German documents on anti-semitism in the Ukraine

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Postby David Thompson » 13 Jun 2005 05:21

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 60; August 22, 1941

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

I. Location

A sub-unit of Einsatzkommando 4b has arrived in Kirovograd. The rest of the Kommando will follow by August 14, [19]41. In the mean-

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time, the advance unit of the Einsatzgruppe was recalled as the attack on Kiev is planned in the near future. The advance unit that was also sent by Einsatzkommando 4a to Vasilkov remains there for the time being in order to search the area. It has become known that precisely in that area, Russian spies with definite reconnaissance orders are constantly being dispatched from Kiev through the lines into German rear positions.

According to the facts that could be ascertained by the AOK, thus far, about 25 spies have been assigned to this area. According to the information at hand, there is a large intelligence center in Kiev, which apparently just started with the methodical assignment of its agents. At the request of the 6th Army H. Q., a sub-unit will participate in the search actions against these agents.

Executive Operations

It has already been pointed out in previous reports that the Jews no longer show any restraint. This observation has been confirmed again by the latest actions.

Thus, for instance, at Korosten the Jews flashed light signals to the Russians even after the town was occupied by German troops. One Jew set his house on fire after it had been seized as a billet for the German Army. Another Jew dared tell a German soldier that a box which had been found and was actually filled with black powder was harmless and not inflammable. Another soldier with a lighted cigarette who joined them was burned and seriously injured.

In the area around Brusilov-Kornin Jewish-Bolshevik gangs have been formed terrorizing the Ukrainian population. Although these gangs are not numerically large, they are terrifying the Ukrainian population. These gangs ruthlessly take action at night against villages which had already been cleared of Jews and Communists. They set houses on fire by throwing hand-grenades and stealing cattle and vehicles. Now they go so far as to kidnap Ukrainians. In the vicinity of Khmielnik the terror caused by Jews had reached new heights.

After the former local military commander had been relieved and before a new one was appointed, the Jewish population at once turned this occasion to their advantage. They terrorized the Ukrainians and spread the rumor that the Russians would come back to take bloody revenge. According to the reports of an inhabitant, Jews and Communists killed 25 Ukrainians in a neighboring village. The Jews tried to block the approach to Khmielnik by stretching a rope across the road, thus trapping motor vehicles. The commanding officer of a construction company and a fully loaded personnel-carrier evaded the trap at the very last minute.

Extensive actions have been launched to fight these Jewish outrages and banditry. The localities concerned are surrounded and first of all cleared of prominent Jews and Jewish Communists. Above all, in each case, the ghetto is systematically purged. In collaboration with the local authorities and with the militia, lists are compiled containing the names of the well-known and still present Communists; then they are sought out. In Khmielnik as many as 100 Jews and Communists were listed.

In view of these unprecedented Jewish actions it is intended to round up the Jews in certain villages, to liquidate them, and to raze the villages to the ground.

In Turchinka, to the north of Zhitomir, about 400-500 peasants, coming from 12 villages, were caught while looting a railroad depot. First of all, firearms had to be used in order to restore peace and order. Then, together with 26 peasants, one Ukrainian was held responsible for the restitution of the looted goods. In case they refused to return the stolen items, they were threatened with the severest punishment.

Furthermore, the peasants were ordered to start bringing in the harvest immediately under newly assigned kolkhoz leaders. Up to now 110 peasants have returned the looted goods.

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Postby David Thompson » 13 Jun 2005 05:22

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 61; August 23, 1941

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Ananyev

EK 12:

Harvesting action

The kolkhozniki [collective farm workers] started to bring in the harvest on their own initiative. The population, almost without exception, showed itself extremely willing to work. Only in Babchinzy was there some resistance to an orderly harvesting caused by the instigation of Jewish inhabitants and some Jews who came to this area a few months ago. By spying on the population, these Jews had already created the basis for numerous deportations to Siberia. As a countermeasure, 94 Jews were executed.

The population was visibly relieved by these measures and hardly knows how to show its gratitude. This measure, as well as protecting the population from looting Rumanian soldiers, which was necessary in many cases, led to the fact that the population put absolute confidence in the Germans. This is reflected by the number of people reporting for work. In Yaruga, for example, 940 people out of a total of 1,200 inhabitants are occupied with bringing in the harvest.

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Postby David Thompson » 13 Jun 2005 05:23

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 64; August, 1941

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Ananyev

Situation in Kodyma

A. Economy

Business and trade in Kodyma and Kotovsk are almost exclusively under Jewish management. All the stores and shops and storehouses have been destroyed as a result of the war; the rest was looted by the population.

