General's Trial

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GLADIVM
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General's Trial

Post by GLADIVM » 13 May 2005 06:05

During the RSI period in 1944 in North Italy was held the General's Trial to judge those Italian Generals which were accused of Treason not having sided with the Germans on 8th Sept 43 .

The defendants were Generals : Caracciolo (which one of two Caracciolo's ?? ) , Gariboldi ,
Vercellino , Rosi , Vecchiarelli , Dalmazzo , Clerici (which one of the two Clerici's , Scuero , Robotti , Malaguti , Moizo .

Most of the generals were absolved and only few were condemned to lenient punishments :
- Robotti
- Gariboldi , in his case some sources said he was condemned to death but later pardoned
- Caracciolo
- Vecchiarelli

It seems that they escaped death because the public opinion in the North had reacted with dismay and anger ( differently form the public reaction of the execution of Ciano in Jan 44 which was received with apathy or in some case with approval ) to the death penalties and executions of the Admirals Campioni and Mascherpa , so the Duce and the party high echelons decided to show clemency .

This is all I know about the trial and would like to know more in detail what happened , in which city was the court conveyed and if it was one trial for all the accused or a series of personal's ones .
Were also other generals judged ? some in absence ?

Thanks for any help

Yours

GLADIVM

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Post by FB » 13 May 2005 11:30

From http://www.fondazionecipriani.it :

28 gennaio 1944
Sono deferiti al Tribunale speciale della Repubblica sociale italiana i generali Mario Robotti, comandante della 2° armata; Italo Gariboldi, comandante dell’8° armata; Mario Vercellino, comandante della 4° armata; Mario Caracciolo di Feroleto, comandante della 5° armata; Ezio Rosi e Carlo Vecchiarelli, comandante delle armate in Montenegro, Grecia e Albania; Riccardo Moizo, alto commissario per Lubiana; gli ammiragli Inigo Campioni, Luigi Mascherpa, Francesco Zannoni, Gino Pavesi e Priamo Leonardi.

No ideas of the outcomes of the proccedinds though.

Best regards

David Thompson
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Post by David Thompson » 13 May 2005 14:48

Here's what I have:

Caprini, _____ [Italian Admiral] -- {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}

Caracciolo di Feroleto, Mario (1880-1954) [Italian General] -- commander, Italian 5th Division "Cacciatorivi delle Alpi" 1934-1935; commander, Italian 1st Cavalry Division "Eugenio di Savoia" 1935-1936; commander, Italian Libya 1937-1938; commander, Italian XXI Corps (North Africa) 1938-1939; Inspector-General Technical Service 1939-1940; commander, Italian 4th Army (France) 1940-1941; commander, Italian 5th Army 1941-1943 (Steen Ammentorp) or commander, Italian 7th Army 1942-43 (ABR-Italy) {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}

Chiarelli, _____ [Italian General] -- {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}

Garibaldi, Italo [Italian General] -- commander, VIII Italian Army Corps {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}

Jacconi, _____ [Italian Admiral] -- {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown; possibly identifiable with Admiral Francesco Zannoni.}

Leonardi, Priato [Italian Admiral] -- commander, Augusta naval base, Sicily {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); condemned to death in absentia 24 May 1944 after conviction for treason by an Italian Social Republic court (NYT 25 May 1944:5:1); probably identifiable with Admiral Priamo Leonardi.}

Mascherpa, Luigi [Italian Admiral] -- Italian Governor of Leros {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); executed 24 May 1944 after conviction for treason by an Italian Social Republic court (NYT 25 May 1944:5:1).}

Moiso, _____ [Italian General] -- Italian High Commisioner, Slovenia {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown; probably identifiable with General Riccardo Moizo.}

Pavesi, Gino [Italian Admiral] -- commander, Pantelleria {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); sentenced to death in absentia 24 May 1944 after conviction for treason by an Italian Social Republic court (NYT 25 May 1944:5:1).}

Robotti, Mario [Italian General] -- commander, Italian 2nd Army 1943 (ABR) {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}

Rosi, _____ [Italian General] -- commander, Gruppo d'Armate Est 1943 (ABR) {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown; probably identifiable with General Ezio Rosi.}

Vernolli, _____ [Italian General] -- commander, IV Italian Army Corps {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}

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Post by FB » 13 May 2005 15:41

On another site ( http://digilander.libero.it/infoprc/resistenza2.html ) I found that Gen. Mario Caracciolo di Feroleto, nobleman from Naples, was sentenced to death at the RSI trial (held in Brescia), but the sentence was commuted into 15 years of prison because of his being a war mutilated (mutilato di guerra). His Army (the V, he wrote a pamphlet titled "The last events of the V Army") was one of the few to great units to pose some problems to the Germans immediately after Sept. 8. He then reached Rome where he put himself under the command of Gen. Caviglia, and collaborating with the open city command. He managed to escape a first attempt of the Germans to arrest him and went into clandestinity, where he collaborated with Col. Cordero di Montezemolo (who was later killed in Fosse Ardeatine). He was arrested by the unfamous Koch gang (banda Koch an Italian fascist police unit), passed to the Germans in Verona and finally to Brescia for the trial. He was freed by the partizans on Apr. the 25th, 1945. He died in Rome in 1954 (was born in Naples in 1880)

About David's list, only a slight correction (a very usual typo for this General's last name): its Italo Gariboldi not Garibaldi.

