International Brigades - Battalions

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Stellan Bojerud
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International Brigades - Battalions

Post by Stellan Bojerud » 31 Dec 2005 17:37

Looking at the "Axis History Factbook" i found several errors. This is however understandable since the International Brigades are very complicated to understand. So I do not want to critizise but instead contribute with some corrections.

Let us look through the Batallion list.

Abraham Lincoln - OK
Adam Mickierwicz - OK
André Marty - Served in IB 12, IB 150 and IB 14
Asturias Heredia - OK (but only for a short wile namely 28/11-7/12 1936)
British - OK but it did have the name Shapurij Saklatvala
Commune de Paris - OK
Dimitrov - IB 15, IB 129 had name Gheorghiu Dimitrov. Not in IB 13 as I know
Deba Blagoiev - Never existed! The Bn instead got the name Dure Dacovic
Djure Djakovic - prounounced so but written Dure Dacovic - Yugoslavian Bn
Dombrowski is pronounced so but written Jaroslaw Dabrowski. No Hungarians in that Bn. Served in IB 11. IB 12, IB 150, IB 13 (new)
Domingo Germinal was a mainly French Bn (named after a Spanish Activist KiA)
Edgar André - OK
Espanol - had the name Voluntario 24
Figlio - OK
Galindo - Italian, not Spanish, in IB 12 not IB 15
Garibaldi - Giuseppe Garibaldi
George Washington - merged Abraham Lincoln 12/7 1937 Brunete
Hans Beimler - Formed 21/4 1937 Torija and existed to the end of the war
Henri Barbusse - OK
Henri Vuillemin - OK, absorbed Louise Michel (II) 27/1 1937 Teruel
Juan Marco - OK
Louise Michel (I) - in IB 11, dissolved 7/12 1937 Madrid. Not in In 13 and IB 14
Louise Michel (II) - IB 13, merged Henri Vuillemin 27/1 1937
MacKenzie-Papineau - OK
Madrid - there were two Bns Madrid (I) and Madrid (II) one in each IB 11 and IB 12
Marsellaise - La Marsellaise. Spring 1937 renamed Ralph Fox in honour of commissar KiA.
Mathyas Rakosi - OK
Otumba - OK
Pacificio OK
Palafox - name José Palafox
Pasionara - OK
Pierre Brachet - OK
Prieto -OK
Primera Unidad de Avance (PUA) -OK
Sans nome etc - real name Neuve Naciones. Lost 18/1 1937 Madrid. Polish-Balkan Bn.
Six Février - 6éme Fevrier in IB 15 later IB 14
Thälmann - Ernst Thälmann in IB 11 - IB 12 - IB 11 again
Thomas Mazaryk -OK
Tschapiaew - OK but I prefer Czapiaew
Vaillant Couturier - OK
Veinte - Could be considered as an Anglo-american Bn, but mixed. IB 86, not IB 13. Dissolved and merged George Washington April 1937.
Zwölfte Februar -12 Februar
**
There were also Italian Bn Guido Picelli (CO:s name) Formed 11/11 and dissolved 9/12 1936.
John Scheer Austro-German formed 11/11 and dissolved 28/11 1936.
Ambiente Spanish in IB 13

Happy new year 2006!

Stellan

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Stellan Bojerud
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And a few more

Post by Stellan Bojerud » 05 Jan 2006 09:59

And some more International Battalions

ASTURIAS-HEREDIA IB 11 361128-361207 transferred nucelus new Bde

MADRID (II) IB 11 370114-370131
PACIFICO IB 11 370114-370131

APOYO IB 11 370306-370420 became HANS BEIMLER
PASIONARA IB 11 370312-370618 became 12 FEBRUAR

MADRID (II) IB 12 370117-370308
PRIETO IB 12 370117-370308

AMBIENTE IB 12 became part of Bn JOSÉ PALAFOX

JUAN MARCO IB 13 361206-370804 14th Bn dissolved Brunete
OTUMBA IB 13 370127-370804 11th Bn dissolved Brunete

PRIMERA UNITAD DE AVANCE IB 14 370117-370323 9th Bn merged COMMUNE DE PARIS?

