1938-1939

The top photo was taken from Japanese Aircrft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe. The bottom photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.
Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 07 Nov 2003 15:40

Hi

Hiro H2H1 Navy Type 89 Flying-boat

Near the end of 1928, the Navy imported from Britain an all-metal Supermarine Southampton biplane flying-boat. This Napier Lion-powered aircraft was a straight-forward design, unlike the radical and more advanced German flying-boats. It revealed many inovations in all-metal hull design, features which the Japanese Navy hoped to incorporate in an aircraft as a replacement for the Type 15 Flying-boat.

After performance testing at Yokosuka, the Southampton was ferried to the Hiro Arsenal for further study before the design was begun of a new Japanese aircraft. Lieut-Cdr (Ordnance) Jun Okamura was assigned as chief designer for the project that began in 1929. For obvious reasons this aircraft bore a striking resemblance to the Southampton, the most noticeable difference being a single fin and rudder in place of the Southampton's three. Compared to the Type 15 Flying-boat, which was then in production at Hiro, this hull was an all-metal semi-monocque structure instead of a wooden one, with a rounded contour upper surface to meet the hull bottom instead of flared chines beyond the straight sides of the earlier hulls. This was an aerodynamic improvement that was incorporated in all Japanese flying-boats from that time onwards. The wings and tail surfaces were also all-metal with fabric covering. By the autumn of 1930, the first prototype was completed and submitted for Navy testing.

A serious incident occurred while test flying the second prototype when a fuel line ruptured and the aircraft caught fire. Lieut Saburo Wada hastily alighted near the beaching ramp at the Hiro Arsenal where the crew safely evacuated but the aircraft was lost.

After further development, the aircraft was officially adopted by the Navy as the Type 89 Flying-boat in March 1932. Production was begun not only at Hiro, but by Aichi and Kawanishi, In the case of Kawanishi, it produced major sub-assemblies for Hiro produced Type 89 Flying-boats.

The Type 89 (short designation H2H1) was regarded as a very functional aircraft and remained in service for a long time, together with the Type 15 Flying-boats, although production was relatively small. In practical terms, the Type 89 was really an all-metal structured version of the Type 15, with similar dimensions and only a slight increase in weight, and served the Navy from the time of the Shanghai Incident to the early stages of the Sino-Japanese conflict. These were the last of the Japanese twin-engined biplane flying-boats.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Hiro Kaigun Ko-sho (Hiro Naval Arsenal).
Type: Twin-engined reconnaissance flying-boat.
Crew (6 later version 10):
Powerplant: two 550 hp Hiro Type 14 or 600-750 hp Hiro Type 90 twelve-cylinder W-type water-cooled engines, driving four-blade wooden propellers.
Armament: One twin flexible bow-mounted 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns, one flexible mid-ship 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun each side. Bomb-load: two 250 kg 551 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span (early version) 22.14 m (72 ft 7 3/4 in), (late version) 22.12 m (72 ft 7 in); length (early version) 16.283 m (53 ft 1 1/4 in), (late version) 16.25 m (53 ft 3 3/4 in); height (early version) 6.13 m (20 ft 1 1/4 in), (late version) 5.96 m (19 ft 6 3/4 in); wing area 120.5 sq m (1,297.093 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (early version) 4,368 kg (9,629 lb), (late version) 4,370 kg (9,634 lb); loaded 6,500 kg (14,330 lb); wing loading 53.9 kg/sq m (11 lb/sq ft); power loading(early version) 5.415 kg/hp (11.9 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (early version) 103.6 kt (119 mph), (late version) 106 kt (122 mph); crusing speed (early version) 70 kt (80.5 mph) at 1,000 m (3,280 ft); alighting speed (early version) 52.6 kt (60.5 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) (early version) in 19 min; servicxe ceiling (early version) 4,320 m (14,173 ft), (late version) 4,000 m (13,123 ft); endurance (early version) 14 1/2 hr, (late version) 13 hr.
Production: A total of 13 Type 89 Flying-boats were built as follows:

Hiro Kaigun Ko-sho and Kawanishi Kokuki KK:

2 prototypes and 11 production aircraft from 1930

Aichi Tokei Denki KK:

4 - production aircraft from 1931

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob

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Post by Robert Hurst » 08 Nov 2003 12:25

