Swedish ---> English, StG related site

Need help with translating WW1, Inter-War or WW2 related documents or information?
User avatar
dect
Member
Posts: 226
Joined: 13 Apr 2005 17:19
Location: Poland

Swedish ---> English, StG related site

Post by dect » 04 Mar 2006 17:30

http://www.gotavapen.se/gota/ak/mkb3.htm - plenty of information that need to be translated. Any help will be appreciated.

Regards
Jacek

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 05 Mar 2006 11:26

The Development of Sturmgewehr and the Modern Assault Rifles

by O. Janson

last updated 2005-10-12


Mauser´s Machinerifle "Testmodel 06H"

The "Department 37" at the Mauserverken was responsible for the development of small arms up to 10 mm. When the ammunitionworks Polte introduced their cartridge 7.9x33 mm, the firm DWM (Deutsches Waffen & Munitionsfabrik), with it´s fine old traditions, developed their own 7 mm cartridge.
Head of the "Department 37" was Altenburger and he worked intensely on the cartridge. He was assisted by the four competent constructers Illenberger, Jungerman, Stähle and Vorgrimler. At first they developed a weapon with a gas-channel like the MKb42(H) and other weapons. The lock was fixed with rolls. This testmodel was internally called "06H" within the works.

Technical data on Mausers Gerät 06H
[/i]Name Mauser Gerät 06H
Year of production 1942-43
Manufacturer Mauserverken, Oberndorf
Function Fully automatic, reloaded with gas
Total length 900 mm
Weight (with empty magazine) 4 kg
Length of barrel 400 mm
Calibre 7.9 mm
Bolt Originally fixed lock with rolles, after rebuilding 1943 half-bolted lock with rolles
Safety catch Switch at the pistol butt that effects the trigger
Magazine Detachable Mauser´s 10-shot or Haenel´s 30-shot
Sight Bowsight 100-800 m
Number of rifles 4 to the right
Ammunition Pistol cartridge 43 (8x33)
Speed of bullet 650 m/s


This is an attempt to translate the first section. I have not found an equivalent to the swedish term "stormkarbin", but I think it simply can be described as an early version of the Assault Rifle, or the type of rifle the Assault Rifle was developed from. I am not a weapons expert, but I can try to translate moore if this is of any help.
Last edited by Torbjörn Aronsson on 17 Apr 2006 10:57, edited 4 times in total.

User avatar
dect
Member
Posts: 226
Joined: 13 Apr 2005 17:19
Location: Poland

Post by dect » 05 Mar 2006 16:36

Yes! Thank you VERY MUCH! Please continue with the translation if you can.

Can you translate this:
"En av de ursprungliga konstruktörerna Ludwig Vorgrimler lyckades köpa ett av dessa exemplar i USA och ta det tillbaks till Tyskland."

and

"Även Schmeisser försökte nu göra ett billigare vapen. Här är hans prototyp."

I think the best word for "stormkarbin" is Sturmgewehr.

Best regards
Jacek

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 05 Mar 2006 18:50

dect wrote:Yes! Thank you VERY MUCH! Please continue with the translation if you can.

Can you translate this:
"En av de ursprungliga konstruktörerna Ludwig Vorgrimler lyckades köpa ett av dessa exemplar i USA och ta det tillbaks till Tyskland."

"Ludwig Vorgrimler, one of the original constructors, was able to buy one of them in USA and to bring it back to Germany."

and

"Även Schmeisser försökte nu göra ett billigare vapen. Här är hans prototyp."

"Schmeisser too now tried to make a cheaper weapon. This is his prototype."

I think the best word for "stormkarbin" is Sturmgewehr.

Best regards
Jacek

This was fun, I will continue with the translation soon.

Regards
Torbjörn
Last edited by Torbjörn Aronsson on 06 Mar 2006 20:27, edited 2 times in total.

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 05 Mar 2006 22:18

The constructor Wilhelm Stäle (1901-1974) writes about himself in a document from 1957


In november 1942 I was given the assignment to develop a sub machine gun. From the beginning, there was nothing decided concerning the kind of ammunition that was to be used. It could be 9 mm Mauser, 9 mm P08 or the short cartridge 7.9x33. I was thinking about the bolt. A bolt with no valve locks would be too heavy with the short rifle cartridge. Therefore I was looking for a bolt with some kind of lockable function but a one that yet did not unlock through external influence. After some consideration I figured out the halfregulated roll-bolt and immediately sketched it down on paper.

After repeated discussions with mr Altenburger and mr Vorgrimler I was given the authority to build a prototype. From this prototype it was clear just how adaptable this bolt was. It consisted of just three parts, and the bolt could fairly easy be adapted by adapting the angles on the glide-bolt. I placed the halfregulated roll-lock in a already existing machine rifle, in order to be able to produce a shooting test weapon. The test shooting in february and mars 1943 was almost without mishaps. The only problem was the automatic fire that was uneven since the barrel was without rifles for relieving the pressure.