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international brigade battalions

Post by paul philippou » 10 Jan 2006 12:42

looking at your list of battalions;

In June 1938 the 45th Division underwent a reorganisation - it consisted of the 12th and 14th IBs, the 139th Spanish Brigade and a new battalion attatched directly to division - the Czech-Balkan Battalion. Its first commander was the Czech, Kagan. I think the battalion was put together after March 1938 with troops from various units that were in disaaray after the Aragon retreats, including those from Albacete, those at the officer training school at Pozorrubio and men from the 129th Brigade - it had an artillery battery the Petko Miletic. It was involved at Teruel, cambrils, Sierra Cavalls, Corbera, Les Gaetes and L'Ametlla de Mer. Disbanded 25 September 1938.

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Balkan Battalions

Post by Stellan Bojerud » 10 Jan 2006 14:58

Thank You very much!

Very interesting indeed. I have thought this Bn was the same as Bn DURE DACOVIC (Yugo) but it obviously is not. The Polish-Balkan Bns are somewhat difficult.

Formed/Battalion/Fate

361014-361104 JAROSLAW DABROWSKI (Pol) 380923 Dissolved
361111-361201 CZAPIAEW (Pol-Balk) 370804 Dissolved
361215-361222 NEUVE NACIONES (Pol-Balk) 370117 Lost Madrid
361218-360131 GHEORGHIU DIMITROV (Pol-Balk) 381005 Dissolved
370323-370410 DURE DACOVIC (Yugo) 381005 Demobilized
370323-370412 MATHYAS RAKOSI (Hung) 380923 Demobilized
370612-370706 JOSÉ PALAFOX (Polish) 380922 Demobilized
371004-371027 ADAM MICKIEWICZ (Pol) 380923 Demobilized
3712??-371230 THOMAS MAZARYK (Czech) 381005 Demobilized
380213-3803?? DIVISIONARIO 45 (Cz-Balk) 380925 Demobilized

I am not sure of the numbers except for DABROWSKI (4th - 3rd - 4th again), CAPAIEW (8th), NEUVE NACIONES (9th), DIMITROV (18th) and MICKIEWICZ (11th - an earlier 11th Bn OTUMBA had been dissolved 370804).

Best greetings from Stockholm

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Austro-German Battalions

Post by Stellan Bojerud » 14 Jan 2006 05:36

So far I have identified five Austro-German Battalions

Formed/Most common name

361014-361104 EDGAR ANDRÉ
361025-361110 ERNST THÄLMANN
361111-361025 JOHN SCHEER - 361028 Dissolved
370323-370421 HANS BEIMLER
370323-370618 12 FEBRUAR

Wich numbers did HANS BEIMLER and 12 FEBRUAR have?

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Forming International Battalions

Post by Stellan Bojerud » 06 Mar 2006 09:14

I have been struggeling with the International Brigades since 1985. My plan was to publish a book in 1986 in connection to the 50th year memory of outbreak of SCW. The more I leant the more i understood that I knew nothing at all. Now after more than 20 years of research I feel that the odd pieces are finally fitting together.

I now thing I have found a few essential facts.

1) There were three different numbering systems. The first is what I call the IB-number. IB stands for International Brigade or Individual Battalion number. These numbers were given the Bns when formed. In the beginning some Bns changed numbers when they were transferred from one Brigade to another, but later the IB-numbers became sticky was kept by the Bn for the rest of the war.

It essential to know that there were no vacancies allowed in this numbering system. If for instance a Bn was dissolved the number was re-used for another Bn. In case a new Bn was forming in a Training Camp the new Bn would take the number of the dissolved Bn. If there was no new Bn forming, the extant Bn with highest number would be renumbered.

The IB-numbers is a series 1-28.

2) What I call the EP-numbers stands for Ejercito Popular Republicana (EPR) and were established 20 Apr 1937 effective from 1 may 1937. In this numbering systyem all EPR Battalions were counted in one consequent series. These numbers were not individual but tactical. Each Brigade should have four Bns. IB 11 for example had 41st - 44th Bns. When a Bn changed Brigade it did also change numbers.

The EP-numbers are 41-60 and strangely enough in IB 150 37-40.

3) There was also a special numbering system only used within IB 14 and IB 14 bis between 27 Oct 1937 and 23 Feb 1938.