Hi

Mitsubishi B2M1 and 2 Navy Type 89 Carrier Attack Aircraft - Pt 1

In a competition that began in February 1928, the Navy asked for proposals from Aichi, Kawanishi, Mitsubishi and Nakajima for a design for a new carrier attack bomber to replace the Mitsubishi Type 13 Carrier Attack Aircraft, (BIM3). the Navy stipulated a crew of three, the 600 hp Hispano-Suiza, 450-600 hp BMW or the 600-650 hp Lorraine engine and that the structure was to be of mixed wood and metal construction. The span was to be less than 15 m (49.2 ft), length less than 10 m (33 ft), and height less than 3.8 m (12.4 ft).

Performance asked for was reasonable for that time, with a maximum speed of more than 110 kt (126.5 mph) at sea level, climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 15 minutes, and a ceiling of over 6,000 m (19,685 ft). Endurance was to be more than three hours with a load of bombs, or more than eight hours without bombs. The deck landing speed was to be less than 45 kt (52 mph), and take-off distance less than 45 m (148 ft) with a surface wind of 20 kt (23 mph).

Mitsubishi sub-contracted each different design study to three different teams. The first design termed 3MR3 was engineered by Herbert Smith, who had returned to England in June 1924. Mitsubishi decided to use an even newer engine, the 650 hp Armstrong Siddeley leopard. The company sub-contracted a second design study termed 3MR4 to the Blackburn Company in Britain, powered by the 600 hp Hispano-suiza. The third design study, the 3MR5, was sub-contracted to Handley Page Company, also in Britain. This was to have a 600 hp Hispano-Suiza engine like that of the 3MR4. Of the three design proposals, Mitsubishi selected the Blackburn-designed 3MR4 as the best and submitted it for the competition. The Navy decalred this aircraft to be the design winner in Dcember 1928, and Mitsubishi therefore directed Blackburn to manufacture the first prototype.

Before the order was placed, Mitsubishi sent engineer Hajime Matsuhara to England to gain technical knowledge on aircraft engineering planning and design, three additional engineers, Arkawa, Yui and Fukui, were also sent to Blackburn to learn the fundamentals that were to be incorporated into the 3MR4.

The Blackburn T.7B (or 3MR4), was a two-bay staggered biplane with Frise ailerons on all four wings and equipped with Handley Page leading edge slots, but the lower mainplane was some 0.33 m (13 in) greater in span than the upper and the outer interplane struts were not parallel to the inner. The fabric-covered all-metal wing structure followed standard Blackburn practice, using high-grade steel box spars built up from specially rolled and drawn sections in conjunction with duralumin ribs, the outer panels being hinged to the centre section rear spars. They folded with the aid of a jury strut, but the lower centre section, being of greater span than the upper, imparted some 45 degrees of tilt to them when folded.

The fuselage was of the usual Balckburn three-piece weldless steel-tube construction faired by aluminium panels to a point aft of the cockpit for ease of servicing and re-arming. The fabric-covered rear section was filled with flotation bags except for the stern bay, which housed the ballast weights used for C G adjustment when changing from three to two-crew operation.

Although larger, the divided oleo-sprung undercarriage and rectangualr tail unit were similar in design and constructiion to those of the Beagle, and the tailplane was adjustable in the air by means of an handwheel on the starboard side of the cockpit. The tail skid was oleo-pneumatically sprung from the sternpost, and attachment points for a float undercarriage were an integral part of the fuselage structure although floats were in fact, never fitted.

The closely-cowled 600 hp Hispano-Suiza 51-12Lb twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engine drove a two-blade wooden propeller and was mounted on duralumin bearers supported on a steel-tube structure, but for simplicity the old Swift/Dart/Velos cooling system was revived using a radiator compartment under the engine but with vertical instead of horizontal shutters. Total fuel capacity was 918.3 litres (202 Imp gal) housed in two 168.2 litres (37 Imp gal) gravity tanks in the top centre section, a 200 litres (44 Imp gal) tank between the pilot and the fireproof bulkhead, and a fourth of (84 Imp gal) capacity below the pilot's floor. For long-range operation an 386.4 litres (85 Imp gal) streamlined overload tank with nose-mounted, wind-driven fuel pump, could be carried in the torpedo crutches. A 41 litres (9 Imp gal) oil tank was fitted under the decking ahead of the pilot and the coolant header tank was in the centre section as on the Ripon.