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 05 Mar 2006 23:22

The halfregulated roll-lock or halfregulated bolt


It was this revolutionary invention of the halfregulated roll-lock or halfregulated bolt that still works today and is used in the swedish Ak4 and H&K family of weapons. The halfregulated bolt was a completely new construction and is, as the name suggests, not completely locked in the moment of fire, but it does not either work as a heavy unregulated bolt as the swedish kpist (sub machine gun) m/45.
Read more about the function further down on this page.
When the weapon was equiped with the halfregulated roll-lock it was unofficially called MKb43.
The development of Mauser´s weapons was far behind the development of MKb42(H) and MKb42(W), these two weapons was already in use by the troops at the eastern front.
Mauser´s Assault Rifle did have one great advantage compared with MKb42(H) and MKb42(W). It was far more easy and cheaper to manufacture, without the cost of lower performance.

The halfregulated lockage fulfilled all demands for fast mass production but was, as the constructor had pointed out, not without problems. Problems with cartridges that was burned and got stucked in the chamber, cartridges that bursted, and similar malfunctions occured. This problem was obvious especially with cartridges made of brass, but also with steel cartridges.
The reason for this was well known. In the moment of fire, the gas pressure is very high as long as the bullet is in the bore. In the actual moment of fire the cartridge is expanding and the friction in the chamber is increasing because of the high gas pressure.
This problem is not appearant to the same extent in weapons with locked bolt since the gas pressure is lightening when the powder gases disappeares through a gas channel to the barrel or something like that.
This problem is obvious with the halfregulated system, that immediately is moving backwards.
Last edited by Torbjörn Aronsson on 17 Apr 2006 11:04, edited 3 times in total.

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 05 Mar 2006 23:43

The Mauserverken is learning from Soviet weapons in the Spanish Civil War


The Mauserverken had been studying machine guns from Soviet airplanes received during the Spanish Civil War. When examining them they did notice a mark that was milled on the walls of the chamber. As soon as the bullet leaves the cartridge and takes on the rifles the gases are streaming out on both sides of the shelf walls and level outs the pressure.
The Mauserverken copied this technical solution and made marks in the walls of the chamber, to solve the problems with the malfunctions of fire. Now the weapons worked without problems.
This system is also used on the swedish Assault Rifles Ak4.



Costs


An independent comparizon showed that:
* The timelength for production of Mauser´s StG45 was 7 hours. - In cash this corresponded to 40 RM (Reichsmark).
* The timelength for production of Haenels StG44 was as long as 14 hours. - In cash this corresponded to 80 RM (Reichsmark).

As a comparizon it can be mentioned that the cost of the german rifle 98k was 56 RM, but it took a long time to mill and manufacture 98k, between 18 and 25 hours depending on the point of time it took place during the war.
Last edited by Torbjörn Aronsson on 07 Mar 2006 22:10, edited 2 times in total.

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 06 Mar 2006 20:24

Sturmgewehr 45 (Mauser) - StG45(M)


It was as a reaction to this difference the "Vapenbyrån" (Weapons department) ordered a serie of prototypes consisting of 30 Sturmgewehr from Mauser in Oberndorf. All of them was meant to be tested by the troops.
The weapon was simplified in it´s outer appearance to make it easier to manufacture and was given the official name SturmGewehr 45 (Mauser), StG45(M) in short. This outer change consisted of a lower mounting made of nothing but compressed sheet metal. The two sides of the box is made of sheet metal, including the stearing of the magazine, the pistol-grip and the butt plates.

The front block that also served as a hand protection was made of plastic. The front block covers half of the lengt of the barrel. The butt and the support for the cheek is made of wood and fastened with a bolt with a feather as load. The safety catch was placed in the same way as on a pistol and had several functions. It had also become a switch for fully- and semiautomatic fire. The handle at the bolt was running in a track on the left side. We can note that the machine rifles of Mauser was equiped with small magazines for 10 shots, but the ordinary magazines for 30 shots fitted also.

It was planned that this weapon would gradually replace Haenel´s Sturmgewehr StG44, but this never happened.
The tools for pressing that would make the last simplification delayed the delivery of the first serie of prototypes, so that the weapons never had time to be delivered.
When the war was over all the parts for StG45 still existed. They were then being assembled by the english with the help of germans who had been empoyed at the works of Mauser. This took place at the english base in Eschede. It is not known how many weapons that were assembled there after the war. These weapons have later become museum specimens and objects for collectors.