4) Each Bn did also have two numbers. The IB-number and the EP-number. For example Bn EDGAR ANDRÉ was IB 1st Bn and EP 41st Bn. Another example Bn COMMUNE DE PARIS was IB 2nd Bn and EP 56th Bn.

5) Spanish Bns attached to the Internatiional Brigades were numbered in both the IB and EP series.

6) During the war there were three different methods for forming a Battalion. a) Using extant Militia Centurias and Grupos as nucelus for units formed by new volunteers. This system was used in Oct - Nov 1936. b) Forming Bns only of new volunteers and a few veterans returning from hospitals. This method was used in Dec 1936. c) Making an extrant Spanish Bn "international" by using an extant international Coy of another Bn as cadre.

Examples:

a) Centuria COMMUNE DE PARIS provided Officers and NCOs for 1st Bn COMMUNE DE PARIS and also 4th MG Coy of this Bn. In the MG Coy also an American Grupo SACCO Y VANZETTI formed a MG Section and a BRITISH Grupo (without name) another MG Sction. The rest of the Bn was formed by new volunteers from Algeria and France.

b) 15th Bn 6éme FEVRIER was formed only by new volunteers from France.

c) Spanish Bn PASIONARA was 6 Feb 1937 attached as fourth Bn of IB 11. It was IB-numbered 19. (The EP-numbers had by then not been introduced). After the battle of Guadalajara 3rd (Austro-German) Coy of 10th Bn DOMINGO GERMINAL (IB 14) was transferred to IB 11. This Coy and Bn PASIONARA were reorganized 23 Mrs - 18 Jun 1937 becoming 19th Bn 12 FEBRUAR of IB 11 and also 44th Bn in the EP-series.

I think that Spanish Bn APOYO and 4th (Austro-German) MG Coy of 8th Bn CZAPIAEW (IB 13) aswell as 4th (Austro-German) MG Coy of 20th Bn VEINTE (IB 86) were reorganized as 2nd Bn HANS BEIMLER of IB 11 23 mrs - 21 Apr 1937 wich also got the EP-number 42.

7) I now have a fairly complete list of the Battalions, but there are still many questions to solve. When the IB:s were sent to Jarama front there were four Brigades but only 18 International Battalions extant. Two Spanish Bns were used to fill up the IB:s namely 19th Bn PASIONARA as fourth Bn of IB 11 and 20th Bn AMBIENTE as fourth Bn of IB 12. Bn AMBIENTE seffered heavy losses and was reorganized as 5th Coy (101 men, CO Cpt Barnabe Vera) of 4th Bn JAROSLAW DABROWSKI. This Coy and a new formed 6th (Training) coy later were used as nucelus for new Bn JOSÉ PALAFOX.

8) Which was the number and name of the fourth Italian Bn in IB 12. It was formed 23 Mrs - 28 Jun 1937 with amongst others volunteers drawn from Centuria GUISTIZIA E LIBERTA. This Bn was dissolved 13 Jul 1937 after suffering heavy casualities at Brunete. The Bn was however reactivated 29 Jan 1938. I beleive this was 27th Bn (EP 48th Bn). But the name??

9) I think the other Bns in IB 12 was 5th Bn GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI (EP 45th Bn) 21st Bn GALINDO (ex- 5th Coy 5th Bn GARIBALDI + Spanish Bn MADRID (II) (EP 46th Bn) and 22nd Bn FICLIO (ex- 3rd Coy 18th Bn DIMITROV + Spanish Bn PRIETO) (EP 47th Bn). Until the fourth Italian Bn (see 8 above) joined Brigade 6th Bn ANDRÉ MARTY was fourth Bn of IB 12 (EP 48th Bn) and after the fourth Italian Bn (see 8 above) had been dissolved 6th Bn ANDRÉ MARTY rejoined IB 12 again as fourth Bn.

Best greetings

Stellan

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Stellan Bojerud
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Axis History Factbook

Post by Stellan Bojerud » 10 May 2006 08:41

Quote Axis History Factbook.

Brigade Formed
11. International Brigade Hans Beimler (later Thälmann) 22 Oct 1936
12. International Brigade Garibaldi 5 Nov 1936
13. International Brigade Dombrowski 12 Dec 1936
14. International Brigade La Marseillaise 2 Dec 1936
15. International Brigade 31 Jan 1937
86. International Brigade 13 Feb 1938
129. International Brigade 13 Feb 1938
150. International Brigade 27 May 1937

Comments:

9th International Brigade (IX.Brigada Móvil) was formed 22 Oct 1936. This Brigade was 1 Nov 1936 redesigned XI.Brigada Mixta (IB 11).