The photos were taken from Blackburn Aircraft Since 1910, by A J Jackson.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 10 Nov 2003 11:59

Hi

Mitsubishi B2M1 and 2 Navy Type 89 Carrier Attack Aircraft - Pt 2

For reconnaissance duties the crew consisted of pilot, wireless operator/bomb-aimer and observer/gunner sitting in three separate cockpits and placed close together for ease of intercommunication, either verbally or by hand-written notes. An aperture in the floor of the centre cockpit served the dual-purpose of course-setting bomb-sight mounting and optional fourth gun position, the Lewis being carried on rails in the floor and stowed under it when not in use. For torpedo-carrying the crew was reduced to two and the fuel to 454 litres (100 Imp gal).

The prototype Blackburn T.7B, or 3MR4, was completed at the end of November 1929 and first flown at Brough without markings by A M Blake on 28 December 1929 that year. Test flights were made with and without torpedo but no time was lost, for records show that it was packed form shipment to Japan on 3 January 1930, arriving there the following month. Accompanying the aircraft was its chief British designer, G E Petty and a Blackburn working party. who were to assemble the aircraft on arrival and to supervise the building of additional aircraft.

On arrival it was painted up with the Japanese Rising Sun disc insignia and closely examined by Mitsubishi engineers who immediately began tooling-up the factory and making ready for production. There examination wass, if anything too searching, for the handle of the starting magneto was placed in the cockpit in such a position that it could not rotate (and therefore the engine could not start), unless the main oil cock was turned on; failing to see the wisdom of this arrangement, the Japanese repositioned the handle without reference to the designer, with the inevitable result that one of their pilots took-off without turning on the main oil supply and the aircraft crashed upside down in a paddy field when the engine seized. A second prototype, completed on 31 October, 1930, was powered by a 650 hp Mitsubishi Type Hi engine, but was lost due to a pilot error. The third prototype, completed on 2 February, 1931, was delivered to the Navy but suffered from shortcomngs, such as engine oil overheating , difficulty in making a three-point landing which is so essential for carrier operations, and poor stability. The fourth prototype, with modifications to overcome the failings of its predecessors, performed well and was officially accepted as the Navy Type 89-1 Model 1 Carrier Attack Aircraft (short designation B2M1) in March 1932 and put into production. Unlike those of Blackburn's prototype, the fin and rudder were a rounded shape and the elevator horn balances were rfeduced in size. The nose was made slimmer by deleting the shuttered chin compartment and fitting a retractable radiator, and the tailplanes of late production machines had rounded ends and unbalanced elevators.

As the new aircraft entered service, engine problems and other shortcomings were discovered and frequently encountered during this transitional period. In addition, it was said to have had poor performance and poor operating cost. To correct these deficiencies, engineers Ohgi and Masufuji made changes in the materials used and manufacturing technique. As a result, this aircraft became the Navy Type 89-2 Carrier Attack Aircraft (B2M2), which remained in production until 1935. This variant of the Type 89 was armed with two instead of four machine-guns and able to carry 800 kg (1,764 lb) of bombs over short distances. This aircraft also featured wings of reduced span, a triangular fin and rudder and an even slimmer nose. Even allowing for 50 per cent greater tankage, both variants came out much overweight compared with the Blackburn T.7B.

In spite of high expectations for the new aircraft as a replacement for the Mitsubishi Type 13 Carrier Attack Aircraft, the Type 89 had a bad reputation with operational units even after the improvements which resulted in the Type 89-2. However, with the structure od steel and aluminium, the excellent charactersitics of the Blackburn B-9 aerofoil, and use of Handley Page slots were valuable for future designs.

