Turkish Divisions 1914-18

Discussions on the final era of the Ottoman Empire, from the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 until the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
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Peter H
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Turkish Divisions 1914-18

Post by Peter H » 19 Oct 2004 11:59

Some campaign details I've constructed on the Divisions of the Ottoman Army in WW1.Sources-Ordered to Die,Ed Erickson,Australian Official Histories,Handbook of the Turkish Army,1916.

Any feedback on errors or omissions would be appreciated.

Bold-denotes Division in existence,pre August 1914.
Italic -denotes division raised after August 1914.

1st Div –Thrace 1914,Gallipoli(June 1915),Thrace,Caucasus 1916,Damascus(Nov 1917),Nablus 1918,Palestine,Syria 1918.

2nd Div-Constantinople,Gallipoli(May 1915—lost 9,000 men in May attack on Anzac Cove),Mesopotamia 1916,Persia 1916,Mesopotamia 1917/18.

3rd Div-Thrace 1914,Gallipoli(Anzac attack May 1915,lost 4,000 men),Palestine 1916,Romani 1916,Gaza battles 1917,Palestine 1918.

4th Div-Thrace 1914,Gallipoli,Persia 1916,Mesopotamia 1917,inactivated Jan 1918.

5th Div-Thrace 1914,Gallipoli,Helles,Caucasus 1916-18,Persia 1918

Note

-All 35 Regular divisions 1914 were at only 40% strength with mobilised reservists required to build up an active service strength of 10,000 men per infantry division.

-Ottoman Turkey was the first Power to deploy triangular(three regimental ) divisions in WW1,a legacy from the Balkan wars experience.

-No Turkish reserve divisions were ever raised.Reservists acted as a pool to reinforce the 62 numbered infantry divisions eventually deployed 1914/18.
Last edited by Peter H on 21 May 2007 14:01, edited 2 times in total.

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 19 Oct 2004 12:11

Caucasian Infantry Divisions

Note should also be made of the seven Caucasian Infantry Divisions raised in September 1916,from manpower on the Caucasian Front.

It was hoped that this new designation would wipe away the stigma of defeat and add luster to newly renamed formations...these new Caucasian infantry divisions were smaller than ordinary peacetime Turkish infantry divisions and their infantry strength was set at six thousand men
Ed Erickson,'Ordered to Die'.

The first one such raised.In essence between 1916-18,two Turkish divisions would be numbered the 5th--the regular 5th Infantry Division and the 5th Caucasian Infantry Division.

5th Caucasian Div-formed from 13th Div Sept 1916,Caucasus 1916-18,Azerbaijan 1918,Baku 1918.

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Post by Peter H » 19 Oct 2004 12:14

6th Div-Thrace 1914,Gallipoli(June 1915),Mesopotamia 1916,Persia 1916,Mesoptomia 1917/18.

7th Div-Bulair 1915,Gallipoli,Suvla,Caucasus 1916,Gaza 1917,Palestine 1918,destroyed Meggido 1918.

8th Div-Thrace 1914,Syria 1914,Gallipoli,Caucasus 1917/18,inactivated early 1918.

9th Div-Gallipoli,Caucasus 1916,dissolved Aug 1916.

9th Caucasian Div-formed from 28th Div Sept 1916,Caucasus 1917/18.

10th Div-Thrace 1914,Symrna 1914,Sinai 1914/15,Gallipoli(from July),Caucasus 1916,dissolved Aug 1916.

10th Caucasian Div-formed from 30th Div Sept 1916,Caucasus 1917/18,Azerbaijan 1918,Baku 1918,rushed to Thrace to defend Constantinople Oct 1918.

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 19 Oct 2004 12:18

11th Div-Thrace 1914,Gallipoli,Caucasus 1916/17,Persia 1918,Palestine 1918.

11th Caucasian Div-formed from 33rd Div Sept 1916,Caucasus 1917/18.

12th Div-Thrace 1914,Gallipoli,Caucasus 1916/17,Persia 1918.

13th Div-Thrace 1914,Gallipoli,Caucasus 1916,dissolved Aug 1916.Personnel transferred to new 5th Caucasian Division.

14th Div-Thrace 1914,Gallipoli,Caucasus 1916,Thrace Dec 1916,Baghdad 1917,Mesopotamia 1918.

15th Div-Thrace 1914,Gallipoli,Romania 1916,Thrace 1917,Caucasus 1918,Azerbaijan 1918,Baku 1918;had honour of conducting the last Turkish offensive in WW1,the northward advance along the Caspian Sea and the Battle for Petrovsk(Oct 28-Nov 8 1918).

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 19 Oct 2004 12:20

16th Div-Thrace 1914,Gallipoli(from May),Lone Pine Battle,Gallipoli garrison 1916,Gaza,March 1917,Gaza battles,Palestine 1918,destroyed Sept 1918.