12th International Brigade was instituted formally 1 Nov 1936 but in reality 5 Nov 1936.

13th International Brigade formed 2 Dec - not 12 Dec - 1936. Dissolved 4 Aug 1937.

86th International Brigade formed 15 Feb 1937 - not 13 Feb 1938

150th International Brigade reorganized 5 Aug 1937 as new 13th International Brigade

14th bis Brigade formed 27 Oct 1937 dissolved 9 Feb 1938

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international brigades

Post by paul philippou » 15 May 2006 18:54

Stellan - please find below my notes on the final battle of the International Brigades - it involves the reformation of some of the brigades:

On 23 January, a group of Polish and other Central European volunteers billeted in Palafrugel, put in a request to return to combat. When this request was granted, the 13th International Brigade reformed, under the commanding officer Henrik Torunczyk.

Elsewhere, remnants of the 11th International Brigade reformed themselves into a fighting unit of some 1360 Germans, Scandinavians and Austrians, many of whom were recovering from wounds or were without the use of a limb. Heinrich Rau assumed command of the brigade. A very small 15th International Brigade was also established by American, Baltic and

By this stage in the Spanish Civil War, the Nationalist Army has advanced to the gates of Barcelona and fierce fighting took place in that region. Into this final fight, entered a new international division of small size, comprised of the three re-created International Brigades, the 11th, 13th and 15th. Under the overall command of Henrik Torunczyk, the division mustered 30km north of Barcelona, at La Carriga.

On 26 January, advanced Nationalist probing units entered the suburbs of north and west Barcelona. Later that day Nationalist tanks entered the city centre. For the following five days, Barcelona witnessed slaughter and brutality as the Nationalists went on an unbridled blood letting, before the killing was systemised by state agencies. General Alvarez Arenas, who was appointed military governor, set up so-called councils of war. As well as formalising the execution of Republicans and the Left, General Alvarez’s administration set about a counter-revolution; industries were de-nationalised; farms de-collectivised; and, all traces of the Republican and Catalonian order, such as street names, bank notes, posters, progressive books, and salutes were changed or destroyed. Catalan autonomy was revoked, its language banned, and even Catalan first names were proscribed. Catalonia paid dearly for its flirtation with independence, social justice and freedom.

As Barcelona fell to General Franco’s forces, the International Brigade division saw combat at Granolles and Vich. By holding the line at Vich, the internationals allowed 62 members of the Spanish Cortes to complete the parliaments’ last sitting at Figueras on 1 February 1939, before going into exile. On 9 February, without any other option, the remaining internationals crossed over to France alongside André Marty. A day later as Catalonia fell, the last few Republican soldiers left Spain with General Modesto. General Franco now had troops all along the Pyrenees.

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international brigades

Post by paul philippou » 15 May 2006 18:55

Stellan - please find below my notes on the final battle of the International Brigades - it involves the reformation of some of the brigades:

On 23 January, a group of Polish and other Central European volunteers billeted in Palafrugel, put in a request to return to combat. When this request was granted, the 13th International Brigade reformed, under the commanding officer Henrik Torunczyk.

Elsewhere, remnants of the 11th International Brigade reformed themselves into a fighting unit of some 1360 Germans, Scandinavians and Austrians, many of whom were recovering from wounds or were without the use of a limb. Heinrich Rau assumed command of the brigade. A very small 15th International Brigade was also established by American, Baltic and

By this stage in the Spanish Civil War, the Nationalist Army has advanced to the gates of Barcelona and fierce fighting took place in that region. Into this final fight, entered a new international division of small size, comprised of the three re-created International Brigades, the 11th, 13th and 15th. Under the overall command of Henrik Torunczyk, the division mustered 30km north of Barcelona, at La Carriga.