B. Cultural Situation in Kodyma Region

1. Nationalities Situation:

In the district of Kodyma as well as in the West Ukrainian areas that have been so far in touch with the Kommando, the Ukrainian character is decidedly prevalent. Concerning the nationalities situation, it is the same as in the regions of Yampol and Pechenka.

40% of the population, numbering 6,000, are Jews. The remaining 60% consist of Ukrainians and a small Polish group that has no influence whatsoever.

2. Education and Communist Influence

There are three Soviet schools in the region of Kodyma, namely, one comprising ten classes, one eight, and one seven. The schools of ten and seven classes were used mainly by Jews. That school was transformed from a Jewish to a Russian school ten years ago. Soviet personnel policy concerning the school system provided for a staff of teachers who were in charge of the three schools. With one excep-

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tion, directors and managers of the schools were either Jews or Communist activists.

C. Jewish matters

40% of the 5,000 inhabitants of Kodyma were Jews. In addition to the local Jews, there is a large number of refugees from Bessarabia. Most of the local Jews who were close to Bolshevism, that is members of the Communist party, have fled with the Soviet army.

Immediately after the Soviets arrived in Kodyma, the Jewish organizations were dissolved. Thus, their activities took place within the framework of the Communist party organizations. In 1935, the synagogues in Kodyma were transformed into schools. Prayer houses were not subsidized officially; therefore, the cult was practiced in private homes. These meetings were held secretly as the authorities collected high taxes for this. Also, Jewish Soviet employees and workers would have endangered their position. Therefore they frequented the prayer houses secretly.

The Jews in K. did not lead a traditional Jewish way of life. They were active in all of the decision-making positions and had influence in Communist organizations, clubs, and economy. Of the six Jewish physicians, one dentist, two lawyers, one pharmacist, only one female physician has remained in K. The rest of them have fled.

Jewish intelligentsia in Kodyma took great interest in the activities of the Communist party and held, as already mentioned, leading positions in the CP. The poorer part of the population were tradesmen. All of them were sympathetic to Bolshevism. Only a few Jewish families are members of the collectives.

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Postby David Thompson » 13 Jun 2005 05:24

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 66; August 28, 1941

Einsatzgruppe for Special Duties
Location: Lvov

Reports: Activity Report in the former Polish-Russian areas

2,117 persons were liquidated as follows: by Einsatzkommando Lvov 1,154; Brest-Litovsk 769; and Bialystok 194. Almost 3,000 persons were arrested. The Communists continue their illegal work in full strength. The spread of rumors and the dropping of leaflets by Russian airplanes are continuing. On August 15, 1941 a large ammunition depot, formerly Russian, exploded not far from Lvov apparently as a result of sabotage. Communists want to delay additional sabotage acts until after the harvest has been brought in. In Klusk near Kovel, 45 full barns burned down on the night of August 15-16, 1941. It is very easy to supply the numerous bands with weapons as military installations are unguarded.

The Jews continue to be extremely hostile and commit acts of sabotage whenever one does not react most energetically.

Members of the 10th Hungarian Hunter Battalion have expelled more than 1,000 Hungarian Jews over the Dniester to Galicia. Einsatz unit Tarnopol promptly sent them back. Members of the same Hungarian unit tore down Ukrainian flags, threw stones into the windows of Ukrainian priests, and entertained themselves with the Polish clergy. The dissolution of the Ukrainian militia is going on everywhere to the satisfaction of the greater part of the population. Activity of the Bandera supporters increases. An inscription on the cooper-

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tive store building in Klusk near Kovel demanded removal of the "foreign government" and the return of Stefan Bandera. The popular proclamation of the Ukrainian state was to be read in public in Luboml.

Functionaries coming from the General Gouvernement especially solicit the young people to join the Polish resistance movement.
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Last edited by David Thompson on 13 Jun 2005 05:30, edited 1 time in total.

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Postby David Thompson » 13 Jun 2005 05:25

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 74; September 5, 1941

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

Behavior of allied forces stationed in this area

In Pervomaysk, an ethnic German auxiliary policeman had the task to escort Jewish laborers. In the course of this activity, he had an altercation with a Jew and was injured. Self-defense was prevented by a Hungarian soldier who, with a loaded pistol, came to the aid of the Jew. Later on the Jew was found and liquidated by the Einsatzkommando in charge.

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Postby David Thompson » 13 Jun 2005 05:25

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 78; September 9, 1941

Situational Report in former Russian-Poland

Ethnic groups:

Nationalities

1,308 more persons were liquidated, 760 by Einsatzkommando Lvov and 548 by [EK] Brest-Litovsk. Approximately 700 persons were arrested. Distribution of Soviet Russian pamphlets has somewhat diminished at the time of this report. Only in the area of Lutsk, larger amounts were still seized in some villages. Pamphlets of more recent dates were not found any more. Six Russian parachutists landed east of Pinsk. Searches for them so far are without result. Parachutists were dropped in the area of Kremenets, most of them were seized and liquidated by the local security division. So far, no sabotage acts have been committed. The Polish resistance movement has become more evident in the area of Brest where there is strong propaganda for General Sikorski. No arrests have been effected, so as not to interfere with further investigations. Ukrainian bands have appeared lately in the neighborhood of Pinsk. However, they were driven out by the local police.

