"Kampfgruppe Mohnke" and "Freikorps Adolf Hit

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Dieter Zinke
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"Kampfgruppe Mohnke" and "Freikorps Adolf Hit

Post by Dieter Zinke » 15 Dec 2003 17:55

Hallo forum,

SS-Brigaf. and GM d WSS Wilhelm Mohnke commanded the "Kampfgruppe Mohnke" since 22.04.1945 around the "Reichskanzlei in Berlin.
In his memoirs ("Die letzten zehn Tage in der Reichskanzlei", München, 1979), Rittmeister Gerhard Boldt (Knight Cross-holder), former O I of Generaloberst Heinz Guderian, informs, that troops of the mysterious "Freikorps" came under Mohnke's command.
About the "Freikorps Adolf Hitler" I only could find informations in:
Günther W. Gellermann: "Die Armee Wenck. Hitlers letzte Hoffnung"
and in
Ernst-Günther Schenck: "Das Notlazarett unter der Reichskanzlei", Wiesbaden2000.

I wait for your answers
Cheers
Oberstab

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HPL2008
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Post by HPL2008 » 15 Dec 2003 23:28

There's some sparse info in John R. Angolia & Adolf Schlicht's work on the Heer's uniforms and traditions; I quote from the German edition "Die Deutsche Wehrmacht - Uniformierung und Ausrüstung 1933 - 1945":

Freikorps Adolf Hitler

Am 28.3.1945 verfügte Hitler die Aufstellung eines nach ihm benannten Freikorps, das anscheinend das ganze Reichsgebiet (soweit noch verblieben) umfassen sollte. Das Freikorps sollte sich aus "Aktivisten der Bewegung, Freiwilligen des Volkssturms und Freiwilligen der Werkschar" zusammensetzen, wobei auch Frauen aufgenommen werden sollten. Jeder Gau der NSDAP hatte einen "Gauschwarm" von etwa 1000 Mann zu stellen, der in "Kreisschwärme" untergliedert war, welche wiederum aus "Einzelschwärmen" zu je 10 Mann bestanden. Einzelne Einheiten kamen als Panzerjagdverbände noch im Raum Berlin zum Einsatz. Zweifellos wurde die Aufstellung nicht mehr überall durchgeführt.
Die Uniform bestand wohl aus allen verfügbaren Uniformstücken, wohl auch mit Stahlhelm und Tarnanzug, und mit einer Armbinde mit der Aufschrift "Freikorps Adolf Hitler".


A rough English translation for the non-German speaking members:

Free Corps "Adolf Hitler"

On 28 March 1945, Hitler ordered a Free Corps to be raised which was to be named after him and which was apparently to cover the (still remaining) entire territory of the Reich. The Free Corps was to be made up of "Activists of the Movement, volunteers from the Volkssturm and volunteers from the Werkschar", with women intended to be accepted as well. Every NSDAP Gau was to provide a roughly 1,000-men-strong "Gauschwarm", which was made up of "Kreisschwärme", which, in turn, were made up of "Einzelschwärme" of 10 men each. Some individual units saw action in Berlin as tank-destroyer formations.
Indubitably, the raising of the Corps was not generally undertaken anymore.
Apparently, the uniform was made up of any available uniform items, probably to include steel helmets and camouflage suits, and a brassard with the inscription "Freikorps Adolf Hitler".


Maybe this helps.

c.g.
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Post by c.g. » 16 Dec 2003 09:32

Short after the war, former SS-Ostuf. Guido Zimmer from SD VI Italy, a man who played a big role in the German surrender in Italy (Operation Sunrise) was planned by the OSS to work as an informant from within the "Freikorps Adolf Hitler". This is at least what can be inferred from an OSS report.
Best
C.G.

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Petillon
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Post by Petillon » 27 Apr 2004 10:47

Hello Oberstab,

The idea for the "Freikorps Adolf Hitler" came from Robert Ley end of march 1945. Before presenting the idea to Hitler, he first discussed it with Goebbels who was not impressed by the idea.

According to Goebbels in his diary the first draft of the formation decreed that all party members were obliged to join this formation. As this would deplete the ranks of the Volkssturm Goebbels and Bormann were vehemently opposed to these plans.

Therefore Ley reworked his plans on 30 March 1945. It was decided that its foundation would not be announced by radio to the general public but via a written announcement to the Gauleiters asking them to raise the targeted 10.000 activists.