Although total production of the B2M1 and B2M2 amounted to 205 aircraft, it is said not to have been a worthwhile undertaking by Mitsubishi, who found the new constructional techniques very costly, compared with the machine's wooden predecessor, and the manufacturing licence for the Handley Page slots expensive. In addition, the unreliability og Japanese-built engines is believed to have led to a number of fatal accidents. Both variants served aboard the carriers Ryujo, Akagi and Kaga from 1933 until the Sino-Japanese war of 1937. Small numbers of Type 89 Attack Aircraft participated in campaigns durng the Shanghai Incident, as did earlier Type 13 Carrier Atack Aircraft. Others were operational on the Japanese mainland with the Tateyama Air Corps and as carrier trainers with Omura Air Corps. Some of the Type 89s were donated to the Navy through the Hokoku-go programme, and, later the Type 89 design was released by the Navy as a civilian conversion, the Mitsubishi Type 89 General Purpose Aircraft.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: (1st prototype) Blackburn Aeroplane and Motor Car Co Ltd,
Mitsubishi Kokuki KK (Mitsubishi Aircraft Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined carrier-borne attack aircraft.
Crew (2-3): (Reconnaissance) Pilot, wireless operator/bomb-aimer and observer/gunner or (torpedo-bomber) pilot and observer/gunner in tandem open cockpits.
Powerplant: One 650 hp Mitsubishi-built Type Hi (Hispano Suiza) twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-balde wooden propeller.
Armament: One (B2M1) fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Vickers machine-gun fitted along the port side of the fuselage, one flexible twin-mounted 7.7 mm (0,303 in) Lewis machine-guns on a double rotating mounting over the observer's cockpit, and optional 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Lewis machine-gun firing from ventral aperture in the floor of the central cockpit, (B2M2) one fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun and one flexible mounted 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in observer's cockpit. Bomb load: One 907 kg (2,000 lb) Type 90 or Type 94 torpedo or two 113 kg (250 lb) bombs, or (B2M2) one 800 kg (1,764 lb) bomb.
Dimensions: Span (B2M1) 15.22 m (49 ft 11 1/4 in), (B2M2) 14.98 m (49 ft 1 3/4 in); length (B2M1) 10.27 m (33 ft 8 1/2 in), (B2M2) 10.18 m (33 ft 4 3/4 in); height (B2M1) 3.712 m (12 ft 2 in), (B2M2) 3.60 m (11 ft 9 1/2 in); wing area (B2M1) 55 sq m (592.034 sq ft), (B2M2) 49 sq m (527.448 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (B2M1) 2,260 kg (4,982 lb), (B2M2) 2,180 kg (4,806 lb); loaded 3,600 kg (7,936 lb); wing loading (B2M1) 65.5 kg/sq m (13.34 lb/sq ft), (B2M2) 73.5 kg/sq m (15 lb/sq ft); power loading (B2M1)4.87 kg/hp (10.7 lb/hp), (B2M2) 4.55 kg/hp (10 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (B2M1) 115 kt (132 mph), (B2M2) 123 kt (142 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in (B2M1) 18 min, (B2M2) 12 min; range (B2M1) 960 nm (1,105 miles), (B2M2) 950 nm (1,094 miles).
Production: A total of 205 Type 89 aircraft (including 3 prototypes) were built by Mitsubishi Kokuki KK between october 1930 and and 1935.

Regards

Bob
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Robert Hurst
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Post by Robert Hurst » 17 Nov 2003 13:10

Hi

Nakajima A2N1 Navy Type 90 Carrier Fighter

In 1928 the Japanese Navy imported and tested a Boeing 69B (F2B-1) carrier fighter powered by a 420 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-B Wasp engine, and in the following year, the fourth Boeing 100 (essentially similar to the F4B-1) was also imported for testing. The two aircraft being demonstrated to Japanese aircraft manufacturers as examples of then-current US shipboard fighter technology. Nakajima, having completed its contract for building the A1N1-2 Type 3 Carrier Fighter, which had been based on the Gloster Gambet, was now free to investigate a new design as a replacement, and used the Boeing 69B as their starting point.

Takao Yoshida designer of the A1N1, was assigned design responsibility for the new fighter and he used many of the features of the Boeing fgihter in his design. Within the company designation NY, it was called the 'Type 3 Fighter', soon optimistically changed to 'Type 90 Carrier Fighter' wsith the assumption of navy acceptance. Structurally, the fuselage was very simialr to that of the Type 3 Carrier Fighter, and the wing was tapered like the Boeing 69B's. The undercarriage an empennage resembled those of the imported Boeing 100.