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Postby David Thompson » 13 Jun 2005 05:28

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 80; September 11, 1941

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

Observations made and measures taken by the Security Police.

Besides the thorough liquidation of the Party organization and the operations to clear the country of Jews who constitute the most negative civilian element, the executive operations of Einsatzgruppe C at present also include: above all, the fight against all partisan activities, beginning with the well-organized bands and the individual snipers down to the systematic rumor mongers.

The rumor that the Germans shoot to kill all the Jews has advantages. This is probably the reason why all the time the EKs encounters fewer Jews. Thus, it should be noted that everywhere more than 70-90% of the original local Jews have fled. In contrast to the past, this concerns not only those Jews who once held influential positions.

Primarily in the large towns, the ever increasing security tasks cannot be solved by the Einsatzkommandos alone, since they are too small for this purpose. Mounting importance is being attached to the creation and organization of a regular police service. Well screened particularly reliable Ukrainians are employed for this purpose. Moreover, a network of confidential agents composed predominantly of ethnic Germans, has been created with great success. In the kolkhozes these tasks have mostly been conferred upon the kolkhoz managers (the starostas).

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At Kirovo, the development has reached a stage where the men enlisted for this purpose are already being paid by the municipality from funds seized from Jews. They obtain their rations from a small farm that has been especially allocated to them.

In Narodichi, 208 terrorists, and, in a nearby barn, nearly 60 terrorists were arrested and shot in the course of a large-scale action.

In Andrushovka 6 more Bolsheviks were rendered harmless.

In Korosten, according to reports received, numerous Jews who had previously fled had gathered together again, constituting a source of continuous unrest.

238 Jews who were rounded up and driven to a special building by the Ukrainian militia were shot.

In Fastov, where the Secret Military Police of the local command post and a Defense Battalion had already liquidated about 30 snipers and 50 Jews, order was fully restored only after Sonderkommando 4a shot a former terrorist and all the Jewish inhabitants between the ages of 12 and 60, making a total of 262 heads.

August 24, 1941, the total of executions carried out by Sonderkommando 4a has thus reached the figure of 7,152 persons.
In Lisovishi three saboteurs, one of whom had destroyed several harvesters, were arrested and liquidated.

In Tarashcha, 17 executions were carried out.

In Kamenets-Podolsk 23,600 Jews were shot in three days by a Kommando of the Higher SS and Police Leaders.

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Postby David Thompson » 13 Jun 2005 05:30

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 81; September 12, 1941

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka.

Report relating to the situation in the Ukraine submitted by Einsatzkommando 6.

The Jewish question

All experiences confirm the assertion made before that the Soviet state was a Jewish state of the first order. This can be ascertained in every enterprise, authority and even in the kolkhozes. Take the director, vice-director, the bookkeeper, the cashier, the manager of the depots of each enterprise: they were Jews, and the employees and workers were Ukrainians. The manager of the local labor union, the party-secretary of the same enterprise are Jews as well. This is found to be the rule in the medium and small enterprises, let alone the big ones. For these reasons, the Jewish question has become a burning problem for the Ukrainian people. Whenever this question is discussed, enthusiastic approval can be heard. The use of the word "Zhid" was threatened with severe punishment and considered to be

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symptomatic of an anti-Soviet attitude during the Bolshevik era. The acceptable form was that of "Yevrei." The aversion of the population and the clear understanding of the Jewish problem increases when going from west to east. This means that in the districts of central and east Ukraine, where there are no long-time Jews, the Jew is rejected with even greater exasperation than in the "old-Jewish" districts west of Berdichev and Zhitomir. There, a greater passivity and an accommodation to the association with Jews took place over the course of centuries. Concerning propaganda measures for the broad masses in the Ukrainian districts it should be kept in mind that the population is always grateful for our treatment of the Jewish question. Almost nowhere could the population be induced to take active steps against the Jews. This may be traced back to the fear still prevailing in many circles that the Reds might come back again.