Ludwig Vorgrimler, one of the original constuctors, was able to buy one of them in USA and to bring it back to Germany.
(photo)
StG45(M) - photo from the Mauser museum in Oberndorf

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 06 Mar 2006 21:08

Technical data on Assault Rifle Mauser 45 - StG45(M)

Name Sturmgewehr 45 (Mauser) - StG45(M)
Year of production 1945
Manufacturer Mauserverken, Oberndorf
Function Fully automatic, reloaded by recoil
Total length 900 mm
Weight (with empty magazine) 4 kg
Lenght of barrel 400 mm
Calibre 7.9 mm
Bolt halfregulated roll-lock
Safety catch Regulator on the pistol butt that effects the trigger
Magazine Removeable Mauser´s 10-shot or Haenel´s 30-shot
Sight Bowsight 100-800 m
Number of rifles 4 to the right
Ammunition Pistol cartridge 43 (8x33)
Mechanical rate of fire 650 shots/minute
Speed of bullet V25 650 m/s

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 07 Mar 2006 09:43

[/u]The function of the halfregulated roll-lock


(image)

(image)

Starting position

The image to the upper left:
The roll-locks are here folded and stops the bolt in its motion backwards. At the starting point there are one cartridge in the chamber (1), and the mechanism - the bolthead (2) and the bolt (3) - is pushed to its front position.

The image to the (lower) left:
Here the roll-locks are unfolded and no longer stops the motion backwards of the bolt. At the moment of fire the package consisting of bolt and bolt-head is moving backward. The folded rolls are applying a brake on this motion. The bolt is moving four times as fast as the bolt-head. The bolt-head has been moved 1 mm while the main part of the bolt has been moved 4 mm.
Last edited by Torbjörn Aronsson on 07 Mar 2006 22:08, edited 1 time in total.

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 07 Mar 2006 18:02

The motion backward


At the moment of fire the powder gases are pushing the bolt-head (2) backward by the assistance of the cartridge shell. As soon as the bullet has left the shell the powder gases leaks out around the grooves around the shell and the preassure on both sides of the wall of the sidewall is leveled out. During the first fase of the bolt-heads (2) motion backwards the rolls (15) are being pressed out of their locked positions in the lock-bolt (14) and in to the head. When the rolls (15) are pushed inwards they are effecting the conical surfaces of the stearing bolt, the stearing bolt (16) and the bolt (3) is starting to move faster than the bolt-head (2). The bolt (3) and the bolt-head (2) are separated, the spark is being pushed in behind the thrust-bottom and the stop-arm that grips around the flange at the rear end of the bolt-head is loosening its grip. The resistance that is to be overcome during the first fase of the motion backwards consisting of the roll-locks (15) being pulled into the bolt-head (2) and the released grip of the stop-arm, is resulting in a relatively slow unlocking, and during this time the projectile is able to leave the bore before the unlocking is accomplished. When the roll-locks (15) are completely inserted into the bolt-head, that is to say has left the locked positions in the lock-bolt, the bolt-head (2) and the bolt (3) are moving at the same speed backward. At the same time as the bolt-head is starting to move backward the extensioner is pulling the shell out of the chamber. When the back side of the shell hits the shell ejector the shell ejector is forcing the shell to turn the extensioner around, and the shell is ejected through the ejecting aperture.

(image)

The mechanism is continuing to move backwards until the bolt (3) is stopped. During the motion backward the cock (4) is being pulled down by the bolt (3) and is being hooked on the cork switch (17), and the recoil feather is being compressed.
Last edited by Torbjörn Aronsson on 20 Mar 2006 16:32, edited 1 time in total.

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 07 Mar 2006 22:30

The motion forward


The compressed recuperator is again moving the mechanism forward. The heels of the cartridge positioner of the bolt-head hits the rear area of the cartridge on top in the magazine and brings the cartridge in frontal position during this motion forward. This cartridge is then being steared through the glide-tracks of the bullet in to the chamber (1). The ejector is gliding over the flange of the cartridge, and the thrust-bottom is moving forward to the rear area of the cartridge during the last fase of the motion forward of the bolt-head. The bolt-head is stopped in it´s motion forward by the rear area of the cartridge. (The head is stopped against the rear area of the barrel when the chamber is empty). The bolt (3) with the stearing bolt (16) is moving a bit further forwards. This is resulting in the pressing forward of the conical surfaces of the stearing bolt wich in turn results in the roll-locks to be pulled out in to the locked position of the lock bolt (14), and the stop-arm in the bolt (3) glides over and grips the flange and the rear end of the bolt-head (2).

The bolt-head (2) and the bolt (3) are partially separated when they are in motion, and the spark does not reach to a point in front of the thrust-bottom at a possible impact. Just before the bolt (3) is in it´s frontal position, it´s rear end effects the release arm (18). The arm is pushed downwards and presses the trigger switch (17) forward. As a result the catch neck (19) of the switch (17) is gliding out of the "spännhak" of the cock (10). The cock (4) is then released, turns ahead and is hooked on the trigger sear (6).