Two prototypes, both powered by the Nakajima-built Jupiter V1 engine were built in 1929. Evaluated by the Navy in the following year, these prototypes were rejected as they were considered to offer no improvement over the A1N1. I May 1931, under the leadership of Jingo Kurihara, anew prototype was designed and completed. Its wing with rounded tips closely resembeled that of the Boeing 100, it was lighter and was powered by a 580 hp Nakajima Kotobuki 2 engine. A second prototype was completed with even greater improvements, and in early 1932 it was submitted to the Navy for evaluation. It was soon recognised as a remarkable improvemnt over that of the Type 3 Carrier Fighter and e=was officially accepted in April 1932 as the Type 90 Carrier Fighter, with short designation, A2N1. It was put into production immediately.

The A2N1, was a single-engine fighter biplane, with a fabric-covered all-metal fuselage with wood and metal wings covered in fabric.

Several models were evolved during its production. The first model was the Type 90-1 Carrier Fighter (A2N1) which had the fuel tank inside the fuselage as had the Boeing 100. Armament consisted of two 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns, and the upper wing had no dihedral. The first change was the Type 90-2 Carrier Fighter (A2N2) which became the main production version. It had saddle fuel tanks located on both sides of the fuselage like the Vought Corsair, and two machine-guns on top of the fuselage. The Type 90-3 Carrier Fighter (A2N3) was identical to the previous model except that 5 degrees dihedral was added to the upper wing. There was also a two-seat trainer version which was officially adopted in June 1934 as the Type 90 Carrier Fighter Trainer (A3N1).

About 100 Type 90 Carrier Fighters were produced by Nakajima and the Sasebo Naval Arsenal. The A2Ns were the first Japanese-built carrier fighters which could meet on equal terms the rest of the world's best fighters. This type was used by the Naval aerobatic team of Genda, Okamura and Nomura.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Nakajima Hikoki KK (Nakajima Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined Carrier-borne Fighter.
Crew (1): Pilot in open cockpit.
Powerplant: One 460-580 hp Nakajima Kotobuki 2 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade Hamilton-Standard fixed-pitch metal propeller.
Armament: two fixed forward-firng 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns.
Dimensions: Span 9.37 m (30 ft 9 in); length 6.183 m (20 ft 3 1/4 in); height 3.025 m (9 ft 11 in); wing area 19.74 sq m (212.486 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,045 kg (2,303 lb); loaded 1,550 kg (3,417 lb); wing loading 78.5 kg/sq m (16.1 lb/sq ft); power loading 3.37 kg/hp (7.4 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 158.2 kt (182 mph) at 3,000 m (9,843 ft); cruising speed 90 kt (103.6 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 5 min 45 sec; service ceiling 9,000 m (29,527 ft); range 270 nm (311 miles); endurance 3 hr.
Production: A total of 100 A2N1-A2N3 were built between 1932-1936 by Nakajima Hikoki KK and the Sasebo Naval Arsenal. Also 66 A3N1s were built between 1936-1939.

The top photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe. The bottom photo was taken from The Complete Book of Fighters, by William Green and Gordon Swanborough.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 04 Dec 2003 12:21

Hi

Yokosuka K4Y1 Navy Type 90 Seaplane Trainer.

In 1930 the Navy asked for a new design to replace the Yokosuka Type 13 Seaplane Trainer. The aircraft that emerged was designed under the leadership of Lieut-Cdr (Eng) Jiro Saha and Engineer Tamefumi Suzuki. It was unusual in that it had a welded steel tube fuselage, and Saha became known for designing the first aircraft of this type in Japan, the method having only been tried experimentally before by Ishikawajima. The aircraft was powered by an 90 hp Hitachi Hatakaze four-cylinder inverted air-cooled inline engine, a very unusual design for a Japanese-made engine.