Time and again this intimation was made by the older people with the addition that they already had the experience in 1918 when the Germans suddenly withdrew. In order to counteract this psychosis of fear, and to break the spell which adheres to the Jews as carriers of political power in the eyes of many Ukrainians, Einsatzkommando 6 in several instances marched the Jews through the town under guard prior to their execution. It was likewise often deemed important to have men from the militia (Ukrainian auxiliary police force) participate in the execution of Jews. Word seems to have passed among the Jews on the other side of the front, too, about the fate they can expect from us. While a considerable number of Jews could be apprehended during the first weeks, it can be ascertained that in the central and eastern districts of the Ukraine, in many cases 70% to 90%, and in some cases even 100% of the Jewish population had bolted. The gratuitous evacuation of hundreds of thousands of Jews may be considered to be an indirect success of the work of the Security Police. As we hear mostly from the other side of the Urals, this is a considerable contribution to the solution of the Jewish question in Europe.

As an oddity we should like to mention the discovery of Jewish kolkhozes. Between Krivoy-Rog and Dnepropetrovsk there is a considerable number of Jewish kolkhozes which consist of Jews not only as the managers but also as agricultural laborers. As far as we could find out they are Jews of low intelligence who had been found unsuitable

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for important tasks and "exiled" to the country by the political leaders.

In order to be sure work was carried on [without interruption], Einsatzkommando 6 refrained from shooting the Jews in these cases, and was satisfied with the liquidation of the Jewish managers [only], replacing them with Ukrainians.

Some experiences

Executions of Jews are understood everywhere and accepted favorably. It is surprising how calm the delinquents [victims] are when they are shot, both Jews and non-Jews. Fear of death seems to have been dulled by 20 years of Soviet rule.
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Postby David Thompson » 13 Jun 2005 05:33

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 86; September 17, 1941

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

General situation

The Einsatzkommandos maintain contact with the fighting troops in order to arrive together with the advance infantry units in the newly occupied cities and areas. In this process they are frequently exposed to violent enemy fire.

In spite of their rapid progress, the picture has by now become the same all over and can be summarized as follows: the most important officials of the KP and the NKVD and the influential Jews have fled and destroyed all documentary material. The politically important fu-

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gitives have apparently gone over the Dnieper, while the less important, among them many Jews, are returning by and by. Therefore, next to the search for strangers in prison camps and in as many small localities as possible, particular importance is given to the search of forest areas, roads, and villages at night. For, according to our experience, fugitives and partisans show up there for provisions.

The arrival of the security Kommandos is generally made known very soon and is welcomed by the Army, especially by the local command headquarters as well as by the population. Village mayors, militia commanders, and other civilians arrive from distances as far as 20 km in order to make reports. It is remarkable that up to now the peasant has hardly ever left the borders of his village. Particularly frequent are reports on Russian parachutists that have been seen, as well as bands and hidden Bolsheviks. As all the Einsatz commanders have noticed, the actions that were subsequently taken were only partly successful because the information received from the population is exaggerated or not based on reliable facts. Exaggerated anxiety, the wish to hurt personal enemies, and the wish for weapons of the Ukrainian militia are the main reasons for such useless denunciations. Anyhow, the trust of the Ukrainian population is gratifying, particularly as it was possible to ferret out the places of Bolsheviks, Jews, and asocial elements following the reports.

The above-mentioned exaggerations come at first from an inability that can be called childish on the part of the population to express itself clearly and unambiguously and of a narrow-mindedness, particularly in the southern Ukraine. It frequently happened that persons timidly denied their strongly biased reports or they weakened them when they found out that the life of the accused was in danger.

In general, such informants are sternly cautioned in order to avoid unnecessary troubles. In one case, an especially vicious informant was shot in the hamlet of Rozhyn. He was convicted of former Communist activity and asocial behavior.

One could also observe that the Jews behave in a brazen and impertinent manner in spite of the large-scale actions against them. This is proven by the following example:

In Ushomir where the 1st SS brigade shot all male Jews, bands led by four Jews entered two hours after the brigade left and set fire to 48 houses. In Zhitomir, the unarmed Ukrainian militia was repeatedly molested by Jews and, in one case, even shot at.

The Jews wrote a threatening letter in Kotelnia to the mayor that

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ended with the following words, "Long live the party of Lenin and Stalin! Long live the Jewish Communists! Death to the German bandits."

In Cherniakov, a Jewish woman managed to pose as an ethnic German in front of the mayor in the presence of a member of the SD by presenting a forged German document. Referring to this so-called proof she demanded a plot of land from the local commander.

Smuggling flourishes among the Jews in Zhitomir. They hoard the products which the peasants exchange for looted goods.

The Jews use work certificates that were given them by the Army offices for short-term occupations and do not return them. They also occupy themselves with forging documents. Thus, certificates were found like those used by the local Kommandatur in Zhitomir. Although the 6th Army HQ stamps were forged, the forms appeared to be real. They stem probably from an Army printing shop where Jews had been employed as auxiliary workers.