Source: Goebbels diary entries 28-03-1945 and 30-03-1945

regards,
Petillon

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patrynius
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Post by patrynius » 15 Feb 2005 18:17

Hello

Iam interesting about freikops "Adolf Hitler", i have the same information as you Petillon. It is also said that it would be a chance for nazi officals to show their nations, and other party member, that they fight for country - not only running away.
NSDAP officals usually order civilians "fight to the last man".. and than runs away. This corps could chance negative view (of course it was only theory).
I also have informations that several of them fight in Berlin (so as now nothing new :) 0
..but. On Anthony Beevor web (in about "Berlin downfall 1945" book)is information about so called freikops "AH" that existed and fight under Russian occupation in Berlin. It was female organisation (300 women, 25-35 years old) that was trained in werwolf school(?) just before BigEnd. Russians found in one house (Lichtenberg)center of hole "big nazi organization", which was trying to continue fighting??

Best regards

And of course nice to be with you, Im new one here :)

Edward L. Hsiao
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Combat Decorations By Them

Post by Edward L. Hsiao » 15 Feb 2005 20:44

Gentlemen,

It makes me wonder if any of these members of Freikorps "Adolf Hitler" had won any high combat decorations for bravery especially the Knight's Cross or the German Cross in Gold. But I guess we will really never know. NSDAP officals were really not soldier material that much. There were no evidence of them of having destroyed enemy tanks singlehandedly with panzerfausts and won their tank destroyer badges. This Freikorps of WWII remains somewhat of a mystery to me.

Sincerely,

Edward

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Post by David Thompson » 15 Feb 2005 21:52

The JuNSV site at http://www1.jur.uva.nl/junsv/brd/Dienstdeufr.htm classes the "Freikorps Adolf Hitler" as a Muenchen Volkssturm unit, and notes these three trials:

Justiz und NS-Verbrechen
Nazi Crimes on Trial

Case Nr.073
Crime Category: Final Phase Crimes
Accused:
B., Karl Acquittal
Court:
LG München I 480707
LG München I 471107
OLG München 480407
Country where the crime was committed: Germany
Crime Location: München
Crime Date: 450428
Victims: Civilians
Nationality: German
Office: Volkssturm München (Freikorps Adolf Hitler)
Subject of the proceeding: Mishandling, menacing and attempted hanging of three civilians for taking part in the campaign to liberate Bavaria ('Freiheitsaktion Bayern')

Published in Justiz und NS-Verbrechen Vol. II


Justiz und NS-Verbrechen
Nazi Crimes on Trial

Case Nr.078
Crime Category: Final Phase Crimes
Accused:
Be., Kurt Acquittal
K., Hermann Acquittal
Ko., Rudolf Acquittal
L., Peter Acquittal
M., Konrad 3 Years
Mi., Bernhard Acquittal
P., Anton 2 Years
Re., Fritz Acquittal
S., Albert Acquittal
Zila, Ferdinand 3½ Years
Zöberlein, Hans Death sentence + 3 Years
Court:
LG München II 480807
OLG München 491208
Country where the crime was committed: Germany
Crime Location: Penzberg
Crime Date: 450428
Victims: Civilians
Nationality: German
Office: Heer Werferregiment 22, Wehrmacht Sonderbeauftragter des OKW, Zivilverwaltung Bürgermeister Penzberg, NSDAP Ortsgruppenleiter in Penzberg, Volkssturm München (Freikorps Adolf Hitler)
Subject of the proceeding: Shooting and hanging of a number of civilians in connection to the campaign to liberate Bavaria ('Freiheitsaktion Bayern')

Published in Justiz und NS-Verbrechen Vol. III


Justiz und NS-Verbrechen
Nazi Crimes on Trial

Case Nr.287
Crime Category: Final Phase Crimes
Accused:
A., Felix Acquittal
B., Hans Acquittal
R., Martin Acquittal
V., Josef 3 Years
Court:
LG Augsburg 510630
BayObLG 501129
Country where the crime was committed: Germany
Crime Location: Penzberg
Crime Date: 450428
Victims: Civilians
Nationality: German
Office: Heer Werferregiment 22, Wehrmacht Sonderbeauftragter des OKW, Zivilverwaltung Bürgermeister Penzberg, NSDAP Ortsgruppenleiter in Penzberg, Volkssturm München (Freikorps Adolf Hitler)
Subject of the proceeding: Shooting and hanging of a number of civilians in connection to the 'liberation campaign Bavaria' ('Freiheitsaktion Bayern')

Published in Justiz und NS-Verbrechen Vol. VIII

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Dieter Zinke
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Post by Dieter Zinke » 15 Feb 2005 23:18

David,

your information about the events in Munich is interesting and valuable.
Ritter von Epp himself was falsely charged with participation as conspirator (source: Karl Koller "Der letzte Monat").