17th Div-Caucasus,Sarikamis 1914,Caucasus 1915/16,dissolved Aug 1916.

18th Div-Caucasus 1914/15,Erzurum 1916,dissolved Aug 1916.

19th Div-formed Aug-Oct 1914,Gallipoli under Kemal,Galicia,Russian front Aug 1916 to 1917,Syria Aug 1917(Yildirim Group),Palestine 1918,destroyed Sept 1918.

20th Div-formed Aug-Oct 1914,Thrace 1915,Galicia 1916/17,Syria Aug 1917(Yildirim Group),Palestine 1918,destroyed Sept 1918.

21st Div-Yemen-Arabia 1914-18.

22nd Div-Yemen-Arabia 1914-18.

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 19 Oct 2004 12:23

23rd Div-formed Syria late 1914 from Arab recruits,Sinai1914/15,Palestine 1916,Adana 1917,Anatolia 1918.

24th Div-formed Aug-Oct 1914,Thrace 1915,Syria/Palestine 1916,Palestine 1918,Syria 1918.

25th Div- Palestine 1914(Arabs),Suez Canal battle 1914/15,Gallipoli,reconstituted with Anatolian recruits 1916,Romania 1916/17,Thrace 1918,dissolved mid 1918.

26th Div-Thrace 1914/15,Romania 1916/17,Palestine 1918,remnants disbanded Oct 1918.

27th Div-Syria 1914(Arabs),Palestine 1915,Beersheba 1917,Jerusalem 1917,dissolved early 1918.

28th Div-Caucasus 1914,Sarikamis 1914,Van 1915, Caucasus 1916,dissolved Aug 1916.Personnel transferred to new 9th Caucasian Division

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AJK
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Post by AJK » 19 Oct 2004 20:11

Hi Peter,

Great job putting together the list of Divisions. Would you also have a list of the commanders of these units during 1914 - 1918?

Thanks,

AJK

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Steen Ammentorp
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Post by Steen Ammentorp » 19 Oct 2004 21:46

AJK wrote:
Great job putting together the list of Divisions. Would you also have a list of the commanders of these units during 1914 - 1918?


Second that - and more than one interested in this. ;-)

Kind Regards
Steen Ammentorp
The Generals of World War II

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 20 Oct 2004 11:24

Guys,
I'll see what i can dig up.

Peter

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 20 Oct 2004 11:32

29th Div-Caucasus 1914,Sarikamis 1914, Caucasus 1916,dissolved Aug 1916.

30th Div-Caucasus 1914/15,Caucasus 1916,dissolved Aug 1916.Personnel transferred to new 10th Caucasian Division.

31st Div-Caucasus 1914/15,Caucasus 1916,dissolved Aug 1916.

32nd Div-Caucasus 1914/15,Caucasus 1916,dissolved Aug 1916.

33rd Div-Caucasus 1914/15,Erzurum Jan 1916,dissolved Aug 1916.Personnel transferred to new 11th Caucasian Division.

34th Div-Caucasus 1914/15,Erzurum Jan 1916,dissolved Aug 1916.

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 20 Oct 2004 11:43

35th Div-Syria 1914,Mesopotamia 1914,Qurna Dec 1914,1st Kut 1915,Ctesiphon,Battles south of Kut seige 1915/16,dissolved late 1916.

36th Div-Syria 1914,Caucasus 1914/16,,dissolved Aug 1916.Personnel transferred to new 36th Caucasian Division.

36th Caucasian Div-formed from 36th Div Sept 1916,Caucasus 1917/18,dissolved mid 1918.

37th Div-Syria 1914,Caucasus 1915,Tabriz 1915,dissolved 1916.

37th Caucasian Div-formed from coastal defense detachments Sept 1916,Caucasus 1917/18,dissolved mid 1918.

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Post by Peter H » 21 Oct 2004 12:10

38th Div-Irak 1914(Arab recruits),Mesopotamia 1914,Basra,1st Kut 1915,Ctesiphon,disbanded early 1916.

39th Div-Yemen-Arabia 1914-18.

40th Div-Yemen-Arabia 1914-18.

41st Div- raised Syria 1915,1916/17 Alexandretta(coastal defence),Syria 1918.

42nd Div- raised Syria 1915,Palestine 1916,Thrace 1917/18,disbanded mid 1918.

43rd Div- raised Syria 1915,Thrace 1915,Beirut(coastal defence)1916/17,Katma(coastal defence) 1918.

44th Div- raised Syria 1915,Thrace 1915,Osmaniye Gap(coastal defence)1916/18.

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 21 Oct 2004 12:19

Some photos from 1917,Der Krieg in Wort und Bild.

Emperor Karl greets Turkish troops arriving to fight the Russians,Galicia.

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 21 Oct 2004 12:28

Turkish position,Russian Front,1917.

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Post by Peter H » 21 Oct 2004 12:33

Turks,Palestine 1917.

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