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Lupo Solitario
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Post by Lupo Solitario » 13 May 2005 19:23

Here's what I have:

Caprini, _____ [Italian Admiral] -- {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}

otherwise unknown

Caracciolo di Feroleto, Mario (1880-1954) [Italian General] -- commander, Italian 5th Division "Cacciatorivi delle Alpi" 1934-1935; commander, Italian 1st Cavalry Division "Eugenio di Savoia" 1935-1936; commander, Italian Libya 1937-1938; commander, Italian XXI Corps (North Africa) 1938-1939; Inspector-General Technical Service 1939-1940; commander, Italian 4th Army (France) 1940-1941; commander, Italian 5th Army 1941-1943 (Steen Ammentorp) or commander, Italian 7th Army 1942-43 (ABR-Italy) {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}

FB notes are 100% good

Chiarelli, _____ [Italian General] -- {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}

Probably Vecchiarelli, the commander of 11th Army in Greece

Garibaldi, Italo [Italian General] -- commander, VIII Italian Army Corps {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}

Gariboldi, the commander of 8th Army (and not of 8th corps)

Jacconi, _____ [Italian Admiral] -- {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown; possibly identifiable with Admiral Francesco Zannoni.}

agree

Leonardi, Priato [Italian Admiral] -- commander, Augusta naval base, Sicily {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); condemned to death in absentia 24 May 1944 after conviction for treason by an Italian Social Republic court (NYT 25 May 1944:5:1); probably identifiable with Admiral Priamo Leonardi.}

Priato is not an italian name; Priamo is correct

Mascherpa, Luigi [Italian Admiral] -- Italian Governor of Leros {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); executed 24 May 1944 after conviction for treason by an Italian Social Republic court (NYT 25 May 1944:5:1).}

Moiso, _____ [Italian General] -- Italian High Commisioner, Slovenia {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown; probably identifiable with General Riccardo Moizo.}

agree

Pavesi, Gino [Italian Admiral] -- commander, Pantelleria {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); sentenced to death in absentia 24 May 1944 after conviction for treason by an Italian Social Republic court (NYT 25 May 1944:5:1).}

Robotti, Mario [Italian General] -- commander, Italian 2nd Army 1943 (ABR) {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}

Rosi, _____ [Italian General] -- commander, Gruppo d'Armate Est 1943 (ABR) {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown; probably identifiable with General Ezio Rosi.}

Vernolli, _____ [Italian General] -- commander, IV Italian Army Corps {impending treason trial announced by Italian Social Republic 29 Jan 1944 (NYT 30 Jan 1944:4:4); subsequent disposition unknown.}


In general term only admirals Campioni and Mascherpa were effectively killed[/b]

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Post by David Thompson » 13 May 2005 20:03

Thanks, Lupo Solitario and FB, for the helpful corrections. The newspaper articles I used can be very useful, but again and again I've learned that they can also be misleading if not checked against other sources.

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Post by Lupo Solitario » 13 May 2005 20:06

Ah, "Vernolli" is probably Vercellino the commander of 4th Army (and not of IV Corps)...

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Re: General's Trial

Post by trekker » 25 Aug 2014 07:00

GLADIVM wrote:During the RSI period in 1944 in North Italy was held the General's Trial to judge those Italian Generals which were accused of Treason not having sided with the Germans on 8th Sept 43 .

The defendants were Generals : Caracciolo (which one of two Caracciolo's ?? ) , Gariboldi ,
Vercellino , Rosi , Vecchiarelli , Dalmazzo , Clerici (which one of the two Clerici's , Scuero , Robotti , Malaguti , Moizo .
13.9.1943 commander of division Torino general Bruno Malaguti was arrested by Germans in Gorica/Gorizia and sent via Ljubljana to Thorn/Torun in Poland where he arrived 16.9.1943.
26.2.1944 he was sent first to Verona prison and then to Venezia and Brescia.
4.1. - 10.1.1945 he was presented to the special tribunal for the state defence (Tribunale Speciale per la difesa dello Stato) in Brescia and was sentenced to death because of having ordered his troops to oppose Germans in Gorica/Gorizia area which resulted in two clashes between Italian ad German soldiers 9.9.1943.
He was liberated from the prison by Italian partisans and died 2.12.1945.

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