Operations

266 Jews were liquidated as further reprisal measures against the rebellion of the Zhitomir Jews. They even sabotaged the black-out regulations at night and lit up their windows during Russian air raids.

In the vicinity of the town, it was possible to disarm and arrest a parachutist with the aid of the militia after a rifle skirmish. He was equipped with explosives.

160 persons were shot in Korosten; during the course of the actions 68 persons were executed in Byelatserkiev and 109 in Tarashcha, mostly Jews.

Thus the Sonderkommando 4a has exterminated 6,584 Bolsheviks, Jews, and asocial elements. In two cases, ethnic Germans had to be arrested. They were active in the Communist sense, participating actively in the preparations for the deportation of ethnic Germans and Ukrainians. The investigations against these have not yet been concluded.

For the time being, Einsatzkommando 5 has been divided into platoons covering a larger territory, and is systematically combing the villages of this area. Among others, several Bolshevik mayors and kolkhoz representatives were taken care of. Besides that, several mentally retarded persons who were ordered to blow up bridges and railroad tracks and to carry out other acts of sabotage, were rendered

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harmless. It seems that the NKVD favored mentally retarded persons in allocating these kinds of tasks; they, in spite of their inferiority, mustered enough energy for their criminal activities. Four executions were carried out in Ulianov, 18 in Uledovka.

It was possible to take care of 229 Jews in the clean-up action carried out in Khmielnik. As a result, this area, which suffered especially from Jewish terror, is extensively cleaned up. The reaction of the population here to their deliverance from the Jews was so strong that it resulted in a Thanksgiving service.

Einsatzkommando 5 took care of 506 Bolsheviks and Jews in the course of 14 days.

In the south of the Einsatzgruppen area, there still exists an empty area with respect to security police work because military operations do not take place sufficiently far away. So far, the return of the fugitives has not started in sufficient measure. Therefore, the number of actions naturally increases in the area which lies further back [from the front].

The remaining units of Einsatzkommando 6 shot about 600 Jews in Vinnitsa.

Up to now, 140 politically tainted persons were arrested in Kirovo and 48 of these were shot. Among these were heads of unions, Komsomol leaders, lay judges, and leaders of other Bolshevik central offices.

In Krivoy-Rog, 39 officials, 11 saboteurs and looters, and 105 Jews were taken care of.

Several actions for the seizure of officials, terrorists, and migrating Jews were carried out by the Einsatzgruppen HQ in Novo-Ukrainka and vicinity. Among others, a caravan of Jews, which was taking along a wagon of loot, was stopped. The Jews were shot and the goods distributed to the population. It was possible to find and to take care of two leading Communists during a night action in Zlinka. On the basis of individual reports and of road blocks on streets in the course of official travels, several Jews or Bolshevik agents were shot.

The office of the Higher SS and Police Leader took care of a total of 511 Jews in actions in Pilva and Stara-Sieninva.

The Jews

Even if an immediate hundred percent exclusion of the Jews were

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possible, this would not remove the political source of danger. Bolshevik work depends on Jews, Russians, Georgians, Armenians, Poles, Latvians, and Ukrainians. The Bolshevik apparatus is very limited in scope, identical with the Jewish population. In this situation, the goal of the political security police would be missed if the main task of the destruction of the Communist machine were to become a second or third choice in favor of the practically easier task of the exclusion of the Jews. Furthermore, concentrating on the Bolshevik official robs the Jews of their most able forces. Thus, the solution of the Jewish problem becomes more and more a problem of organization.

In the western and middle Ukraine, the Jews are almost identical with the city workers, artisans, and the tradesman class. If the Jewish labor force is entirely discarded, an economic reconstruction of the Ukrainian industry and the extension of the administration centers of the cities are almost impossible.

There is only one possibility, which the German administration in the General Gouvernement has not sufficiently understood for a long time, the solution of the Jewish problem by extensive labor utilization of the Jews. This will result in a gradual liquidation of the Jews, a development which corresponds to the economic conditions of the country.

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Postby David Thompson » 13 Jun 2005 05:36

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 88; September 19, 1941

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

Locations

The Vorkommando 4b, which was previously stationed in Koryukov, has since moved to Kremenchug. Work in Kremenchug, which was heavily damaged by the actions, was begun at once. Headquarters will move into the town on completion of the bridge over the river now under construction.

The Einsatzgruppe, too, will effect a change of location these days, presumably to Poltava.

Measures in the sphere of the Security Police

On September 6, 1941, Kommando 4a carried out an action against the Jews in Radomyshl. There, Jews from all over the district had been assembled. This led to an overcrowding of Jewish homes. On the average, 15 persons lived in one room. Hygienic conditions became intolerable. Every day several Jewish corpses had to be removed from the houses.