Two prototypes were completed in 1930, and flight tests proved the design to be practical. After acceptance of this trainer for Navy use, it was decided that a 130 hp Gasuden Jimpu powered version was more practical. This became the standard version beginning in May 1933 as the Type 90 Seaplane Trainer, short designation K4Y1, when production was awarded to Watanabe Tekkosho KK and Nippon Hikoki KK. These replaced the much used Type 13 Seaplane Trainer which remained in service until the early part of the Pacific War along with the Yokosuka Navy Type 3-2 Land-based Primary Trainer. Although it could be used as a landplane, all operational K4Y1 trainers were equipped with twin floats. Eventually, a small number were released for civil use.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho (Yokosuka naval Arsenal).
Type: Single-engined twin-float seaplane trainer.
Crew (2): Instructor and student in open cockpits.
Powerplant: One 130-140 hp Gasuden Jimpu 2 seven-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Dimensions: Span 10.90 m (35 ft 9 in); length (seaplane ) 9.05 m (29 ft 8 1.2 in), (landplane) 8.191 m (26 ft 10 1/2 in); height (seaplane) 3.51 m (11 ft 6 in), (landplane) 3.25 m (10 ft 8 in); wing area 29.5 sq m (317.545 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 740 kg (1,631 lb); loaded 990 kg (2,182 lb); wing loading 33.5 kg/sq m (6.8 lb/sq ft); power loading 7.61 kg/hp (16.7 lb/hp).
Performance: maximum speed 88 kt (101 mph) at sea level; cruising speed 50 kt (57.5 mph); alighting speed 43 kt (49.5 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 29 min 20 sec; service ceiling 3,460 m (11,350 ft); range 170 nm (196 miles); endurance 3 1/2 hr.
Production: A total of 211 K4Y1s were built as follows:

Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho:

2 prototypes - 1930

Watanabe Tekkosho KK:

156 production aircraft - between 1932-1939

Nihon Hikoki KK:

53 - production aircraft between 1939-1940


The top photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe. The bottom photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 05 Dec 2003 10:56

Hi

Aichi E3A1 Navy Type 90-1 Reconnaissance Seaplane.

In 1928, the Navy sought interest from Aichi and Nakajima in developing a shipboard reconnaissance seaplane for catapult launching. Again, Aichi turned to Heinkel for the design, and imported the the HD 56 that, when accepted, became the Type 90-1 Reconnaissance Seaplane. Nakajima's similar entries became the Type 90-2-1 and -2 Reconnaissance Seaplanes, and the joint Yokosuka/Kawanishi aircraft became the Type 90-3 Reconnaissance Seaplane. The Navy accepted the Aichi/Heinkel HD 56 design in 1931 as the best example of a catapult launched aircraft, being particularly impressed by its Wright Whirlwind engine. The overall structure was well built, having simple interplane struts without bracing wires, and a sound mixture of wood and metal throughout the structure. What the Navy did not like about this Heinkel design was that it had too short a range, and lacked the desired speed. Despite these shortcomings, it was accepted by the Navy in December 1931, but with the stipulation that corrective modifications were made.

To satisfy the Navy, Aichi's engineer Tetsuo Miki set about making the desired improvements. The much liked 200 hp Wright Whirlwind engine was replaced by a 300 hp Type 90 Tempu engine to avoid import problems and to improve performance with the higher power. The wing was reduced by 0.6 m (1 ft 11 3/4 in), which in turn reduced the wing area by 2.04 sq m (21.959 sq ft). The interplane struts and the struts from the lower wing to the floats were moved inward by 0.3048 m (1 ft) and the empennage span and the height were reduced by 0.4 m (1 ft 3 3/4 in) and 0.01 m (2 in) respectively. Other changes were made in the ailerons, floats, and cockpit combing, all in an attempt to improve performance.

Aichi's test pilots Kanekichi Yokoyama and Tanizo Amagai made the first test flight with the Aichi-built (3rd Type 90-1 Reconnaissance Seaplane) in August 1931 from the port at Nagoya. Follow-on aircraft were delivered to Naval operational units beginning in 1932. Type 90-1s were used in the early stage of the Sino-Japanese conflict aboard Jintsu-Class light cruisers. Others were used in various tests related to catapult-launching.