(image)

The spark (8) is only reaching out of the thrust-bottom at an impact from the cock (4) when the bolt (3) has been pushed forward to the rear end of the bolt-head (2).
Last edited by Torbjörn Aronsson on 20 Mar 2006 16:36, edited 2 times in total.

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 08 Mar 2006 17:23

Post-war production


(image)
The Assault Rifle of CETME in 7.92x40

A group of constuctors from the Mauser works went to Spain after the war and started to work for Centro de Estudios Tecnicos de Materiales Especiales, more known as CETME, under the supervision of Ludwig Vorgrimler. They produced an Assault Rifle for the spanish armed forces. It had a short rifle cartridge 7.92x40 mm, and the weapon reminded of Haenel´s follower to the StG44 (shown higher up on this page), but inside it was the StG44 of the Mauser works.

Three engineers Heckler, Koch and Seidel, which had fled to Spain later moved back to Germany in the 50´s and started a firm dealing with weapons in Oberndorf, the city characterized by the connection with weapons.

When the post-war german Bundeswehr needed an Assault Rifle they had to accept a weapon with the standard calibre of NATO, the long and stout rifle cartridge 7.62x51! The germans at first wanted to adopt the FNL FAL (Gewehr 1) and manufacture it on a license in Germany, but the UN did not accept it. The germans then contacted the CETME that accepted an agreement for license production of the weapon. The license was sold by their dutch subsidiary company to Heckler & Koch that started to manufacture Gewehr 3-G3.

Ludvig Vorgrimler was able to adjust the weapon to the longer cartridge as soon as 1956! He found that all that was necessary in order to adjust the weapon to all types of cartridges was to adjust the angles of the stearing bolt.

H & K produced G3, and it was also license produced in Sweden with the name Ak4. Unfortunately, the swedish decisionmakers, as well as the countries within NATO, decided to follow the USA in this question. They choosed between the 7.62x39 of the Soviet and the 7.62x51 of NATO and the choise was based on political aspects and it was as we all know the cartridge 7.62x 51 of NATO, inferior for this purpose, that was chosen. As a result, the development of Assault Rifles in the whole of Western Europe took half a step bakward.

(image)
Above the swedish variant of StG45, that is to say Ak4.

You can read more on the swedish follower here (link)



References


Heeresdienstvorschrift (D. 1854/3).

Hans-Dieter Götz / Die deutschen Militärgewehre und Maschinenpistolen 1871-1945. Motorbuch Verlag Stuttgart 1974.

Smith & Smith / Small arms of the world. A & W Visual library 1960.

Karl-Olof Björsell / Göta vapenhistoriska sällskap 1992 småskrifter nr 11. (Göta weapons historical society 1992 publication nr. 11).

Per Arvidsson / Eldhandvapen (Small arms). ISSN 91-87158-04-3.

Vapenmuseet i Eskilstuna (Armoury Museum, Eskilstuna).

Vapenmuseet Mauser i Oberndorf (Mauser´s Armoury Museum, Oberndorf).

John Walther / Guns of the third reich. Greehill books, London. 2004.

Dr. Elmar Heinz / Deutsches Waffen-Journal 2004.

Heckler & Koch.


For further reading on the history of Assault Rifles:
The machine rifle M35 and the new cartridge 7.9x33 (link)
MKb42(H), MKb42(W) (link)
MP43 and MP44 and StG44 (link)
MKb45(M) and CETME, H&K and Ak4 (link)
The first post-WWII Assault Rifles

Back to the page with a variety of articles (link)
Last edited by Torbjörn Aronsson on 08 Mar 2006 18:30, edited 3 times in total.

Torbjörn Aronsson
Member
Posts: 108
Joined: 18 Feb 2006 18:06
Location: Sweden

Post by Torbjörn Aronsson » 08 Mar 2006 17:31

That was the last part of the text. I will make some adjustments and check some words with a technical dictionary later. It was interesting to learn more about these weapons, and to learn some unusual terms. Feel free to ask questions.
Last edited by Torbjörn Aronsson on 02 Apr 2006 22:15, edited 1 time in total.

User avatar
dect
Member
Posts: 226
Joined: 13 Apr 2005 17:19
Location: Poland

Post by dect » 09 Mar 2006 13:54

Torbjörn, first of all, if you ever come to Poland I owe you a dozen of these great polish beers for this translation :) Thank you very, very much. And if it's not too much would you be so kind to translate the part about the amunition http://www.gotavapen.se/gota/ak/mkb1.htm and maybe later about the predecessor of StG, MKb42 H/W here http://www.gotavapen.se/gota/ak/mkb2.htm ?

Best regards
Jacek

Return to “Translation help: Breaking the Sound Barrier”