It was impossible to supply food to the Jews as well as the children.

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In consequence, there was an ever-increasing danger of epidemics. To put an end to these conditions, 1,107 Jewish adults were shot by Kommando 4a, and 561 juveniles by the Ukrainian militia. By September 6, 1941, Sonderkommando 4a has liquidated a total of 11,328 Jews.

Between August 23 and September 5, 1941, Vorkommando 4b carried out a total of 519 executions by shooting, among these 56 officials and agents of the NKVD, 28 saboteurs and looters, and 435 Jews.

Between August 24 and August 30, 1941, Einsatzkommando 5 carried out 157 executions by shooting comprising Jews, officials and saboteurs.

On September 1 and 2, 1941, leaflets and inflammatory pamphlets were distributed by Jews in Berdichev. As the perpetrators could not be found, 1,303 Jews, among them 875 Jewesses over 12 years, were executed by a unit of the Higher SS and Police Leaders.

Owing to the halt of military operations, the Kommandos were restricted to their locations for longer periods than before. The time thus gained could be used for an intensification of work in the area. This partially very successful work was rendered possible by the creation of an excellent network of confidential informers. In the first place ethnic Germans and reliable Ukrainians were selected for these jobs.

It is with a view to the later period that an efficient communications network in the whole country is of particular importance. For this reason, it is intended to set up message centers all over the country which will be in charge of particularly reliable informants. These informants, then, will maintain communication with the others and collect the incoming messages. At longer or shorter intervals, these message centers will be visited by the Kommandos or by command headquarters to pick up the accumulated information. This may afford a possibility to keep check on this vast area, so as to discover early and suppress by surprise potential dangers. Finally, a certain political alignment of the population could be achieved through the message centers. While headquarters have not been stationed yet, these talks will be carried out as far as possible by the group itself.
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Postby David Thompson » 13 Jun 2005 05:37

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 89; September 20, 1941

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Kikorino

Work areas of the Kommandos have been freed of Jews. From August 19 to September 25, 8,890 Jews and Communists were executed. The total number is 13,315.

Presently the Jewish question in Nikolayev and Kherson is being solved. In each place about 5,000 Jews were seized. In this location there are hardly any Communists since almost all of them retreated with the Soviets. In addition to a few Party officials, eight NKVD officials in Anayev and fourteen in Nikolayev were rendered harmless.

After interrogations any denunciations concerning terror organizations proved to be unfounded.
Jewish partisan group removed in .. .

Reconstruction work until now:

a) Organization and training for German self-defense. Continuation of furnishing guards, road blocks, assistance to relatives of banished persons. Assistance in house-to-house searches.

b) Marking of German villages, including the exterior of all houses with posters and sign boards in German, Rumanian and Ukrainian languages. Ethnic Germans were issued certificates signed by the Commander-in-Chief.

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c) Freeing of settlements from Jewish and Communist elements.

d) Influence on Rumanian offices regarding self-administration of German communities.

e) Concentration of settlements was started. Farmers, physicians, teachers, etc. who had lived in scattered places brought into German settlements.

f) Economic protection, distribution of loot, cattle, harvesting machines to the people, distribution of Jewish houses, belongings, etc.

g) Reviving cultural life by starting German instruction in most of the communities on September 9. Some hospitals opened. Influence on German behavior through lectures on Germany and the Führer.

h) Preparatory work for the inclusion of all ethnic Germans. Forty communities were included in the Beresany area. All the ethnic Germans were registered. In Nikolayev and Kherson they were also registered in card indexes. Selecting of the best for further reconstruction work, etc.
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Postby David Thompson » 15 Jun 2005 14:21

Operational Situation Report No. 94; September 25, 1941

As already mentioned, the procedure against the Jews is necessarily different in the individual sectors, according to the density of their settlement. Especially in the northern sector of Einsatzgruppe C, a great many Jewish refugees have returned to the villages and, present now a heavy burden in regard to the food situation. The population neither houses nor feeds them. They live partly in caverns, partly in overcrowded old huts. The danger of epidemics has thus increased considerably, so that for that reason alone a thorough cleanup of the respective places became necessary.

The insolence of the Jews has not yet diminished even now. Apart from the fact that, on the occasion of raids, they like to pass themselves off for Russians, Ukrainians, even ethnic Germans, they often are in the possession of passports which, though shoving their names correctly, give a false nationality. Concealment of their Jewish descent has been made easier for them by the Russianization of the names which has taken place to an ever-increasing degree during the last years.