Because of the inferior speed and climb of the aircraft, operational service life was short, and their existence is hardly known, having been overshadowed by the more manoeuvrable Nakajima Type 90-2-2 Reconnaissance Seaplane. Only twelve Type 90-1 aircraft were built, and they were soon transferred to training units. Some were released to for civil flying.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Aichi Tokei Denki KK (Aichi Watch and Electrical Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined twin-float reconnaissance seaplane.
Crew (2): Pilot and observer/gunner in open cockpits.
Powerplant: (Heinklel HD 56) One 200-220 hp Wright J-6 Whirlwind nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller, (Type 90-1) One 300-340 hp Type 90 (Gasuden) Tempu nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: One fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun and one flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in open dorsal cockpit. Bomb load: Two 30 kg (66 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span (HD 56) 11.70 m (38 ft 4 1/2 in), (Type 90-1) 11.10 m (36 ft 5 in); length (HD 56) 8.50 m (27 ft 10 1/2 in), (Type 90-1) 8.45 m (27 ft 8 3/4 in); height (HD 56) 3.50 m (11 ft 6 in), (Type 90-1) 3.67 m (12 ft); wing area (HD 56) 38 sq m (409.041 sq ft), (Type 90-1) 34.5 sq m (371.367 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (HD 56) 993 kg (2,189 lb), (Type 90-1) 1,118 kg (2,464 lb); loaded (HD 56) 1,500 kg (3,307 lb), (Type 90-1) 1,600 kg (3,527 lb) wing loading (HD 56) 39.5 kg/sq m (8.09 lb/sq ft), (Type 90-1) 46.3 kg/sq m (9.483 lb/sq ft); power loading (HD 56) 7.5 kg/hp (16.5 lb/hp), (Type 90-1) 5.33 kg/hp (11/7 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (HD 56) 90 kt (104 mph) at sea level, (Type 90-1) 107 kt (123 mph) at sea level; cruising speed (HD 56) 63 kt (72.5 mph) at 500 m (1,640 ft), (Type 90-1) 67.5 kt (77.6 mph) at 500 m (1,640 ft); minimum speed (HD 56) 37 kt (42.5 mph), (Type 90-1) 41 kt (47 mph); Climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) (HD 56) in 24 min 30 sec, (Type 90-1) in 18 min 18 sec; service ceiling (HD 56) 3,270 m (10, 728 ft), (Type 90-1) 4,710 m (15,452 ft); range (HD 56) 296 nm (340 miles), (Type 90-1) 407 nm (468 miles); endurance (HD 56) 4.7 hr, (Type 90-1) 6 hr.
Production: A total of 12 E3A1s were built as follows:

Ernst Heinkel Fluzeugwerke:

1 - prototype 1929

Aichi Tokei Denki KK:

2 - prototypes & 9 production aircraft - 1930-1932.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 05 Dec 2003 14:41

Hi

Aichi AB-2 Experimental Catapult-Launched Reconnaissance Seaplane.

Although the Navy accepted the Achi-built Type 90-1 Reconnaissance Seaplane in 1931 in spite of its lacking the desired performance. Aichi's designer Tetsuo Miki had already begun a design in 1929 for a new catapult-launched reconnaissance seaplane. This became the AB-2 and is noted as havng been the first shipboard reconnaissance seaplane designed without foreign assistance and to be manufactured entirely in Japan. This marked a major turning point, not only for Aichi, but the other Japanese aircraft manufacturers which could now keep pace and improve upon foreign designs.

This AB-2 was a small two-seat seaplane, powered by Aichi's own experimental 300 hp AC-1 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine. With this combination of airframe and engine, Aichi expected superior performance to that of the Nakajima Type 15 Reconnaissance Seaplane, (E2N1), accepted as the Navy's standard type just two years before, in 1927.

The engine proved to be a disappointment by not performing as expected. It also became obvious durning construction of the airframe that numerous modifications were also necessary. While testing was still underway, an exhaust fire spread to the airframe of one prototype and the aircraft was lost, and, soon after, the project was ended with only two prototypes having been built, although experience gained with the AB-2 was useful in the next design, the AB-3, which was completed two years later.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Aichi Tokei Denki KK (Aichi Watch and Electric Machinery Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined twin-float experimental reconnaissance seaplane.
Crew (2): Pilot and observer/gunner in open cockpits.
Powerplant: One 300-330 hp Aichi AC-1 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: One fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun, one flexible rearward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in dorsal cockpit. Bomb load: two 30 kg (66 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span 11 m (36 ft 1 in); length 8.24 m (27 ft 0 1/2 in); height 3.44 m (11 ft 3 1/4 in); wing area 36 sq m (387.513 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,115 kg (2,458 lb); loaded 1,656 kg (3,648 lb); wing loading 45 kg/sq m (9.216 lb/sq ft); power loading 5.31 kg/hp (11.7 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 97.4 kt (112 mph) at sea level; cruising speed 70 kt (81 mph); minimum speed 38.8 kt (44.7 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 20 min; endurance 5.9 hr at cruising speed, 3.8 hr at maximum speed.
Production: A total of two prototypes were built by Aichi Tokei Denki KK in 1930.