On 26 January, advanced Nationalist probing units entered the suburbs of north and west Barcelona. Later that day Nationalist tanks entered the city centre. For the following five days, Barcelona witnessed slaughter and brutality as the Nationalists went on an unbridled blood letting, before the killing was systemised by state agencies. General Alvarez Arenas, who was appointed military governor, set up so-called councils of war. As well as formalising the execution of Republicans and the Left, General Alvarez’s administration set about a counter-revolution; industries were de-nationalised; farms de-collectivised; and, all traces of the Republican and Catalonian order, such as street names, bank notes, posters, progressive books, and salutes were changed or destroyed. Catalan autonomy was revoked, its language banned, and even Catalan first names were proscribed. Catalonia paid dearly for its flirtation with independence, social justice and freedom.

As Barcelona fell to General Franco’s forces, the International Brigade division saw combat at Granolles and Vich. By holding the line at Vich, the internationals allowed 62 members of the Spanish Cortes to complete the parliaments’ last sitting at Figueras on 1 February 1939, before going into exile. On 9 February, without any other option, the remaining internationals crossed over to France alongside André Marty. A day later as Catalonia fell, the last few Republican soldiers left Spain with General Modesto. General Franco now had troops all along the Pyrenees.

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Re: international brigades

Post by mars » 16 May 2006 15:15

paul philippou wrote:Stellan - please find below my notes on the final battle of the International Brigades - it involves the reformation of some of the brigades:

On 23 January, a group of Polish and other Central European volunteers billeted in Palafrugel, put in a request to return to combat. When this request was granted, the 13th International Brigade reformed, under the commanding officer Henrik Torunczyk.

Elsewhere, remnants of the 11th International Brigade reformed themselves into a fighting unit of some 1360 Germans, Scandinavians and Austrians, many of whom were recovering from wounds or were without the use of a limb. Heinrich Rau assumed command of the brigade. A very small 15th International Brigade was also established by American, Baltic and

By this stage in the Spanish Civil War, the Nationalist Army has advanced to the gates of Barcelona and fierce fighting took place in that region. Into this final fight, entered a new international division of small size, comprised of the three re-created International Brigades, the 11th, 13th and 15th. Under the overall command of Henrik Torunczyk, the division mustered 30km north of Barcelona, at La Carriga.

On 26 January, advanced Nationalist probing units entered the suburbs of north and west Barcelona. Later that day Nationalist tanks entered the city centre. For the following five days, Barcelona witnessed slaughter and brutality as the Nationalists went on an unbridled blood letting, before the killing was systemised by state agencies. General Alvarez Arenas, who was appointed military governor, set up so-called councils of war. As well as formalising the execution of Republicans and the Left, General Alvarez’s administration set about a counter-revolution; industries were de-nationalised; farms de-collectivised; and, all traces of the Republican and Catalonian order, such as street names, bank notes, posters, progressive books, and salutes were changed or destroyed. Catalan autonomy was revoked, its language banned, and even Catalan first names were proscribed. Catalonia paid dearly for its flirtation with independence, social justice and freedom.

As Barcelona fell to General Franco’s forces, the International Brigade division saw combat at Granolles and Vich. By holding the line at Vich, the internationals allowed 62 members of the Spanish Cortes to complete the parliaments’ last sitting at Figueras on 1 February 1939, before going into exile. On 9 February, without any other option, the remaining internationals crossed over to France alongside André Marty. A day later as Catalonia fell, the last few Republican soldiers left Spain with General Modesto. General Franco now had troops all along the Pyrenees.


hi, Paul, would those volunteers still be called "international brigade" ? as far as I know, international brigades were disbanded in the later part of 1938, and most of foreign volunteers went home, I know, many Germans and East Europeans choosed to remained in Spain, because they had nowhere to go, and they joined the spanish republican army, but no longer as part of international brigade.

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question

Post by Semenov » 20 May 2006 21:49

Hi,
Few days ago I read about 498 men from East Europa in canadian Btl. (many from they were from Ukraina). It is right?

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Russians and Ukrainians in the International Brigades

Post by Stellan Bojerud » 11 Jun 2006 13:11

I doubt this. I think it is a mix up. The "white" Russians and Ukrainians served in Polish-Balkan units. Most of them in 1st Coy of 18th Bn GHEORGHIU DIMITROV.

Bn DIMITROV was on 20th Sept 1937 replaced by Canadian-US Bn MACKEBZIE-PAPINEAU as fourth Bn of IB 15.

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