But we are speaking about two totally different occurences.
The unit in Berlin has no relationship to the actions with "Freikorps Bayern" (rebellion) and the "Freikorps Adolf Hitler" at that place (Munich)

Dieter Z

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Post by David Thompson » 15 Feb 2005 23:29

My apologies, Dieter. The wording of the original post, and the abrupt change in subject matter from Kampfgruppe Mohnke to the Freikorps Adolf Hitler caused me to misunderstand -- I didn't know that there were at least two units with the same name.

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patrynius
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Post by patrynius » 16 Feb 2005 00:13

Hi

Wow, I'm here only one day and.. I;m proud of thhat. Valuable information David. So.. there were 2 diffrent organisations, one connected with werwolf (freikops bayern - rebellion?? any chance for more info?? :) ), and second with.. kampfgrupe Mohnke in Berlin

Any chance for confirm this info from Anthony Beevor?? (I can say that none of this what i wrote is in the book - only on web here
http://www.antonybeevor.com/Berlin/berlincutsfive.htm
(in chapter 28, in part "diplomats in Berlin")
He says it was Underground female organisation.
Regards :)

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freiwillige
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Post by freiwillige » 16 Feb 2005 08:06

Hello,

About the Freikorps AH you will find valuable info on:

Perry BIDDISCOMBE, The End of the Freebooter Tradition: The Forgotten Freikorps Movement of 1944/45, in: CEH (Central European History) 32, 1999.

and also, "The Last Nazis" of P. Biddiscombe (Tempus Publishing)


Regards,

Ferran

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Michael Miller
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Re: "Kampfgruppe Mohnke" and "Freikorps Adolf Hit

Post by Michael Miller » 04 Jul 2013 22:49

Information on the F.A.H., from my biographical sketch of its leader, Dr. Robert Ley.

Best wishes,
~ Mike


28.03.1945 Appointed by Hitler as Führer of the “Freikorps 'Adolf Hitler' “ (F.A.H.), to be composed of NSDAP fanatics formed into anti-tank units. John R. Angolia and Adolf Schlicht describe this formation as follows:

“On 28 March 1945, Hitler ordered a Free Corps to be raised which was to be named after him and which was apparently to cover the (still remaining) entire territory of the Reich. The Free Corps was to be made up of 'Activists of the Movement, volunteers from the Volkssturm and volunteers from the Werkschar', with women intended to be accepted as well. Every NSDAP Gau was to provide a roughly 1,000-men-strong ‘Gauschwarm’, which was made up of 'Kreisschwärme', which, in turn, were made up of 'Einzelschwärme' of 10 men each. Some individual units saw action in Berlin as tank-destroyer formations. Indubitably, the raising of the Corps was not generally undertaken anymore. Apparently, the uniform was made up of any available uniform items, probably to include steel helmets and camouflage suits, and a brassard with the inscription ‘Freikorps Adolf Hitler.’” (Angolia & Adolf Schlicht, Uniforms and Traditions of the German Army)

In his report of June 1945, “Robert Ley, Through the Eyes of his Secretary and Mistress”, based in part on the interrogation of Ley’s secretary Paula Müller, Major Paul Kubala (commanding 7th Army Interrogation Center in Augsburg) writes of Frau Müller’s statements concerning the “Freikorps Adolf Hitler”:

“During the last days of Mar 45 source [Müller] had to make a copy of a draft which was to get HITLER’s signature. This draft read approximately as follows: In order to strengthen the will of the German people to defend themselves, I order the activation of a FREIKORPS… which will bear my name. I name Dr LEY responsible for the activation and leadership of this KORPS.
This draft was taken to HITLER and signed by him. Shortly after this, conferences were held in this connection.
The following persons were usually present at these meetings: Otto MARRENBACH (General Director of the DAF), Fritz MARRENBACH (Main Personnel Office, Munich) a brother of the General Director, STEGEMANN (Main Organizing Office, Munich), BRUHN (Main Training Office), KLAUKE (Chief of ADOLF HITLER Schools in SONTHOFEN).
It was planned that each GAU was to furnish a certain number of men, about 200 each, according to the size of the GAU. When source left BERLIN (11 Apr) these men were on their way to selected training grounds. The following TRUPPENUEBUNGSPLAETZE (Troop Training Places) were to be used for purposes of training the FREIKORPS: DOEBERITZ/BERLIN, MUENSTERLAGER, SENNELAGER, HOHENFIES, H[EU]BERG, DOELLERSHEIM/AUSTRIA, and MITTENWALD near GARMISCH.
This mission of the FREIKORPS was to fight ahead and behind the front. It was to be organized in SCHWAERME (Swarms) of 9 men and one woman. Each member was to have a bicycle and be armed with a panzerfaust and a pistol. Trucks with arms and equipment were on their way to the training locations but, according to reports, did not reach their destination in most cases, because of Allied bombing.
Source believes that STEGEMANN went to Northern Germany for the express purpose of leading the FREIKORPS after the collapse of the WEHRMACHT, while LEY and MARRENBACH were to take over the leadership of the KORPS in the south. The present location of MARRENBACH is not known to the source. She saw him last in IMST at the end of Apr. [1945].”

The same report relied on statements of Ley’s mistress, Madeleine Wanderer. The following is Major Kubala’s summary:

“… Only the most reliable Nazis were admitted into the Free Corps. [It] was organized in groups of eight men and one woman each. The duty of the woman was to cook for the troops and care for the wounded and if necessary also to fight… Everybody was to have poison in his possession. The orders were to infiltrate into the enemy lines, to spy on and ambush enemy units. If capture was imminent the poison was to be taken.” (ibid)

Printed on the identification cards issued to F.A.H. members were the following instructions:

“The Freikorps ‘Adolf Hitler' is a union of German Freiheitskämpfer [freedom fighters), who have broken all the bridges behind them. The F.A.H. fight with all means. It organizes attack and resistance in any form. The Schwarmführer [swarm leader] decides life and death in its operations. Who plunders and does not obey, [suffers] death. The coward is hanged. The fighting woman is treated as a man. Who toucheth the woman on operations learns death.
The F.A.H. knows only inner discipline…
The F.A.H. knows no paymaster and accountant.
The F.A.H. has no rear echelon. Who does not fight, does not belong to it.” (Harald Scholtz, “Die NS-Ordensburgen”, in Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, 15.Jahrgang 1967 / 3.Heft / Juli)

Dr. Goebbels wrote of the “Freikorps” in the following diary entries:

27.03.1945: “Dr. Ley, who has just returned from a trip to Wien and the Niederdonau, pays me a visit to report. He is pretty well knocked out and is thoroughly rattled by recent developments particularly in the West. Four days ago he was writing in Angriff that the crisis in the West was acting as a healthy restorative. The remark created a considerable public sensation. I reproach him with it. Now he pretends to know nothing about it. He wants to go to the Führer and ask his permission to form a Freikorps of courageous Party members. This Freikorps would undoubtedly be an undisciplined horde and I know in advance that the Führer will refuse permission if only for this reason. In other respects Ley's proposals for dealing with our present emergency are extraordinarily naive, though they are evidence of goodwill. Ley has become somewhat hysterical under the impact of recent developments. It shows that he is not a naturally strong personality. He is only strong when there is some external cause to be so. Moreover he oscillates like a windsock when time are serious and critical.” (Prof. Hugh Trevor-Roper, ed, Final Entries 1945: The Diaries of Joseph Goebbels)
28.03.1945: “Dr. Ley has been to the Führer and submitted to him the question of formation of... the ‘Freikorps Adolf Hitler’ [to] be composed of activists formed into tank-destroyer units equipped with [Panzerfäuste], assault guns and bicycles. In itself the idea is good but I would not expect the Führer to entrust the command of such a Corps to Dr. Ley. By his last published articles [see, for example, entry of 00.02.1945, above] he has forfeited all credibility. In it he referred to the front and the air war in terms of such total cynicism that one could only shudder. Ley wants to talk to me on the question of formation of the Freikorps. I shall give him my opinion quite frankly. In any case the Freikorps idea must be given better and more solid publicity support than can get done by Dr. Ley.” (ibid)
30.03.1945: “... the Führer's view is that Dr. Ley is a real fanatic and that, within certain limitations, he can be useful for tasks requiring fanaticism. This was why he had entrusted him with formation of the 'Adolf Hitler Freikorps'.” (ibid)

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