At Kirovograd it became known that Jews tried to obtain all the registers office identity papers with a false nationality. Several Jews, on the basis of forged papers, even succeeded in obtaining various posts with the administration where they performed such acts of "re-baptism" in a system of patronage as practiced already previously. The Ukrainian population, for fear [of] revenge by the Jews, often does not dare to report this situation to the authorities. The most severe measures are taken here in dealing with such cases.

Difficulties have arisen insofar as Jews are often the only skilled workers in certain trades. Thus, the only harness-makers and the only good tailors at Novo-Ukrainia are Jews. At other places also only Jews can be employed for carpentry and locksmith work. The cause of this shortage of skilled workers is to a large extent to be found in the unlimited compulsory evacuation of skilled Ukrainians by the Soviets. In order not to endanger reconstruction and the repair work also for the benefit of transient troop units, it has become necessary to exclude provisionally especially the older Jewish skilled workers from the execution.

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Postby David Thompson » 15 Jun 2005 14:22

Operational Situation Report No. 106; October 7, 1941

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Kiev

I. Kiev

...........

As a result of [war] destruction, especially of houses, and the forced order to evacuate endangered streets, about 23,000 persons became homeless and were forced to spend the first days of the occupation in the open. They accepted this inconvenience quietly and did not cause panic.

Meanwhile, locked and empty apartments, insofar as they had not been burned and damaged, were put at the disposal of the population. A corresponding number of apartments have also become available through liquidation, thus far around 36,000 Jews on September 29 and 30, 1941. The housing of the homeless is assured and has also been taken care of in the meantime.

The population of Kiev before the start of the war numbered around 850,000. For the time being, no exact indication concerning its national composition can be given. The number of Jews is said to have been about 300,000. The total number of ethnic Germans living in Kiev is presently being counted by a Kommando. The final results will be available in ten days. The temporary appointed city administration has begun immediately to register all the inhabitants of Kiev. As a first measure, all males 15-60 must report. Except for a small part, the non-Jewish population, as far as can now be established, seems to welcome the German Army, or at least to display loyal behavior. During the first days of the occupation, serious unrest could be detected within the population because of rumors that the German Army was leaving the city. These rumors were successfully squelched with proper official announcements. The population cooperates very readily by furnishing information on explosives or secret membership in the NKVD, the Party and the Red Army.

Unlike the first days, one could note that this information was 90% correct. The reason for this is that the city inhabitants are less frightened than is the rural population, since they do not fear the possibility of a return of the Bolsheviks. There are no food stocks and these must be provided. A staff in charge of economic affairs was created by the appointed city administration. It's main task was, for the time being, the supplying of the most vital food. This economic staff supplied the required transportation and, thus, the most urgent needs could be met by bringing in supplies from the nearby collective farms.

II: Executions and other measures

The population was extremely infuriated against the Jews because of their preferential economical status under Soviet rule. It could also be proved that the Jews had participated in arson. The population expected adequate reprisals from the Germans. For this purpose, in agreement with the city military command, all the Jews of Kiev were ordered to appear at a certain place on Monday, September 29, by 6 o'clock. This order was publicized by posters all over the town by members of the newly organized Ukrainian militia. At the same time, oral information was passed that all the Jews of Kiev would be moved to another place. In cooperation with the HQ of EGC and two Kommandos of the police regiment South, Sonderkommando 4a executed 33,771 Jews on September 29 and 30. (1) Gold and valuables, linen, and clothing were secured. Part of it was given to the NSV (National-Sozialistische Versorgung = Nazi Welfare) for the ethnic Germans, and part to the appointed city administration for distribution among the needy population. The action was carried out smoothly and no incidents occurred. The population agreed with the plan to move the Jews to another place. That they were actually liquidated has hardly been made known. However, according to the experience gained so far, this would not meet with any opposition. The army has also approved the measures taken. The Jews that have not yet been caught or who will return will be treated accordingly. At the same time, a number of NKVD men and commissars were arrested and finished off.

The Bandera members lost power with the arrests made by the Kommandos. Their activity was restricted to the distribution of leaflets and posters. Three arrests were made; more are pending.

The HQ of the EGC as well as Sonderkommando 4a and Einsatzkommando 5, both stationed in Kiev, have made connections with the proper offices. Constant cooperation with these offices was achieved, and imminent problems are discussed daily. Because of the vast amounts of information, each time [with each action] detailed operation reports must be submitted about the activity of the Einsatzkommandos.

III. Zhitomir, action against the Jews

The Militia headquarters, according to a suggestion of Sonderkommando 4a, arranged a temporary, local concentration of Jews in Zhitmmir. This resulted in a quieter atmosphere, for example, in the markets, etc. At the same time, obstinate rumors diminished and it seemed that together with the concentration of the Jews, the Communists, too, lost much ground. However, it became obvious after a few days that concentration of the Jews without building a ghetto did not suffice, and that the old difficulties emerged again after a short while. Complaints about the impertinence of the Jews in their various places of work stemmed from various quarters. It was noted that strong propaganda activity among the Ukrainians, claiming that the Red Army would return very soon into the areas that had been taken away from them, had their origin in the Jewish quarter. The local militia was shot at, at night, and even in the daytime from an ambush. It was also established that Jews exchanged their belongings for money in order to move into Western Ukraine where a civil administration already exists.