The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 09 Dec 2003 12:20

Hi

Hiro H3H1 Navy Type 90-1 Flying-boat.

With the knowledge gained in manufacturing and developing the F.5, R-3, Type 15 and Type 89 Flying-boats, Hiro was the most experienced producer of large flying-boats in Japan. Because of this, plans were developed by the Hiro Arsenal in 1930 to build a large three-engined flying-boat, the first large all-metal aircraft entirely of Japanese design. General manager for the project was Cdr Misao Wada, with as his chief designer, Lieut-Cdr (Ordnance) Jun Okamura.

The new flying-boat was a cantilever monoplane embodying the proven Wagner box-spar acquired from Rohrbach, and hull features used in the Supermarine Southampton and the previously built Hiro Type 89 Flying-boats. To aid in determining the hull contours, water-tank tests were made at the Naval Technical Research Institute under the supervision of Naval Architect Rear Admiral Yuzuru Hiraga. The main requirements were that it was to be capable of flying on two engines and that it must have good water-borne characteristics. This would be the first Japanese Navy aircraft capable of carrying a One metric-tonne (one-ton) bomb load.

The test aircraft was completed at the Hiro Naval Arsenal in 1931 and given the the designation Type 90-1 Flying-boat, short designation (H3H1). (Another aircraft that year, the Type 90-2 Flying-boat, was built by Kawanishi). The H3H1, was then flown to Yokosuka where exhaustive flight testing was undertaken by Lieut-Cdr Daizo Nakajima. Many problems were encountered which brought about modifications, including moving the radiators further aft under the engine nacelles, and experimenting with different propellers. To improve flying control, auxiliary vertical fins were added to the tailplane, and struts to the horizontal surfaces were relocated so that the angle of incidence could be adjusted. With each modification, a new dash number was assigned so the final configuration became the Type 90-1-4 Flying-boat.

By 1933, without proving satisfactory, the aircraft was relegated to use as a flying testbed for the 950 hp Mitsubishi Shinten fourteen-cylinder double-row air-cooled engine before it was retired from service. it was regarded as being inferior in stability to the Kawanishi Type 90-2 Flying-boat (H3K1) of the same period regardless of the revolutionary monoplane design features for a large flying-boat. As a result, only the one aircraft was built, but the design and fabricating experience gained proved very useful in developing later all-metal aircraft.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Hiro Kaigun Kosho (Hiro Naval Arsenal).
Type: Three-engined experimental Flying-boat
Crew (9).
Powerplant: Three 650-790 hp Misubishi-Type Hi (Hispano-Suiza) twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engines, driving four-blade wooden propellers.
Armament: twin flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns in open bow position, twin flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns amidships either side, twin flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns in open tail poisition. Bomb load: two 500 kg (1,102 lb) or four 250 kg (551 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span 31.047 m (101 ft 10 1/2 in); length 22.705 m (74 ft 6 in); height 7.518 m (24 ft 8 in); wing area 137 sq m (1,474.703 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 7,900 kg (17,416 lb); loaded 11,900 kg (26,245 lb); wing loading 86.7 kg/sq m (17.7 lb/sq ft); power loading 6.1 kg/hp (13.4 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 123 kt (142 mph) at sea level; cruising speed 85 kt (98 mph); alighting speed 60.4 kt (69.5 mph); clinb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 17 min; service ceiling 4,500 m (14,763 ft); range 1,105 nm (1,273 miles); endurance 13 hr.
Production: One prototype was built by Hiro kaigun Kosho in 1931.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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vincenzoforum
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Location: Lazio

Post by vincenzoforum » 28 Jan 2008 02:45

Beautiful work, thanks.
Please you can tell us also of
A4N fighters
B4Y torpedo bombers
D1A dive bombers
i think also that are early

saipanscotty
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Re: Early JNAF Aircraft

Post by saipanscotty » 11 Mar 2008 04:17

Robert -

Any chance of me obtaining from you a good quality electronic image of the Mitsubishi B2M1 biplane? It will be used in a public exhibit at the Saipan International Airport. Look forward to hearing from you on this. Scott Russell, Saipan

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