All these phenomena could be observed. However, it was possible to get hold of the involved Jews only in the rarest cases, as they had sufficient opportunities to evade arrest. Therefore, a conference was called together with military H.Q. on September 10, 1941. The resulting decision was the final and radical liquidation of the Jews of Zhitomir, since all warnings [threats] and special measures [punishments] had not led to any perceptible change. On September 19, 1941, from 4 o'clock [a.m.], the Jewish quarter was emptied after having been surrounded and closed the previous evening by 60 members of the Ukrainian militia. The transport [deportation] was accomplished in 12 trucks, part of which had been supplied by military headquarters and part by the city administration of Zhitomir. After the transport had been carried out and the necessary preparations made with the help of 150 prisoners, 3,145 Jews were registered and shot.

After 25-30 tons of linen, clothing, shoes, dishes, etc. that had been confiscated in the course of the action were handed over to the officials of the NSV in Zhitomir for distribution. Valuables and money were conveyed to the Sonderkommando 4a.

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Postby David Thompson » 15 Jun 2005 14:33

Operational Situation Report No. 111; 12 October 1941

Einsatzgruppe C
Location Kiev, reports:

Security Police Measures

Sonderkommando 4a now has reached the total number of more than 51,000 executions. Apart from the special action in Kiev of 28 and 29 September, for which 2 Kommandos of the Police Regiment South were detached, all executions carried out so far were made by that special Kommando without any assistance from outside. The executed persons were mainly Jews, a minor part was political officials as well as saboteurs and looters.

In the period between 7 September and 5 October, 207 political officials, 112 saboteurs and looters as well as 8,800 Jews were liquidated by Einsatzkommando 5.

Special Kommando 4 b, in the period between 13 and 26 September executed 103 political officials, 9 saboteurs and looters, and 125 Jews. Einsatzkommando 6, in the period between 14 and 27 September, executed 13 political officials, 32 looters and saboteurs, as well as 26 Jews.

These were the motives for the executions carried out by the Kommandos:

Political officials, looters and saboteurs, active Communists and political representatives, Jews who gained their release from prison camps by false statements, agents and informers of the NKVD [National Commissariat for Internal Affairs], persons who, by false depositions and influencing witnesses, were instrumental in the deportation of ethnic Germans, Jewish sadism and revengefulness, undesirable elements, partisans, Politruks, dangers of plague and epidemics, members of Russian bands, armed insurgents - provisioning of Russian bands, rebels and agitators, drifting juveniles, Jews in general.

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Postby David Thompson » 15 Jun 2005 14:37

Operational Situation Report No. 112; October 13, 1941

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Kiev

Bolshevism and Jewry

The population's attitude towards these two problems in the areas of Kiev, Poltava, and Dniepropetrovsk is the same as has been observed elsewhere in the Ukraine. The population rejects Bolshevism almost without exception, since there is practically no family which has not lost one or more members through Bolshevik deportation or killing. Also, the Ukrainians had been free farmers and independent in ancient Russia and have not forgotten that everything was taken from them when forced into the collective farms. The number of Ukrainians who joined the Communist party out of conviction is surprisingly low.

Only the young people who have neither seen nor heard of anything else but Communism and its "successes and achievements" allow themselves to be captivated by the Communist ideology. Yet even in this group one finds few fanatics and really convinced fighters. German propaganda will not have difficulty in promoting a complete change in this attitude. In order to begin the process of such a re-education, and as long as the powerful battle is still fresh in the minds of the Ukrainians, propaganda, lectures, performances, films, radio and periodicals should be introduced. The Ukrainian rejects Judaism together with Communism, as it was mainly Jews who were officials of the Communist Party. The Ukrainians had the opportunity to discover that practically only the Jews enjoyed the advantages connected with membership in the Communist Party, especially in its leading positions. The population is, however, unaware of real anti-Semitism based on rural and ideological principles. There are no leading personalities and no spiritual impetus within the Ukrainian population to trigger off persecution since all remember the harsh punishments inflicted by the Bolsheviks against anyone who attacked the Jews. For instance, whoever called the Jews "Zhid" (Yid) (which was at that time a curse word) and not "Evrei" (Hebrew), was sent to prison. However, if an impulse comes from any side and should the population be given a free hand, an extensive persecution of the Jews could result.


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